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  • Appendix AGlossary of Mathematical Symbols

    This Appendix summarizes the mathematical symbols that are used throughout thebook. Several symbols have multiple meanings; for example, α is used to representthe temperature coefficient of resistance, the coefficient of thermal expansion, andthe Hooge factor. We have tried to separate these overloaded symbols in the text andmake their meaning clear whenever they are used. Symbols that are only used onceor twice (e.g. the Tsai model for phosphorus predeposition) are not included in thetable for succinctness.

    J. C. Doll and B. L. Pruitt, Piezoresistor Design and Applications, 195Microsystems and Nanosystems, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8517-9,© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

  • 196 Appendix A: Glossary of Mathematical Symbols

    Table A.1 Glossary of mathematical symbols

    Symbol Units Description

    α - Hooge factorα ppm/K Coefficient of thermal expansionα ppm/K Temperature coefficient of resistanceβ∗ - Sensitivity factorβ∗1 - Sensitivity factor (piezoresistance factor effect)β∗2 - Sensitivity factor (depth effect)� F/m Electrical permittivity� - Mechanical strainη Pa-s Fluid viscosityγ - Resistance factor� m Thermal healing lengthμ cm2/V-sec Carrier mobilityω rad/s Angular frequencyπ 1/Pa Piezoresistive coefficientπre f 1/Pa Piezoresistive coefficient at 300 K and 1017 cm−3πl 1/Pa Longitudinal piezoresistive coefficientπt 1/Pa Transverse piezoresistive coefficientφ - Transverse loading factorρ �-m Electrical resistivityρ kg/m3 Densityρ f kg/m3 Fluid densityσ Pa Mechanical stressσ S/m Electrical conductivityA m2 Cross-sectional or film areaAV J V/

    √Hz Amplifier Johnson voltage noise coefficient

    AV F V Amplifier 1/f voltage noise coefficientAI J A/

    √Hz Amplifier Johnson current noise coefficient

    AI F A Amplifier 1/f current noise coefficientb kg/s Drag coefficientC 1/m CurvatureC Pa Elastic stiffness tensorC F Electrical capacitanceD m2/s Diffusivityd31 pm/V Transverse piezoelectric coefficientE Pa Elastic modulusEF eV Fermi energy levelEg eV Bandgap energyFT M N N/

    √Hz Thermomechanical force noise

    f−3d B Hz -3 dB frequencyf0 Hz Undamped first resonant mode frequencyfd Hz Damped first resonant mode frequencyfmin Hz Minimum measurement frequencyfmax Hz Maximum measurement frequencyG - Amplifier gainG W/K Thermal conductance

    (continued)

  • Appendix A: Glossary of Mathematical Symbols 197

    Table A.1 (continued)

    Symbol Units Description

    G ′f W/m-K Structure-fluid thermal conductance per unit lengthhef f W/m2-K Effective convection coefficienth J-sec Planck’s constantI m4 Second moment of areaI A Electrical currentJ A/m2 Electrical current densityk W/m-K Thermal conductivityk N/m Spring constantkb J/K Boltzmann’s constantl m Sensor lengthl pr m Piezoresistor lengthm kg Massmef f kg Effective massMDD m Minimum detectable displacementMDF N Minimum detectable forceN cm−3 Dopant concentrationNA cm−3 Acceptor dopant concentrationNB cm−3 Background dopant concentrationND cm−3 Donor dopant concentrationNepi cm−3 Epitaxial layer dopant concentrationn cm−3 Carrier densityni cm−3 Intrinsic carrier densityNpr - Number of piezoresistors in the Wheatstone bridgeNef f - Effective number of carriersNtotal - Total number of carriers

    N ef fz µm−2 Effective carrier density per unit areaN totalz µm

    −2 Total carrier density per unit areaP m PerimeterP - Piezoresistance factorP - Average piezoresistance factorq C Single electron chargeQ C Electrical polarization chargeQ - Quality factorR � Total electrical resistanceR K/W Thermal resistanceRcontact � Contact resistanceRexcess � Excess electrical resistanceRpr � Piezoresistor electrical resistanceRs �/� Sheet resistanceS 1/Pa Elastic compliance tensorSX V V/m Displacement sensitivitySFV V/N Force sensitivitySA V2/Hz Amplifier noise power spectral densitySH V2/Hz Hooge (1/f) noise power spectral density

    (continued)

  • 198 Appendix A: Glossary of Mathematical Symbols

    Table A.1 (continued)

    Symbol Units Description

    SJ V2/Hz Johnson noise power spectral densityST M N V2/Hz Thermomechanical noise power spectral densityT K TemperatureT∞ K Ambient temperatureTpr K Average piezoresistor temperatureTn - Temperature normalized to 300 Kt s Timet m Sensor thicknesst j m Junction depthtpr m Epitaxial piezoresistor thicknessVbias V Resistor bias voltageVbridge V Bridge bias voltageVA V/

    √Hz Amplifier noise spectral density

    VH V/√

    Hz Hooge (1/f) noise spectral densityVJ V/

    √Hz Johnson noise spectral density

    Vnoise V/√

    Hz Overall noise spectral densityVT M N V/

    √Hz Thermomechanical noise spectral density

    w m Sensor widthwpr m Piezoresistor widthW W Electrical power dissipationzn m Neutral axis

  • Appendix BIon Implantation Lookup Tables

    The following lookup tables can be used to calculate the sensitivity factor (β∗1 and β∗2 ),effective density of carriers per unit area (N ef fz ), sheet resistance (Rs) and junctiondepth (t j ) for boron, phosphorus and arsenic ion implantation processes.

    Park presented the first version of these lookup tables in 2010 [133, 295]. Thefollowing tables generalize the results to multiple dopant types and include tablesfor additional parameters (N ef fz , Rs and t j ). The TSUPREM-4™ templates andcombination of Python and MATLAB® scripts used to generate the tables are partof our open source piezoresistor design code (Appendix C).

    In all of the tables, the first number corresponds to a process with only an inertanneal while the second number (in parentheses) corresponds to a process with a1,500 Å wet passivation oxide grown immediately before the N2 anneal. The wetpassivation oxide was grown at the indicated process temperature for 66, 15, or5 minutes at 900, 1,000, or 1,100 ◦C, respectively. Junction depths are calculatedassuming a background resistivity of 10�-cm.

    J. C. Doll and B. L. Pruitt, Piezoresistor Design and Applications, 199Microsystems and Nanosystems, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8517-9,© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

  • 200 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.1

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

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    )an

    ∗ 2(µ

    m)

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    emp.

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    120

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    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 201Ta

    ble

    B.1

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    tinue

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    nerg

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    emp.

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    ime

    (min

    )15

    3045

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    9010

    512

    ∗ 1β

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    ∗ 1β

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    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

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    ×10

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    24(0

    .26)

    0.40

    (0.4

    2)0.

    25(0

    .28)

    0.40

    (0.4

    2)0.

    27(0

    .29)

    0.41

    (0.4

    2)0.

    28(0

    .31)

    1,10

    00.

    38(0

    .45)

    0.32

    (0.4

    1)0.

    40(0

    .46)

    0.39

    (0.4

    5)0.

    41(0

    .47)

    0.45

    (0.4

    9)0.

    42(0

    .47)

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    43(0

    .48)

    0.53

    (0.5

    6)0.

    44(0

    .48)

    0.57

    (0.5

    9)0.

    44(0

    .49)

    0.61

    (0.6

    2)0.

    45(0

    .49)

    0.64

    (0.6

    4)

    900

    0.49

    (0.5

    0)0.

    26(0

    .27)

    0.48

    (0.5

    0)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    1)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    1)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    1)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    0)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    0)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    0)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    801,

    000

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    21(0

    .23)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    22(0

    .24)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    24(0

    .25)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    25(0

    .27)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    28(0

    .29)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    29(0

    .30)

    0.40

    (0.4

    1)0.

    30(0

    .32)

    1,10

    00.

    39(0

    .45)

    0.34

    (0.4

    2)0.

    40(0

    .46)

    0.41

    (0.4

    7)0.

    42(0

    .46)

    0.46

    (0.5

    1)0.

    42(0

    .47)

    0.51

    (0.5

    4)0.

    43(0

    .47)

    0.55

    (0.5

    7)0.

    44(0

    .48)

    0.58

    (0.6

    0)0.

    44(0

    .48)

    0.62

    (0.6

    3)0.

    45(0

    .49)

    0.65

    (0.6

    6)

  • 202 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.2

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    ∗ 1(-

    )an

    ∗ 2(µ

    m)

    for

    phos

    phor

    usio

    nim

    plan

    tatio

    n

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )E

    nerg

    y(k

    eV)T

    emp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )15

    3045

    6075

    9010

    512

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 290

    00.

    62(0

    .80)

    0.03

    (0.0

    9)0.

    63(0

    .80)

    0.03

    (0.0

    9)0.

    63(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.0

    9)0.

    64(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.0

    9)0.

    64(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.0

    9)0.

    64(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.0

    9)0.

    65(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.0

    9)0.

    65(0

    .80)

    0.04

    (0.1

    0)20

    1,00

    00.

    68(0

    .86)

    0.07

    (0.1

    6)0.

    70(0

    .87)

    0.08

    (0.1

    7)0.

    71(0

    .87)

    0.09

    (0.1

    7)0.

    71(0

    .87)

    0.10

    (0.1

    8)0.

    72(0

    .87)

    0.11

    (0.1

    8)0.

    73(0

    .87)

    0.12

    (0.1

    9)0.

    73(0

    .87)

    0.13

    (0.1

    9)0.

    73(0

    .87)

    0.13

    (0.2

    0)1,

    100

    0.76

    (0.9

    1)0.

    20(0

    .32)

    0.78

    (0.9

    1)0.

    25(0

    .35)

    0.78

    (0.9

    1)0.

    29(0

    .37)

    0.79

    (0.9

    2)0.

    32(0

    .40)

    0.80

    (0.9

    2)0.

    36(0

    .42)

    0.80

    (0.9

    2)0.

    39(0

    .44)

    0.81

    (0.9

    2)0.

    41(0

    .46)

    0.81

    (0.9

    2)0.

    44(0

    .48)

    900

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    06(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    06(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    06(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    06(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    06(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    07(0

    .10)

    0.65

    (0.7

    3)0.

    07(0

    .10)

    0.66

    (0.7

    3)0.

    07(0

    .10)

    1014

    501,

    000

    0.68

    (0.7

    8)0.

    08(0

    .17)

    0.68

    (0.7

    8)0.

    09(0

    .18)

    0.69

    (0.7

    9)0.

    10(0

    .18)

    0.70

    (0.7

    9)0.

    11(0

    .19)

    0.70

    (0.7

    9)0.

    12(0

    .19)

    0.71

    (0.7

    9)0.

    13(0

    .20)

    0.71

    (0.7

    9)0.

    13(0

    .20)

    0.72

    (0.7

    9)0.

    14(0

    .21)

    1,10

    00.

    74(0

    .85)

    0.20

    (0.3

    5)0.

    76(0

    .85)

    0.25

    (0.3

    8)0.

    77(0

    .85)

    0.29

    (0.4

    0)0.

    77(0

    .86)

    0.33

    (0.4

    3)0.

    78(0

    .86)

    0.36

    (0.4

    5)0.

    78(0

    .86)

    0.39

    (0.4

    7)0.

    79(0

    .86)

    0.41

    (0.5

    0)0.

    79(0

    .86)

    0.44

    (0.5

    2)

    900

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    0.69

    (0.7

    3)0.

    10(0

    .12)

    801,

    000

    0.70

    (0.7

    6)0.

    11(0

    .19)

    0.71

    (0.7

    7)0.

    12(0

    .19)

    0.71

    (0.7

    7)0.

    13(0

    .20)

    0.71

    (0.7

    7)0.

    13(0

    .20)

    0.72

    (0.7

    7)0.

    14(0

    .20)

    0.72

    (0.7

    7)0.

    15(0

    .21)

    0.72

    (0.7

    7)0.

    15(0

    .21)

    0.73

    (0.7

    7)0.

    16(0

    .22)

    1,10

    00.

    75(0

    .82)

    0.22

    (0.3

    6)0.

    76(0

    .83)

    0.26

    (0.3

    9)0.

    77(0

    .83)

    0.30

    (0.4

    1)0.

    78(0

    .83)

    0.33

    (0.4

    4)0.

    78(0

    .84)

    0.37

    (0.4

    6)0.

    79(0

    .84)

    0.39

    (0.4

    8)0.

    79(0

    .84)

    0.42

    (0.5

    1)0.

    79(0

    .84)

    0.45

    (0.5

    3)

    900

    0.49

    (0.6

    4)0.

    09(0

    .09)

    0.49

    (0.6

    5)0.

    09(0

    .09)

    0.50

    (0.6

    5)0.

    09(0

    .09)

    0.50

    (0.6

    5)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    0.50

    (0.6

    5)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    0.51

    (0.6

    5)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    0.51

    (0.6

    5)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    0.51

    (0.6

    5)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    201,

    000

    0.51

    (0.7

    4)0.

    10(0

    .16)

    0.52

    (0.7

    4)0.

    11(0

    .17)

    0.53

    (0.7

    4)0.

    12(0

    .17)

    0.53

    (0.7

    4)0.

    12(0

    .18)

    0.54

    (0.7

    4)0.

    13(0

    .18)

    0.54

    (0.7

    5)0.

    14(0

    .19)

    0.55

    (0.7

    5)0.

    15(0

    .19)

    0.55

    (0.7

    5)0.

    15(0

    .20)

    1,10

    00.

    58(0

    .82)

    0.20

    (0.3

    4)0.

    59(0

    .82)

    0.24

    (0.3

    7)0.

    61(0

    .83)

    0.28

    (0.4

    0)0.

    62(0

    .83)

    0.31

    (0.4

    3)0.

    62(0

    .83)

    0.34

    (0.4

    5)0.

    63(0

    .84)

    0.37

    (0.4

    8)0.

    64(0

    .84)

    0.40

    (0.5

    0)0.

    64(0

    .84)

    0.42

    (0.5

    2)

    900

    0.41

    (0.5

    7)0.

    05(0

    .12)

    0.43

    (0.5

    7)0.

    06(0

    .12)

    0.44

    (0.5

    7)0.

    07(0

    .12)

    0.45

    (0.5

    7)0.

    08(0

    .12)

    0.46

    (0.5

    7)0.

    08(0

    .13)

    0.46

    (0.5

    7)0.

    09(0

    .13)

    0.47

    (0.5

    7)0.

    09(0

    .13)

    0.47

    (0.5

    7)0.

    09(0

    .13)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 203Ta

    ble

    B.2

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )E

    nerg

    y(k

    eV)T

    emp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )15

    3045

    6075

    9010

    512

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 22

    ×10

    1550

    1,00

    00.

    47(0

    .59)

    0.09

    (0.1

    4)0.

    49(0

    .59)

    0.10

    (0.1

    5)0.

    50(0

    .60)

    0.11

    (0.1

    5)0.

    50(0

    .60)

    0.12

    (0.1

    6)0.

    51(0

    .60)

    0.13

    (0.1

    6)0.

    51(0

    .61)

    0.14

    (0.1

    7)0.

    52(0

    .61)

    0.14

    (0.1

    8)0.

    52(0

    .61)

    0.15

    (0.1

    8)1,

    100

    0.55

    (0.7

    1)0.

    20(0

    .34)

    0.57

    (0.7

    2)0.

    24(0

    .37)

    0.58

    (0.7

    2)0.

    28(0

    .39)

    0.59

    (0.7

    3)0.

    31(0

    .42)

    0.60

    (0.7

    3)0.

    34(0

    .44)

    0.61

    (0.7

    3)0.

    37(0

    .47)

    0.61

    (0.7

    4)0.

    39(0

    .49)

    0.62

    (0.7

    4)0.

    42(0

    .51)

    900

    0.42

    (0.5

    5)0.

    05(0

    .13)

    0.42

    (0.5

    5)0.

    05(0

    .13)

    0.42

    (0.5

    5)0.

    06(0

    .13)

    0.42

    (0.5

    5)0.

    06(0

    .13)

    0.43

    (0.5

    5)0.

    06(0

    .13)

    0.43

    (0.5

    5)0.

    06(0

    .13)

    0.44

    (0.5

    6)0.

    06(0

    .13)

    0.44

    (0.5

    6)0.

    07(0

    .13)

    801,

    000

    0.47

    (0.5

    6)0.

    09(0

    .14)

    0.49

    (0.5

    6)0.

    10(0

    .15)

    0.50

    (0.5

    7)0.

    11(0

    .15)

    0.50

    (0.5

    7)0.

    12(0

    .16)

    0.51

    (0.5

    7)0.

    13(0

    .16)

    0.52

    (0.5

    8)0.

    13(0

    .17)

    0.52

    (0.5

    8)0.

    14(0

    .17)

    0.53

    (0.5

    8)0.

    15(0

    .18)

    1,10

    00.

    55(0

    .67)

    0.20

    (0.3

    3)0.

    57(0

    .68)

    0.24

    (0.3

    6)0.

    58(0

    .68)

    0.28

    (0.3

    8)0.

    59(0

    .69)

    0.31

    (0.4

    1)0.

    60(0

    .69)

    0.34

    (0.4

    3)0.

    61(0

    .70)

    0.37

    (0.4

    6)0.

    61(0

    .70)

    0.39

    (0.4

    8)0.

    62(0

    .70)

    0.42

    (0.5

    0)

    900

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    53(0

    .28)

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    54(0

    .28)

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    55(0

    .28)

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    55(0

    .28)

    0.49

    (0.5

    3)0.

    56(0

    .28)

    0.48

    (0.5

    3)0.

    56(0

    .29)

    0.48

    (0.5

    4)0.

    56(0

    .29)

    0.48

    (0.5

    4)0.

    56(0

    .29)

    201,

    000

    0.39

    (0.4

    9)0.

    35(0

    .15)

    0.39

    (0.4

    9)0.

    35(0

    .15)

    0.40

    (0.4

    9)0.

    36(0

    .16)

    0.40

    (0.5

    0)0.

    36(0

    .16)

    0.40

    (0.5

    0)0.

    36(0

    .17)

    0.40

    (0.5

    0)0.

    37(0

    .18)

    0.40

    (0.5

    1)0.

    37(0

    .18)

    0.41

    (0.5

    1)0.

    37(0

    .19)

    1,10

    00.

    41(0

    .59)

    0.36

    (0.3

    0)0.

    41(0

    .60)

    0.38

    (0.3

    3)0.

    42(0

    .61)

    0.41

    (0.3

    6)0.

    43(0

    .62)

    0.43

    (0.3

    9)0.

    43(0

    .62)

    0.45

    (0.4

    1)0.

    44(0

    .63)

    0.47

    (0.4

    3)0.

    44(0

    .63)

    0.49

    (0.4

    6)0.

    45(0

    .63)

    0.51

    (0.4

    8)

    900

    0.38

    (0.4

    8)0.

    15(0

    .59)

    0.39

    (0.4

    8)0.

    17(0

    .59)

    0.39

    (0.4

    9)0.

    18(0

    .59)

    0.39

    (0.4

    9)0.

    19(0

    .60)

    0.40

    (0.4

    9)0.

    20(0

    .59)

    0.40

    (0.4

    9)0.

    21(0

    .59)

    0.40

    (0.4

    9)0.

    22(0

    .59)

    0.40

    (0.4

    9)0.

    23(0

    .60)

    1016

    501,

    000

    0.33

    (0.3

    9)0.

    22(0

    .25)

    0.33

    (0.3

    9)0.

    22(0

    .26)

    0.33

    (0.3

    9)0.

    22(0

    .26)

    0.33

    (0.3

    9)0.

    23(0

    .27)

    0.34

    (0.4

    0)0.

    24(0

    .27)

    0.34

    (0.4

    0)0.

    24(0

    .28)

    0.34

    (0.4

    0)0.

    25(0

    .28)

    0.35

    (0.4

    0)0.

    26(0

    .28)

    1,10

    00.

    35(0

    .46)

    0.26

    (0.2

    7)0.

    36(0

    .47)

    0.30

    (0.3

    0)0.

    38(0

    .48)

    0.34

    (0.3

    3)0.

    38(0

    .49)

    0.37

    (0.3

    6)0.

    39(0

    .49)

    0.40

    (0.3

    8)0.

    40(0

    .50)

    0.42

    (0.4

    1)0.

    40(0

    .50)

    0.45

    (0.4

    3)0.

    41(0

    .51)

    0.47

    (0.4

    5)

    900

    0.30

    (0.4

    7)0.

    08(0

    .59)

    0.31

    (0.4

    7)0.

    09(0

    .60)

    0.32

    (0.4

    7)0.

    11(0

    .60)

    0.33

    (0.4

    7)0.

    12(0

    .60)

    0.34

    (0.4

    7)0.

    13(0

    .61)

    0.34

    (0.4

    7)0.

    14(0

    .61)

    0.35

    (0.4

    7)0.

    15(0

    .61)

    0.35

    (0.4

    7)0.

    16(0

    .61)

    801,

    000

    0.31

    (0.3

    7)0.

    17(0

    .25)

    0.31

    (0.3

    7)0.

    18(0

    .26)

    0.32

    (0.3

    8)0.

    19(0

    .26)

    0.32

    (0.3

    8)0.

    19(0

    .27)

    0.33

    (0.3

    8)0.

    20(0

    .27)

    0.33

    (0.3

    8)0.

    21(0

    .28)

    0.33

    (0.3

    9)0.

    22(0

    .28)

    0.34

    (0.3

    9)0.

    23(0

    .29)

    1,10

    00.

    35(0

    .43)

    0.25

    (0.2

    7)0.

    36(0

    .45)

    0.29

    (0.3

    0)0.

    38(0

    .46)

    0.33

    (0.3

    3)0.

    39(0

    .46)

    0.36

    (0.3

    6)0.

    39(0

    .47)

    0.39

    (0.3

    9)0.

    40(0

    .48)

    0.41

    (0.4

    1)0.

    41(0

    .48)

    0.44

    (0.4

    3)0.

    41(0

    .49)

    0.46

    (0.4

    5)

  • 204 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.3

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    ∗ 1(-

    )an

    ∗ 2(µ

    m)

    for

    arse

    nic

    ion

    impl

    anta

    tion

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )E

    nerg

    y(k

    eV)T

    emp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )15

    3045

    6075

    9010

    512

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 290

    00.

    65(0

    .84)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    66(0

    .84)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    66(0

    .84)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    66(0

    .84)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    67(0

    .85)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    67(0

    .85)

    0.01

    (0.0

    1)0.

    67(0

    .85)

    0.02

    (0.0

    1)0.

    68(0

    .85)

    0.02

    (0.0

    1)20

    1,00

    00.

    71(0

    .90)

    0.03

    (0.0

    3)0.

    73(0

    .90)

    0.03

    (0.0

    3)0.

    74(0

    .91)

    0.03

    (0.0

    3)0.

    74(0

    .91)

    0.04

    (0.0

    3)0.

    75(0

    .91)

    0.04

    (0.0

    4)0.

    75(0

    .91)

    0.04

    (0.0

    4)0.

    76(0

    .91)

    0.05

    (0.0

    4)0.

    76(0

    .92)

    0.05

    (0.0

    4)1,

    100

    0.79

    (0.9

    3)0.

    08(0

    .08)

    0.80

    (0.9

    4)0.

    09(0

    .09)

    0.81

    (0.9

    4)0.

    11(0

    .10)

    0.82

    (0.9

    4)0.

    12(0

    .11)

    0.82

    (0.9

    4)0.

    13(0

    .12)

    0.83

    (0.9

    5)0.

    14(0

    .13)

    0.83

    (0.9

    5)0.

    15(0

    .14)

    0.83

    (0.9

    5)0.

    16(0

    .14)

    900

    0.53

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.54

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.54

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.54

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.55

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.55

    (0.6

    9)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.55

    (0.7

    0)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.56

    (0.7

    0)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    1014

    501,

    000

    0.59

    (0.7

    3)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.60

    (0.7

    3)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.61

    (0.7

    4)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.62

    (0.7

    4)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.62

    (0.7

    5)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.63

    (0.7

    5)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.63

    (0.7

    5)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.63

    (0.7

    6)0.

    06(0

    .05)

    1,10

    00.

    66(0

    .81)

    0.08

    (0.0

    9)0.

    68(0

    .82)

    0.10

    (0.1

    0)0.

    69(0

    .83)

    0.11

    (0.1

    2)0.

    70(0

    .83)

    0.13

    (0.1

    3)0.

    71(0

    .83)

    0.14

    (0.1

    4)0.

    71(0

    .84)

    0.15

    (0.1

    5)0.

    72(0

    .84)

    0.16

    (0.1

    6)0.

    72(0

    .84)

    0.17

    (0.1

    7)

    900

    0.59

    (0.6

    5)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    5)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    5)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    5)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    5)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    6)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    6)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.59

    (0.6

    6)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    801,

    000

    0.61

    (0.6

    8)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.62

    (0.6

    8)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.62

    (0.6

    9)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.63

    (0.7

    0)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.63

    (0.7

    0)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.64

    (0.7

    0)0.

    06(0

    .05)

    0.64

    (0.7

    1)0.

    06(0

    .05)

    0.64

    (0.7

    1)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    1,10

    00.

    67(0

    .76)

    0.08

    (0.0

    9)0.

    68(0

    .77)

    0.10

    (0.1

    1)0.

    70(0

    .78)

    0.12

    (0.1

    2)0.

    70(0

    .78)

    0.13

    (0.1

    3)0.

    71(0

    .79)

    0.14

    (0.1

    4)0.

    72(0

    .79)

    0.15

    (0.1

    5)0.

    72(0

    .80)

    0.16

    (0.1

    6)0.

    72(0

    .80)

    0.17

    (0.1

    7)

    900

    0.45

    (0.7

    0)0.

    01(0

    .01)

    0.46

    (0.7

    1)0.

    01(0

    .01)

    0.46

    (0.7

    1)0.

    01(0

    .01)

    0.47

    (0.7

    1)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.48

    (0.7

    2)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.48

    (0.7

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.49

    (0.7

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.49

    (0.7

    3)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    201,

    000

    0.54

    (0.8

    0)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.55

    (0.8

    1)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.56

    (0.8

    2)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.57

    (0.8

    2)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.57

    (0.8

    2)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.58

    (0.8

    3)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.58

    (0.8

    3)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.59

    (0.8

    3)0.

    06(0

    .05)

    1,10

    00.

    62(0

    .87)

    0.08

    (0.0

    8)0.

    64(0

    .88)

    0.10

    (0.1

    0)0.

    65(0

    .89)

    0.12

    (0.1

    1)0.

    66(0

    .89)

    0.13

    (0.1

    2)0.

    67(0

    .89)

    0.14

    (0.1

    3)0.

    67(0

    .89)

    0.15

    (0.1

    4)0.

    68(0

    .90)

    0.16

    (0.1

    5)0.

    68(0

    .90)

    0.17

    (0.1

    6)

    900

    0.36

    (0.4

    9)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.36

    (0.5

    0)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.36

    (0.5

    0)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.36

    (0.5

    1)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.36

    (0.5

    1)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.36

    (0.5

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.5

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.5

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 205Ta

    ble

    B.3

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )E

    nerg

    y(k

    eV)T

    emp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )15

    3045

    6075

    9010

    512

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 2β

    ∗ 1β

    ∗ 22

    ×10

    1550

    1,00

    00.

    39(0

    .56)

    0.04

    (0.0

    3)0.

    40(0

    .57)

    0.04

    (0.0

    4)0.

    41(0

    .58)

    0.05

    (0.0

    4)0.

    42(0

    .59)

    0.06

    (0.0

    5)0.

    43(0

    .60)

    0.06

    (0.0

    5)0.

    44(0

    .60)

    0.06

    (0.0

    5)0.

    44(0

    .61)

    0.07

    (0.0

    6)0.

    45(0

    .61)

    0.07

    (0.0

    6)1,

    100

    0.48

    (0.6

    7)0.

    10(0

    .09)

    0.49

    (0.6

    8)0.

    12(0

    .11)

    0.51

    (0.6

    9)0.

    14(0

    .12)

    0.52

    (0.7

    0)0.

    15(0

    .13)

    0.52

    (0.7

    1)0.

    16(0

    .15)

    0.53

    (0.7

    1)0.

    17(0

    .16)

    0.54

    (0.7

    2)0.

    19(0

    .17)

    0.54

    (0.7

    2)0.

    20(0

    .18)

    900

    0.37

    (0.4

    4)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    4)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    5)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    5)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    6)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    6)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    6)0.

    03(0

    .02)

    0.37

    (0.4

    7)0.

    03(0

    .02)

    801,

    000

    0.40

    (0.5

    0)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.41

    (0.5

    1)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.42

    (0.5

    2)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.43

    (0.5

    3)0.

    06(0

    .05)

    0.44

    (0.5

    4)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    0.44

    (0.5

    4)0.

    07(0

    .06)

    0.45

    (0.5

    5)0.

    07(0

    .06)

    0.45

    (0.5

    5)0.

    07(0

    .06)

    1,10

    00.

    48(0

    .61)

    0.10

    (0.1

    0)0.

    50(0

    .63)

    0.12

    (0.1

    1)0.

    51(0

    .64)

    0.14

    (0.1

    3)0.

    52(0

    .64)

    0.15

    (0.1

    4)0.

    53(0

    .65)

    0.16

    (0.1

    5)0.

    53(0

    .66)

    0.17

    (0.1

    6)0.

    54(0

    .66)

    0.19

    (0.1

    7)0.

    54(0

    .66)

    0.20

    (0.1

    8)

    900

    0.33

    (0.5

    0)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.33

    (0.5

    1)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.34

    (0.5

    2)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.34

    (0.5

    3)0.

    02(0

    .01)

    0.34

    (0.5

    3)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.34

    (0.5

    4)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.34

    (0.5

    4)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.34

    (0.5

    4)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    201,

    000

    0.35

    (0.6

    2)0.

    04(0

    .03)

    0.37

    (0.6

    3)0.

    05(0

    .03)

    0.37

    (0.6

    4)0.

    05(0

    .04)

    0.38

    (0.6

    5)0.

    06(0

    .04)

    0.39

    (0.6

    5)0.

    06(0

    .04)

    0.39

    (0.6

    6)0.

    07(0

    .05)

    0.40

    (0.6

    6)0.

    07(0

    .05)

    0.40

    (0.6

    7)0.

    08(0

    .05)

    1,10

    00.

    43(0

    .73)

    0.10

    (0.0

    9)0.

    45(0

    .74)

    0.13

    (0.1

    0)0.

    46(0

    .75)

    0.14

    (0.1

    2)0.

    47(0

    .76)

    0.16

    (0.1

    3)0.

    48(0

    .76)

    0.17

    (0.1

    4)0.

    49(0

    .77)

    0.19

    (0.1

    5)0.

    49(0

    .77)

    0.20

    (0.1

    6)0.

    50(0

    .78)

    0.21

    (0.1

    7)

    900

    0.27

    (0.3

    1)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.28

    (0.3

    2)0.

    02(0

    .02)

    0.28

    (0.3

    2)0.

    03(0

    .02)

    0.28

    (0.3

    3)0.

    03(0

    .02)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    03(0

    .02)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    1016

    501,

    000

    0.28

    (0.3

    5)0.

    04(0

    .04)

    0.29

    (0.3

    5)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.29

    (0.3

    6)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    0.29

    (0.3

    7)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    0.29

    (0.3

    7)0.

    07(0

    .07)

    0.30

    (0.3

    8)0.

    07(0

    .07)

    0.30

    (0.3

    8)0.

    08(0

    .08)

    0.30

    (0.3

    9)0.

    08(0

    .08)

    1,10

    00.

    31(0

    .47)

    0.12

    (0.1

    2)0.

    32(0

    .48)

    0.15

    (0.1

    4)0.

    33(0

    .49)

    0.17

    (0.1

    5)0.

    34(0

    .50)

    0.19

    (0.1

    7)0.

    34(0

    .50)

    0.21

    (0.1

    8)0.

    35(0

    .51)

    0.23

    (0.1

    9)0.

    35(0

    .52)

    0.24

    (0.2

    0)0.

    36(0

    .52)

    0.25

    (0.2

    1)

    900

    0.28

    (0.2

    9)0.

    02(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    0)0.

    02(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    02(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    0.28

    (0.3

    1)0.

    03(0

    .03)

    801,

    000

    0.28

    (0.3

    2)0.

    04(0

    .05)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    05(0

    .05)

    0.29

    (0.3

    3)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    0.29

    (0.3

    4)0.

    06(0

    .06)

    0.30

    (0.3

    4)0.

    07(0

    .07)

    0.30

    (0.3

    5)0.

    07(0

    .07)

    0.30

    (0.3

    5)0.

    08(0

    .08)

    0.30

    (0.3

    5)0.

    08(0

    .08)

    1,10

    00.

    31(0

    .42)

    0.12

    (0.1

    3)0.

    32(0

    .43)

    0.15

    (0.1

    5)0.

    33(0

    .44)

    0.17

    (0.1

    6)0.

    34(0

    .45)

    0.19

    (0.1

    8)0.

    35(0

    .45)

    0.21

    (0.1

    9)0.

    35(0

    .46)

    0.23

    (0.2

    0)0.

    36(0

    .46)

    0.24

    (0.2

    1)0.

    36(0

    .47)

    0.25

    (0.2

    3)

  • 206 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.4

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    rR

    s(�

    /�

    )fo

    rbo

    ron

    ion

    impl

    anta

    tion

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    900

    5.94

    e2(8

    .49e

    2)5.

    85e2

    (8.5

    0e2)

    5.78

    e2(8

    .51e

    2)5.

    72e2

    (8.5

    2e2)

    5.66

    e2(8

    .52e

    2)5.

    61e2

    (8.5

    3e2)

    5.57

    e2(8

    .53e

    2)5.

    53e2

    (8.5

    3e2)

    201,

    000

    4.67

    e2(7

    .72e

    2)4.

    47e2

    (7.6

    7e2)

    4.32

    e2(7

    .63e

    2)4.

    21e2

    (7.5

    9e2)

    4.10

    e2(7

    .55e

    2)4.

    01e2

    (7.5

    2e2)

    3.93

    e2(7

    .48e

    2)3.

    86e2

    (7.4

    4e2)

    1,10

    03.

    39e2

    (6.0

    2e2)

    3.15

    e2(5

    .87e

    2)2.

    98e2

    (5.7

    3e2)

    2.86

    e2(5

    .62e

    2)2.

    77e2

    (5.5

    1e2)

    2.68

    e2(5

    .42e

    2)2.

    62e2

    (5.3

    4e2)

    2.56

    e2(5

    .26e

    2)

    900

    3.68

    e2(4

    .69e

    2)3.

    67e2

    (4.6

    9e2)

    3.67

    e2(4

    .69e

    2)3.

    67e2

    (4.7

    0e2)

    3.66

    e2(4

    .70e

    2)3.

    66e2

    (4.7

    0e2)

    3.65

    e2(4

    .70e

    2)3.

    65e2

    (4.7

    1e2)

    1014

    501,

    000

    3.48

    e2(4

    .66e

    2)3.

    44e2

    (4.6

    5e2)

    3.40

    e2(4

    .64e

    2)3.

    36e2

    (4.6

    3e2)

    3.33

    e2(4

    .61e

    2)3.

    30e2

    (4.6

    0e2)

    3.27

    e2(4

    .59e

    2)3.

    25e2

    (4.5

    7e2)

    1,10

    03.

    03e2

    (4.1

    7e2)

    2.89

    e2(4

    .08e

    2)2.

    79e2

    (4.0

    0e2)

    2.70

    e2(3

    .93e

    2)2.

    63e2

    (3.8

    7e2)

    2.57

    e2(3

    .82e

    2)2.

    52e2

    (3.7

    7e2)

    2.47

    e2(3

    .72e

    2)

    900

    3.10

    e2(3

    .75e

    2)3.

    10e2

    (3.7

    6e2)

    3.10

    e2(3

    .76e

    2)3.

    11e2

    (3.7

    6e2)

    3.11

    e2(3

    .76e

    2)3.

    11e2

    (3.7

    6e2)

    3.11

    e2(3

    .76e

    2)3.

    11e2

    (3.7

    7e2)

    801,

    000

    3.05

    e2(3

    .78e

    2)3.

    04e2

    (3.7

    8e2)

    3.02

    e2(3

    .77e

    2)3.

    00e2

    (3.7

    6e2)

    2.98

    e2(3

    .76e

    2)2.

    97e2

    (3.7

    5e2)

    2.96

    e2(3

    .74e

    2)2.

    94e2

    (3.7

    3e2)

    1,10

    02.

    81e2

    (3.5

    3e2)

    2.71

    e2(3

    .47e

    2)2.

    64e2

    (3.4

    1e2)

    2.58

    e2(3

    .36e

    2)2.

    52e2

    (3.3

    1e2)

    2.47

    e2(3

    .27e

    2)2.

    43e2

    (3.2

    3e2)

    2.39

    e2(3

    .19e

    2)

    900

    9.80

    e1(2

    .20e

    2)9.

    21e1

    (2.2

    0e2)

    8.93

    e1(2

    .20e

    2)8.

    79e1

    (2.2

    1e2)

    8.83

    e1(2

    .21e

    2)8.

    81e1

    (2.2

    1e2)

    8.74

    e1(2

    .22e

    2)8.

    64e1

    (2.2

    2e2)

    201,

    000

    6.83

    e1(1

    .30e

    2)6.

    53e1

    (1.3

    0e2)

    6.32

    e1(1

    .29e

    2)6.

    17e1

    (1.2

    8e2)

    6.05

    e1(1

    .27e

    2)5.

    96e1

    (1.2

    7e2)

    5.87

    e1(1

    .26e

    2)5.

    80e1

    (1.2

    5e2)

    1,10

    05.

    50e1

    (1.0

    0e2)

    5.27

    e1(9

    .80e

    1)5.

    11e1

    (9.6

    0e1)

    5.00

    e1(9

    .43e

    1)4.

    90e1

    (9.2

    7e1)

    4.82

    e1(9

    .13e

    1)4.

    75e1

    (9.0

    0e1)

    4.68

    e1(8

    .88e

    1)

    900

    6.61

    e1(1

    .04e

    2)6.

    62e1

    (1.0

    5e2)

    6.64

    e1(1

    .05e

    2)6.

    66e1

    (1.0

    5e2)

    6.68

    e1(1

    .05e

    2)6.

    69e1

    (1.0

    5e2)

    6.70

    e1(1

    .05e

    2)6.

    70e1

    (1.0

    6e2)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 207Ta

    ble

    B.4

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    1015

    501,

    000

    6.22

    e1(9

    .71e

    1)6.

    09e1

    (9.7

    0e1)

    5.99

    e1(9

    .68e

    1)5.

    91e1

    (9.6

    6e1)

    5.85

    e1(9

    .63e

    1)5.

    79e1

    (9.6

    1e1)

    5.74

    e1(9

    .58e

    1)5.

    69e1

    (9.5

    5e1)

    1,10

    05.

    45e1

    (8.4

    0e1)

    5.26

    e1(8

    .23e

    1)5.

    13e1

    (8.0

    9e1)

    5.02

    e1(7

    .96e

    1)4.

    93e1

    (7.8

    5e1)

    4.85

    e1(7

    .74e

    1)4.

    78e1

    (7.6

    5e1)

    4.72

    e1(7

    .56e

    1)

    900

    6.02

    e1(8

    .10e

    1)6.

    01e1

    (8.1

    1e1)

    6.00

    e1(8

    .12e

    1)5.

    99e1

    (8.1

    3e1)

    5.98

    e1(8

    .14e

    1)5.

    97e1

    (8.1

    5e1)

    5.97

    e1(8

    .16e

    1)5.

    96e1

    (8.1

    7e1)

    801,

    000

    5.66

    e1(7

    .96e

    1)5.

    60e1

    (7.9

    7e1)

    5.54

    e1(7

    .97e

    1)5.

    49e1

    (7.9

    6e1)

    5.45

    e1(7

    .95e

    1)5.

    42e1

    (7.9

    5e1)

    5.39

    e1(7

    .93e

    1)5.

    36e1

    (7.9

    2e1)

    1,10

    05.

    19e1

    (7.3

    7e1)

    5.07

    e1(7

    .26e

    1)4.

    97e1

    (7.1

    7e1)

    4.88

    e1(7

    .07e

    1)4.

    81e1

    (6.9

    9e1)

    4.74

    e1(6

    .91e

    1)4.

    68e1

    (6.8

    4e1)

    4.63

    e1(6

    .77e

    1)

    900

    6.09

    e1(5

    .90e

    1)5.

    74e1

    (5.7

    0e1)

    5.47

    e1(5

    .52e

    1)5.

    25e1

    (5.3

    5e1)

    5.06

    e1(5

    .20e

    1)4.

    89e1

    (5.1

    0e1)

    4.74

    e1(5

    .03e

    1)4.

    60e1

    (4.9

    4e1)

    201,

    000

    2.14

    e1(2

    .12e

    1)1.

    81e1

    (2.0

    4e1)

    1.60

    e1(1

    .98e

    1)1.

    45e1

    (1.9

    3e1)

    1.34

    e1(1

    .90e

    1)1.

    25e1

    (1.8

    7e1)

    1.17

    e1(1

    .85e

    1)1.

    13e1

    (1.8

    3e1)

    1,10

    07.

    40e0

    (1.2

    4e1)

    7.00

    e0(1

    .22e

    1)6.

    88e0

    (1.2

    0e1)

    6.79

    e0(1

    .18e

    1)6.

    72e0

    (1.1

    7e1)

    6.66

    e0(1

    .16e

    1)6.

    61e0

    (1.1

    5e1)

    6.57

    e0(1

    .14e

    1)

    900

    3.59

    e1(3

    .84e

    1)3.

    49e1

    (3.7

    9e1)

    3.41

    e1(3

    .75e

    1)3.

    34e1

    (3.7

    1e1)

    3.28

    e1(3

    .67e

    1)3.

    22e1

    (3.6

    2e1)

    3.16

    e1(3

    .58e

    1)3.

    11e1

    (3.5

    5e1)

    1016

    501,

    000

    1.62

    e1(1

    .53e

    1)1.

    44e1

    (1.4

    0e1)

    1.31

    e1(1

    .30e

    1)1.

    21e1

    (1.2

    2e1)

    1.14

    e1(1

    .15e

    1)1.

    08e1

    (1.0

    9e1)

    1.03

    e1(1

    .05e

    1)9.

    81e0

    (1.0

    2e1)

    1,10

    06.

    87e0

    (1.0

    3e1)

    6.70

    e0(1

    .01e

    1)6.

    59e0

    (9.9

    1e0)

    6.51

    e0(9

    .78e

    0)6.

    44e0

    (9.6

    8e0)

    6.39

    e0(9

    .59e

    0)6.

    34e0

    (9.5

    1e0)

    6.30

    e0(9

    .45e

    0)

    900

    2.43

    e1(2

    .64e

    1)2.

    38e1

    (2.6

    8e1)

    2.34

    e1(2

    .69e

    1)2.

    30e1

    (2.6

    8e1)

    2.27

    e1(2

    .67e

    1)2.

    25e1

    (2.6

    6e1)

    2.23

    e1(2

    .65e

    1)2.

    21e1

    (2.6

    3e1)

    801,

    000

    1.29

    e1(1

    .31e

    1)1.

    17e1

    (1.2

    0e1)

    1.09

    e1(1

    .12e

    1)1.

    03e1

    (1.0

    6e1)

    9.77

    e0(1

    .01e

    1)9.

    32e0

    (9.7

    3e0)

    8.94

    e0(9

    .35e

    0)8.

    64e0

    (9.1

    2e0)

    1,10

    06.

    73e0

    (9.4

    6e0)

    6.59

    e0(9

    .30e

    0)6.

    49e0

    (9.1

    7e0)

    6.41

    e0(9

    .07e

    0)6.

    35e0

    (8.9

    8e0)

    6.30

    e0(8

    .90e

    0)6.

    26e0

    (8.8

    3e0)

    6.22

    e0(8

    .77e

    0)

  • 208 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.5

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    rR

    s(�

    /�

    )fo

    rph

    osph

    orus

    ion

    impl

    anta

    tion

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    900

    3.99

    e2(7

    .10e

    2)3.

    88e2

    (7.0

    5e2)

    3.80

    e2(7

    .01e

    2)3.

    75e2

    (6.9

    8e2)

    3.70

    e2(6

    .95e

    2)3.

    66e2

    (6.9

    2e2)

    3.63

    e2(6

    .90e

    2)3.

    59e2

    (6.8

    8e2)

    201,

    000

    3.20

    e2(8

    .53e

    2)3.

    04e2

    (8.4

    1e2)

    2.92

    e2(8

    .30e

    2)2.

    83e2

    (8.2

    0e2)

    2.75

    e2(8

    .11e

    2)2.

    68e2

    (8.0

    2e2)

    2.63

    e2(7

    .94e

    2)2.

    58e2

    (7.8

    6e2)

    1,10

    02.

    24e2

    (9.1

    5e2)

    2.07

    e2(8

    .90e

    2)1.

    95e2

    (8.6

    8e2)

    1.87

    e2(8

    .51e

    2)1.

    80e2

    (8.3

    6e2)

    1.74

    e2(8

    .23e

    2)1.

    70e2

    (8.1

    2e2)

    1.66

    e2(8

    .02e

    2)

    900

    2.74

    e2(3

    .29e

    2)2.

    67e2

    (3.2

    8e2)

    2.63

    e2(3

    .26e

    2)2.

    61e2

    (3.2

    5e2)

    2.60

    e2(3

    .24e

    2)2.

    58e2

    (3.2

    4e2)

    2.57

    e2(3

    .23e

    2)2.

    56e2

    (3.2

    2e2)

    1014

    501,

    000

    2.40

    e2(3

    .12e

    2)2.

    32e2

    (3.0

    9e2)

    2.26

    e2(3

    .05e

    2)2.

    21e2

    (3.0

    2e2)

    2.16

    e2(2

    .99e

    2)2.

    12e2

    (2.9

    6e2)

    2.08

    e2(2

    .94e

    2)2.

    05e2

    (2.9

    1e2)

    1,10

    01.

    81e2

    (3.1

    6e2)

    1.69

    e2(3

    .05e

    2)1.

    60e2

    (2.9

    6e2)

    1.53

    e2(2

    .89e

    2)1.

    48e2

    (2.8

    3e2)

    1.43

    e2(2

    .77e

    2)1.

    40e2

    (2.7

    2e2)

    1.37

    e2(2

    .67e

    2)

    900

    2.44

    e2(2

    .76e

    2)2.

    39e2

    (2.7

    5e2)

    2.37

    e2(2

    .74e

    2)2.

    36e2

    (2.7

    4e2)

    2.36

    e2(2

    .73e

    2)2.

    35e2

    (2.7

    2e2)

    2.35

    e2(2

    .72e

    2)2.

    34e2

    (2.7

    1e2)

    801,

    000

    2.26

    e2(2

    .49e

    2)2.

    22e2

    (2.4

    6e2)

    2.18

    e2(2

    .44e

    2)2.

    14e2

    (2.4

    1e2)

    2.10

    e2(2

    .39e

    2)2.

    07e2

    (2.3

    7e2)

    2.04

    e2(2

    .35e

    2)2.

    02e2

    (2.3

    4e2)

    1,10

    01.

    82e2

    (2.3

    7e2)

    1.70

    e2(2

    .29e

    2)1.

    61e2

    (2.2

    3e2)

    1.55

    e2(2

    .17e

    2)1.

    50e2

    (2.1

    2e2)

    1.46

    e2(2

    .08e

    2)1.

    42e2

    (2.0

    5e2)

    1.39

    e2(2

    .01e

    2)

    900

    5.14

    e1(1

    .74e

    2)4.

    95e1

    (1.7

    3e2)

    4.86

    e1(1

    .72e

    2)4.

    81e1

    (1.7

    2e2)

    4.78

    e1(1

    .71e

    2)4.

    75e1

    (1.7

    1e2)

    4.73

    e1(1

    .71e

    2)4.

    71e1

    (1.7

    0e2)

    201,

    000

    4.74

    e1(2

    .16e

    2)4.

    67e1

    (2.1

    4e2)

    4.62

    e1(2

    .11e

    2)4.

    56e1

    (2.0

    9e2)

    4.52

    e1(2

    .07e

    2)4.

    48e1

    (2.0

    5e2)

    4.44

    e1(2

    .03e

    2)4.

    41e1

    (2.0

    1e2)

    1,10

    04.

    20e1

    (2.3

    3e2)

    4.03

    e1(2

    .25e

    2)3.

    91e1

    (2.1

    9e2)

    3.81

    e1(2

    .13e

    2)3.

    73e1

    (2.0

    8e2)

    3.67

    e1(2

    .04e

    2)3.

    61e1

    (2.0

    0e2)

    3.56

    e1(1

    .96e

    2)

    900

    4.59

    e1(6

    .61e

    1)4.

    28e1

    (6.6

    0e1)

    4.11

    e1(6

    .58e

    1)4.

    00e1

    (6.5

    7e1)

    3.93

    e1(6

    .56e

    1)3.

    88e1

    (6.5

    5e1)

    3.84

    e1(6

    .54e

    1)3.

    81e1

    (6.5

    3e1)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 209Ta

    ble

    B.5

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    1015

    501,

    000

    3.79

    e1(6

    .63e

    1)3.

    72e1

    (6.5

    7e1)

    3.67

    e1(6

    .51e

    1)3.

    63e1

    (6.4

    6e1)

    3.59

    e1(6

    .41e

    1)3.

    56e1

    (6.3

    6e1)

    3.53

    e1(6

    .32e

    1)3.

    50e1

    (6.2

    8e1)

    1,10

    03.

    34e1

    (8.1

    7e1)

    3.22

    e1(7

    .95e

    1)3.

    13e1

    (7.7

    7e1)

    3.06

    e1(7

    .61e

    1)3.

    00e1

    (7.4

    6e1)

    2.95

    e1(7

    .34e

    1)2.

    91e1

    (7.2

    2e1)

    2.87

    e1(7

    .11e

    1)

    900

    4.60

    e1(5

    .34e

    1)4.

    40e1

    (5.3

    2e1)

    4.31

    e1(5

    .31e

    1)4.

    25e1

    (5.2

    9e1)

    4.21

    e1(5

    .28e

    1)4.

    17e1

    (5.2

    8e1)

    4.14

    e1(5

    .27e

    1)4.

    11e1

    (5.2

    6e1)

    801,

    000

    3.91

    e1(5

    .05e

    1)3.

    84e1

    (5.0

    1e1)

    3.79

    e1(4

    .97e

    1)3.

    74e1

    (4.9

    3e1)

    3.70

    e1(4

    .90e

    1)3.

    67e1

    (4.8

    7e1)

    3.64

    e1(4

    .84e

    1)3.

    61e1

    (4.8

    1e1)

    1,10

    03.

    44e1

    (5.9

    4e1)

    3.31

    e1(5

    .79e

    1)3.

    22e1

    (5.6

    7e1)

    3.14

    e1(5

    .56e

    1)3.

    09e1

    (5.4

    7e1)

    3.03

    e1(5

    .38e

    1)2.

    99e1

    (5.3

    1e1)

    2.95

    e1(5

    .24e

    1)

    900

    9.97

    e0(2

    .20e

    1)9.

    66e0

    (2.1

    9e1)

    9.39

    e0(2

    .19e

    1)9.

    14e0

    (2.1

    8e1)

    8.91

    e0(2

    .18e

    1)8.

    70e0

    (2.1

    8e1)

    8.51

    e0(2

    .18e

    1)8.

    32e0

    (2.1

    7e1)

    201,

    000

    5.95

    e0(2

    .58e

    1)5.

    83e0

    (2.5

    6e1)

    5.75

    e0(2

    .55e

    1)5.

    70e0

    (2.5

    3e1)

    5.65

    e0(2

    .52e

    1)5.

    62e0

    (2.5

    1e1)

    5.59

    e0(2

    .50e

    1)5.

    57e0

    (2.4

    9e1)

    1,10

    05.

    54e0

    (3.2

    2e1)

    5.46

    e0(3

    .15e

    1)5.

    40e0

    (3.1

    0e1)

    5.35

    e0(3

    .05e

    1)5.

    31e0

    (3.0

    1e1)

    5.28

    e0(2

    .97e

    1)5.

    25e0

    (2.9

    4e1)

    5.22

    e0(2

    .90e

    1)

    900

    1.62

    e1(7

    .76e

    0)1.

    49e1

    (7.7

    0e0)

    1.40

    e1(7

    .64e

    0)1.

    32e1

    (7.6

    0e0)

    1.26

    e1(7

    .57e

    0)1.

    20e1

    (7.5

    4e0)

    1.15

    e1(7

    .52e

    0)1.

    10e1

    (7.5

    0e0)

    1016

    501,

    000

    5.61

    e0(6

    .93e

    0)5.

    27e0

    (6.8

    7e0)

    5.09

    e0(6

    .82e

    0)4.

    97e0

    (6.7

    8e0)

    4.89

    e0(6

    .75e

    0)4.

    82e0

    (6.7

    1e0)

    4.76

    e0(6

    .68e

    0)4.

    72e0

    (6.6

    7e0)

    1,10

    04.

    62e0

    (1.1

    0e1)

    4.48

    e0(1

    .08e

    1)4.

    40e0

    (1.0

    6e1)

    4.34

    e0(1

    .05e

    1)4.

    28e0

    (1.0

    4e1)

    4.24

    e0(1

    .03e

    1)4.

    21e0

    (1.0

    2e1)

    4.17

    e0(1

    .01e

    1)

    900

    1.60

    e1(6

    .58e

    0)1.

    45e1

    (6.5

    5e0)

    1.36

    e1(6

    .50e

    0)1.

    29e1

    (6.4

    6e0)

    1.24

    e1(6

    .40e

    0)1.

    19e1

    (6.3

    5e0)

    1.15

    e1(6

    .31e

    0)1.

    12e1

    (6.2

    8e0)

    801,

    000

    6.55

    e0(6

    .14e

    0)5.

    81e0

    (6.0

    6e0)

    5.50

    e0(6

    .00e

    0)5.

    31e0

    (5.9

    6e0)

    5.19

    e0(5

    .92e

    0)5.

    10e0

    (5.8

    9e0)

    5.03

    e0(5

    .86e

    0)4.

    97e0

    (5.8

    3e0)

    1,10

    04.

    78e0

    (8.9

    5e0)

    4.64

    e0(8

    .80e

    0)4.

    55e0

    (8.6

    8e0)

    4.48

    e0(8

    .57e

    0)4.

    42e0

    (8.4

    9e0)

    4.38

    e0(8

    .41e

    0)4.

    34e0

    (8.3

    5e0)

    4.31

    e0(8

    .28e

    0)

  • 210 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.6

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    rR

    s(�

    /�

    )fo

    rar

    seni

    cio

    nim

    plan

    tatio

    n

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    900

    1.58

    e3(1

    .04e

    4)1.

    53e3

    (9.9

    5e3)

    1.50

    e3(9

    .58e

    3)1.

    47e3

    (9.2

    8e3)

    1.45

    e3(9

    .03e

    3)1.

    43e3

    (8.8

    1e3)

    1.42

    e3(8

    .62e

    3)1.

    40e3

    (8.4

    6e3)

    201,

    000

    1.20

    e3(9

    .61e

    3)1.

    13e3

    (9.0

    6e3)

    1.08

    e3(8

    .68e

    3)1.

    04e3

    (8.4

    1e3)

    1.01

    e3(8

    .19e

    3)9.

    84e2

    (8.0

    2e3)

    9.61

    e2(7

    .86e

    3)9.

    41e2

    (7.7

    2e3)

    1,10

    07.

    83e2

    (7.1

    3e3)

    7.17

    e2(6

    .87e

    3)6.

    74e2

    (6.6

    9e3)

    6.42

    e2(6

    .56e

    3)6.

    18e2

    (6.4

    7e3)

    5.98

    e2(6

    .39e

    3)5.

    81e2

    (6.3

    3e3)

    5.67

    e2(6

    .28e

    3)

    900

    3.68

    e2(1

    .43e

    3)3.

    55e2

    (1.3

    9e3)

    3.48

    e2(1

    .36e

    3)3.

    44e2

    (1.3

    3e3)

    3.41

    e2(1

    .31e

    3)3.

    38e2

    (1.2

    9e3)

    3.35

    e2(1

    .27e

    3)3.

    33e2

    (1.2

    6e3)

    1014

    501,

    000

    3.05

    e2(1

    .02e

    3)2.

    95e2

    (9.8

    1e2)

    2.88

    e2(9

    .50e

    2)2.

    82e2

    (9.2

    4e2)

    2.77

    e2(9

    .03e

    2)2.

    73e2

    (8.8

    4e2)

    2.69

    e2(8

    .68e

    2)2.

    66e2

    (8.5

    3e2)

    1,10

    02.

    40e2

    (8.2

    9e2)

    2.26

    e2(7

    .75e

    2)2.

    16e2

    (7.3

    5e2)

    2.08

    e2(7

    .05e

    2)2.

    02e2

    (6.8

    1e2)

    1.97

    e2(6

    .61e

    2)1.

    92e2

    (6.4

    4e2)

    1.89

    e2(6

    .29e

    2)

    900

    3.31

    e2(8

    .71e

    2)3.

    21e2

    (8.4

    6e2)

    3.17

    e2(8

    .29e

    2)3.

    15e2

    (8.1

    8e2)

    3.14

    e2(8

    .10e

    2)3.

    13e2

    (8.0

    4e2)

    3.12

    e2(7

    .98e

    2)3.

    11e2

    (7.9

    3e2)

    801,

    000

    2.96

    e2(5

    .85e

    2)2.

    89e2

    (5.6

    8e2)

    2.84

    e2(5

    .55e

    2)2.

    79e2

    (5.4

    3e2)

    2.75

    e2(5

    .34e

    2)2.

    72e2

    (5.2

    5e2)

    2.69

    e2(5

    .17e

    2)2.

    66e2

    (5.1

    0e2)

    1,10

    02.

    42e2

    (4.9

    0e2)

    2.29

    e2(4

    .62e

    2)2.

    19e2

    (4.4

    0e2)

    2.11

    e2(4

    .24e

    2)2.

    05e2

    (4.1

    1e2)

    2.00

    e2(3

    .99e

    2)1.

    96e2

    (3.8

    9e2)

    1.92

    e2(3

    .81e

    2)

    900

    2.69

    e2(2

    .28e

    3)2.

    54e2

    (2.2

    1e3)

    2.44

    e2(2

    .16e

    3)2.

    37e2

    (2.1

    2e3)

    2.32

    e2(2

    .09e

    3)2.

    29e2

    (2.0

    6e3)

    2.26

    e2(2

    .04e

    3)2.

    23e2

    (2.0

    2e3)

    201,

    000

    2.00

    e2(2

    .57e

    3)1.

    93e2

    (2.4

    2e3)

    1.88

    e2(2

    .30e

    3)1.

    84e2

    (2.2

    2e3)

    1.82

    e2(2

    .15e

    3)1.

    79e2

    (2.0

    9e3)

    1.77

    e2(2

    .04e

    3)1.

    75e2

    (2.0

    0e3)

    1,10

    01.

    60e2

    (1.9

    1e3)

    1.52

    e2(1

    .78e

    3)1.

    46e2

    (1.6

    9e3)

    1.41

    e2(1

    .63e

    3)1.

    38e2

    (1.5

    8e3)

    1.35

    e2(1

    .53e

    3)1.

    32e2

    (1.5

    0e3)

    1.30

    e2(1

    .47e

    3)

    900

    1.03

    e2(3

    .29e

    2)9.

    49e1

    (3.2

    2e2)

    8.92

    e1(3

    .16e

    2)8.

    47e1

    (3.1

    2e2)

    8.10

    e1(3

    .08e

    2)7.

    79e1

    (3.0

    5e2)

    7.54

    e1(3

    .02e

    2)7.

    31e1

    (3.0

    0e2)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 211Ta

    ble

    B.6

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    1015

    501,

    000

    5.12

    e1(2

    .36e

    2)4.

    80e1

    (2.3

    0e2)

    4.61

    e1(2

    .25e

    2)4.

    47e1

    (2.2

    1e2)

    4.38

    e1(2

    .18e

    2)4.

    30e1

    (2.1

    4e2)

    4.23

    e1(2

    .12e

    2)4.

    18e1

    (2.0

    9e2)

    1,10

    03.

    89e1

    (2.1

    9e2)

    3.74

    e1(2

    .09e

    2)3.

    64e1

    (2.0

    1e2)

    3.57

    e1(1

    .95e

    2)3.

    51e1

    (1.8

    9e2)

    3.46

    e1(1

    .85e

    2)3.

    42e1

    (1.8

    1e2)

    3.38

    e1(1

    .78e

    2)

    900

    8.80

    e1(1

    .87e

    2)8.

    24e1

    (1.8

    1e2)

    7.87

    e1(1

    .76e

    2)7.

    59e1

    (1.7

    2e2)

    7.36

    e1(1

    .69e

    2)7.

    15e1

    (1.6

    6e2)

    6.98

    e1(1

    .64e

    2)6.

    82e1

    (1.6

    2e2)

    801,

    000

    5.17

    e1(1

    .24e

    2)4.

    88e1

    (1.2

    1e2)

    4.71

    e1(1

    .19e

    2)4.

    58e1

    (1.1

    7e2)

    4.49

    e1(1

    .15e

    2)4.

    41e1

    (1.1

    4e2)

    4.35

    e1(1

    .13e

    2)4.

    30e1

    (1.1

    2e2)

    1,10

    04.

    01e1

    (1.2

    6e2)

    3.85

    e1(1

    .21e

    2)3.

    75e1

    (1.1

    8e2)

    3.68

    e1(1

    .15e

    2)3.

    62e1

    (1.1

    2e2)

    3.57

    e1(1

    .10e

    2)3.

    52e1

    (1.0

    8e2)

    3.48

    e1(1

    .07e

    2)

    900

    7.37

    e1(4

    .35e

    2)7.

    06e1

    (4.2

    4e2)

    6.77

    e1(4

    .15e

    2)6.

    51e1

    (4.0

    8e2)

    6.28

    e1(4

    .03e

    2)6.

    07e1

    (3.9

    8e2)

    5.88

    e1(3

    .94e

    2)5.

    73e1

    (3.9

    0e2)

    201,

    000

    3.78

    e1(4

    .47e

    2)3.

    44e1

    (4.3

    2e2)

    3.24

    e1(4

    .19e

    2)3.

    10e1

    (4.0

    9e2)

    3.00

    e1(4

    .01e

    2)2.

    92e1

    (3.9

    3e2)

    2.86

    e1(3

    .87e

    2)2.

    81e1

    (3.8

    1e2)

    1,10

    02.

    53e1

    (3.9

    2e2)

    2.42

    e1(3

    .69e

    2)2.

    35e1

    (3.5

    2e2)

    2.30

    e1(3

    .39e

    2)2.

    26e1

    (3.2

    8e2)

    2.23

    e1(3

    .19e

    2)2.

    20e1

    (3.1

    2e2)

    2.18

    e1(3

    .05e

    2)

    900

    4.00

    e1(5

    .45e

    1)3.

    92e1

    (5.3

    6e1)

    3.82

    e1(5

    .24e

    1)3.

    72e1

    (5.1

    1e1)

    3.62

    e1(4

    .98e

    1)3.

    53e1

    (4.8

    7e1)

    3.45

    e1(4

    .77e

    1)3.

    37e1

    (4.6

    7e1)

    1016

    501,

    000

    2.18

    e1(3

    .14e

    1)1.

    90e1

    (2.9

    0e1)

    1.71

    e1(2

    .73e

    1)1.

    58e1

    (2.6

    2e1)

    1.48

    e1(2

    .53e

    1)1.

    40e1

    (2.4

    6e1)

    1.33

    e1(2

    .40e

    1)1.

    28e1

    (2.3

    5e1)

    1,10

    09.

    03e0

    (2.9

    8e1)

    7.90

    e0(2

    .89e

    1)7.

    24e0

    (2.8

    3e1)

    6.82

    e0(2

    .78e

    1)6.

    50e0

    (2.7

    4e1)

    6.27

    e0(2

    .70e

    1)6.

    08e0

    (2.6

    7e1)

    5.92

    e0(2

    .65e

    1)

    900

    4.43

    e1(4

    .05e

    1)4.

    20e1

    (4.0

    4e1)

    4.02

    e1(3

    .98e

    1)3.

    88e1

    (3.9

    1e1)

    3.75

    e1(3

    .84e

    1)3.

    64e1

    (3.7

    7e1)

    3.54

    e1(3

    .70e

    1)3.

    45e1

    (3.6

    4e1)

    801,

    000

    2.17

    e1(2

    .56e

    1)1.

    89e1

    (2.3

    3e1)

    1.71

    e1(2

    .16e

    1)1.

    58e1

    (2.0

    5e1)

    1.48

    e1(1

    .95e

    1)1.

    40e1

    (1.8

    8e1)

    1.33

    e1(1

    .82e

    1)1.

    28e1

    (1.7

    7e1)

    1,10

    09.

    09e0

    (1.8

    5e1)

    7.96

    e0(1

    .78e

    1)7.

    33e0

    (1.7

    3e1)

    6.90

    e0(1

    .70e

    1)6.

    59e0

    (1.6

    7e1)

    6.35

    e0(1

    .65e

    1)6.

    16e0

    (1.6

    3e1)

    6.01

    e0(1

    .61e

    1)

  • 212 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.7

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    rN

    eff

    z(µ

    m−2

    )fo

    rbo

    ron

    ion

    impl

    anta

    tion

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    900

    8.87

    e5(4

    .44e

    5)9.

    05e5

    (4.4

    3e5)

    9.20

    e5(4

    .41e

    5)9.

    33e5

    (4.4

    0e5)

    9.45

    e5(4

    .39e

    5)9.

    56e5

    (4.3

    8e5)

    9.65

    e5(4

    .37e

    5)9.

    74e5

    (4.3

    6e5)

    201,

    000

    1.22

    e6(4

    .49e

    5)1.

    27e6

    (4.4

    7e5)

    1.31

    e6(4

    .46e

    5)1.

    33e6

    (4.4

    4e5)

    1.36

    e6(4

    .42e

    5)1.

    38e6

    (4.4

    1e5)

    1.39

    e6(4

    .40e

    5)1.

    41e6

    (4.3

    9e5)

    1,10

    01.

    53e6

    (5.0

    6e5)

    1.57

    e6(5

    .08e

    5)1.

    60e6

    (5.1

    1e5)

    1.62

    e6(5

    .14e

    5)1.

    63e6

    (5.1

    7e5)

    1.65

    e6(5

    .20e

    5)1.

    66e6

    (5.2

    2e5)

    1.66

    e6(5

    .24e

    5)

    900

    1.37

    e6(9

    .01e

    5)1.

    37e6

    (8.9

    9e5)

    1.37

    e6(8

    .98e

    5)1.

    37e6

    (8.9

    6e5)

    1.37

    e6(8

    .95e

    5)1.

    37e6

    (8.9

    3e5)

    1.37

    e6(8

    .91e

    5)1.

    37e6

    (8.9

    0e5)

    1014

    501,

    000

    1.48

    e6(8

    .49e

    5)1.

    49e6

    (8.4

    5e5)

    1.50

    e6(8

    .41e

    5)1.

    51e6

    (8.3

    8e5)

    1.52

    e6(8

    .36e

    5)1.

    52e6

    (8.3

    3e5)

    1.53

    e6(8

    .30e

    5)1.

    53e6

    (8.2

    8e5)

    1,10

    01.

    60e6

    (8.2

    6e5)

    1.62

    e6(8

    .30e

    5)1.

    64e6

    (8.3

    1e5)

    1.65

    e6(8

    .34e

    5)1.

    66e6

    (8.3

    5e5)

    1.67

    e6(8

    .38e

    5)1.

    68e6

    (8.4

    1e5)

    1.69

    e6(8

    .43e

    5)

    900

    1.58

    e6(1

    .15e

    6)1.

    58e6

    (1.1

    4e6)

    1.57

    e6(1

    .14e

    6)1.

    57e6

    (1.1

    4e6)

    1.57

    e6(1

    .14e

    6)1.

    57e6

    (1.1

    4e6)

    1.57

    e6(1

    .14e

    6)1.

    57e6

    (1.1

    4e6)

    801,

    000

    1.62

    e6(1

    .08e

    6)1.

    62e6

    (1.0

    8e6)

    1.62

    e6(1

    .07e

    6)1.

    62e6

    (1.0

    7e6)

    1.63

    e6(1

    .07e

    6)1.

    63e6

    (1.0

    6e6)

    1.63

    e6(1

    .06e

    6)1.

    63e6

    (1.0

    6e6)

    1,10

    01.

    67e6

    (1.0

    2e6)

    1.68

    e6(1

    .02e

    6)1.

    68e6

    (1.0

    2e6)

    1.69

    e6(1

    .02e

    6)1.

    69e6

    (1.0

    3e6)

    1.70

    e6(1

    .03e

    6)1.

    71e6

    (1.0

    3e6)

    1.71

    e6(1

    .03e

    6)

    900

    1.08

    e7(3

    .39e

    6)1.

    16e7

    (3.3

    8e6)

    1.20

    e7(3

    .36e

    6)1.

    21e7

    (3.3

    5e6)

    1.19

    e7(3

    .33e

    6)1.

    19e7

    (3.3

    2e6)

    1.19

    e7(3

    .31e

    6)1.

    19e7

    (3.2

    9e6)

    201,

    000

    1.54

    e7(6

    .00e

    6)1.

    59e7

    (5.9

    8e6)

    1.62

    e7(5

    .95e

    6)1.

    64e7

    (5.9

    3e6)

    1.65

    e7(5

    .92e

    6)1.

    67e7

    (5.9

    1e6)

    1.68

    e7(5

    .91e

    6)1.

    69e7

    (5.9

    0e6)

    1,10

    01.

    73e7

    (6.9

    7e6)

    1.75

    e7(6

    .98e

    6)1.

    76e7

    (6.9

    9e6)

    1.76

    e7(7

    .00e

    6)1.

    77e7

    (7.0

    2e6)

    1.77

    e7(7

    .04e

    6)1.

    77e7

    (7.0

    6e6)

    1.77

    e7(7

    .07e

    6)

    900

    1.39

    e7(7

    .38e

    6)1.

    38e7

    (7.3

    6e6)

    1.38

    e7(7

    .33e

    6)1.

    37e7

    (7.3

    1e6)

    1.36

    e7(7

    .29e

    6)1.

    36e7

    (7.2

    7e6)

    1.36

    e7(7

    .25e

    6)1.

    36e7

    (7.2

    3e6)

    (con

    tinue

    d)

  • Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup Tables 213Ta

    ble

    B.7

    (con

    tinue

    d)

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    1015

    501,

    000

    1.50

    e7(8

    .02e

    6)1.

    53e7

    (8.0

    0e6)

    1.56

    e7(7

    .98e

    6)1.

    58e7

    (7.9

    6e6)

    1.59

    e7(7

    .96e

    6)1.

    61e7

    (7.9

    5e6)

    1.62

    e7(7

    .94e

    6)1.

    63e7

    (7.9

    4e6)

    1,10

    01.

    69e7

    (8.6

    5e6)

    1.71

    e7(8

    .66e

    6)1.

    72e7

    (8.6

    7e6)

    1.73

    e7(8

    .69e

    6)1.

    73e7

    (8.7

    0e6)

    1.73

    e7(8

    .71e

    6)1.

    74e7

    (8.7

    2e6)

    1.74

    e7(8

    .73e

    6)

    900

    1.42

    e7(9

    .41e

    6)1.

    43e7

    (9.3

    9e6)

    1.43

    e7(9

    .37e

    6)1.

    43e7

    (9.3

    5e6)

    1.43

    e7(9

    .33e

    6)1.

    43e7

    (9.3

    1e6)

    1.44

    e7(9

    .29e

    6)1.

    44e7

    (9.2

    7e6)

    801,

    000

    1.56

    e7(9

    .64e

    6)1.

    58e7

    (9.6

    0e6)

    1.60

    e7(9

    .57e

    6)1.

    61e7

    (9.5

    5e6)

    1.62

    e7(9

    .53e

    6)1.

    63e7

    (9.5

    2e6)

    1.64

    e7(9

    .51e

    6)1.

    64e7

    (9.5

    0e6)

    1,10

    01.

    69e7

    (9.9

    0e6)

    1.71

    e7(9

    .91e

    6)1.

    73e7

    (9.9

    1e6)

    1.73

    e7(9

    .92e

    6)1.

    74e7

    (9.9

    3e6)

    1.75

    e7(9

    .95e

    6)1.

    75e7

    (9.9

    6e6)

    1.75

    e7(9

    .96e

    6)

    900

    1.71

    e7(1

    .74e

    7)1.

    83e7

    (1.8

    1e7)

    1.93

    e7(1

    .88e

    7)2.

    03e7

    (1.9

    4e7)

    2.11

    e7(2

    .00e

    7)2.

    19e7

    (2.0

    4e7)

    2.27

    e7(2

    .07e

    7)2.

    34e7

    (2.1

    0e7)

    201,

    000

    5.59

    e7(5

    .45e

    7)6.

    65e7

    (5.6

    4e7)

    7.53

    e7(5

    .78e

    7)8.

    31e7

    (5.9

    0e7)

    9.02

    e7(5

    .98e

    7)9.

    67e7

    (6.0

    5e7)

    1.03

    e8(6

    .10e

    7)1.

    07e8

    (6.1

    5e7)

    1,10

    01.

    70e8

    (9.2

    6e7)

    1.76

    e8(9

    .34e

    7)1.

    77e8

    (9.3

    9e7)

    1.78

    e8(9

    .43e

    7)1.

    78e8

    (9.4

    6e7)

    1.78

    e8(9

    .49e

    7)1.

    79e8

    (9.5

    1e7)

    1.79

    e8(9

    .53e

    7)

    900

    2.86

    e7(2

    .63e

    7)2.

    97e7

    (2.6

    7e7)

    3.05

    e7(2

    .70e

    7)3.

    12e7

    (2.7

    4e7)

    3.19

    e7(2

    .78e

    7)3.

    26e7

    (2.8

    2e7)

    3.33

    e7(2

    .85e

    7)3.

    39e7

    (2.8

    9e7)

    1016

    501,

    000

    7.42

    e7(7

    .79e

    7)8.

    44e7

    (8.5

    4e7)

    9.30

    e7(9

    .24e

    7)1.

    00e8

    (9.8

    4e7)

    1.07

    e8(1

    .04e

    8)1.

    13e8

    (1.1

    0e8)

    1.19

    e8(1

    .15e

    8)1.

    24e8

    (1.1

    7e8)

    1,10

    01.

    83e8

    (1.1

    4e8)

    1.84

    e8(1

    .15e

    8)1.

    85e8

    (1.1

    6e8)

    1.86

    e8(1

    .17e

    8)1.

    86e8

    (1.1

    7e8)

    1.86

    e8(1

    .17e

    8)1.

    87e8

    (1.1

    8e8)

    1.87

    e8(1

    .18e

    8)

    900

    4.19

    e7(3

    .77e

    7)4.

    30e7

    (3.7

    1e7)

    4.39

    e7(3

    .69e

    7)4.

    47e7

    (3.7

    0e7)

    4.54

    e7(3

    .72e

    7)4.

    59e7

    (3.7

    4e7)

    4.65

    e7(3

    .76e

    7)4.

    71e7

    (3.7

    9e7)

    801,

    000

    9.19

    e7(8

    .97e

    7)1.

    02e8

    (9.8

    6e7)

    1.10

    e8(1

    .06e

    8)1.

    17e8

    (1.1

    4e8)

    1.24

    e8(1

    .19e

    8)1.

    31e8

    (1.2

    4e8)

    1.36

    e8(1

    .29e

    8)1.

    41e8

    (1.3

    2e8)

    1,10

    01.

    86e8

    (1.2

    4e8)

    1.87

    e8(1

    .25e

    8)1.

    88e8

    (1.2

    6e8)

    1.88

    e8(1

    .27e

    8)1.

    89e8

    (1.2

    7e8)

    1.89

    e8(1

    .27e

    8)1.

    89e8

    (1.2

    8e8)

    1.89

    e8(1

    .28e

    8)

  • 214 Appendix B: Ion Implantation Lookup TablesTa

    ble

    B.8

    Loo

    k-up

    tabl

    efo

    rN

    eff

    z(µ

    m−2

    )fo

    rph

    osph

    orus

    ion

    impl

    anta

    tion

    Dos

    e(c

    m−2

    )

    Ene

    rgy

    (keV

    )Te

    mp.

    (◦C

    )T

    ime

    (min

    )

    1530

    4560

    7590

    105

    120

    900

    1.11

    e6(3

    .01e

    5)1.

    14e6

    (3.0

    4e5)

    1.16

    e6(3

    .07e

    5)1.

    18e6

    (3.0

    8e5)

    1.19

    e6(3

    .09e

    5)1.

    20e6

    (3.1

    0e5)

    1.21

    e6(3

    .11e

    5)1.

    21e6

    (3.1

    2e5)

    201,

    000

    1.25

    e6(1

    .63e

    5)1.

    26e6

    (1.6

    4e5)

    1.26

    e6(1

    .65e

    5)1.

    26e6

    (1.6

    5e5)

    1.26

    e6(1

    .66e

    5)1.

    25e6

    (1.6

    6e5)

    1.25

    e6(1

    .67e

    5)1.

    26e6

    (1.6

    7e5)

    1,10

    01.

    25e6

    (1.0

    2e5)

    1.25

    e6(1

    .02e

    5)1.

    26e6

    (1.0

    2e5)

    1.26

    e6(1

    .03e

    5)1.

    26e6

    (1.0

    3e5)

    1.27

    e6(1

    .03e

    5)1.

    27e6

    (1.0

    3e5)

    1.27

    e6(1

    .03e

    5)

    900

    1.40

    e6(9

    .41e

    5)1.

    45e6

    (9.4

    6e5)

    1.48

    e6(9

    .50e

    5)1.

    50e6

    (9.5

    3e5)

    1.51

    e6(9

    .55e

    5)1.

    52e6

    (9.5

    8e5)

    1.53

    e6(9

    .60e

    5)1.

    54e6

    (9.6

    1e5)

    1014

    501,

    000

    1.63

    e6(7

    .84e

    5)1.

    66e6

    (7.8

    7e5)

    1.68

    e6(7

    .90e

    5)1.

    69e6

    (7.9

    1e5)

    1.70

    e6(7

    .93e

    5)1.

    71e6

    (7.9

    5e5)

    1.71

    e6(7

    .97e

    5)1.

    71e6

    (7.9

    8e5)

    1,10

    01.

    71e6

    (5.1

    4e5)

    1.71

    e6(5

    .17e

    5)1.

    72e6

    (5.2

    0e5)

    1.72

    e6(5

    .23e

    5)1.

    72e6

    (5.2

    5e5)

    1.73

    e6(5

    .27e

    5)1.

    73e6

    (5.2

    8e5)

    1.73

    e6(5

    .29e

    5)

    900

    1.42

    e6(1

    .11e

    6)1.

    46e6

    (1.1

    1e6)

    1.48

    e6(1

    .12e

    6)1.

    49e6

    (1.1

    2e6)

    1.49

    e6(1

    .12e

    6)1.

    50e6

    (1.1

    2e6)

    1.50

    e6(1

    .13e

    6)1.

    50e6

    (1.1

    3e6)

    801,

    000

    1.55

    e6(1

    .08e

    6)1.

    57e6

    (1.0

    9e6)

    1.59

    e6(1

    .09e

    6)1.

    60e6

    (1.0

    9e6)

    1.61

    e6(1

    .09e

    6)1.

    62e6

    (1.1

    0e6)

    1.63

    e6(1

    .10e

    6)1.

    63e6

    (1.1

    0e6)

    1,10

    01.

    65e6

    (8.0

    7e5)

    1.66

    e6(8

    .11e

    5)1.

    66e6

    (8.1

    5e5)

    1.66

    e6(8

    .19e

    5)1.

    67e6

    (8.2

    2e5)

    1.67

    e6(8

    .24e

    5)1.

    67e6

    (8.2

    6e5)

    1.68

    e6(8

    .28e

    5)

    900

    1.24

    e7(2

    .52e

    6)1.

    28e7

    (2.5

    3e6)

    1.31

    e7(2

    .54e

    6)1.

    31e7

    (2.5

    5e6)

    1.32

    e7(2

    .55e

    6)1.

    32e7

    (2.5

    5e6)

    1.33

    e7(2

    .56e

    6)1.

    33e7

    (2.5

    6e6)

    201,

    000

    1.37

    e7(1

    .45e

    6)1.

    38e7

    (1.4

    5e6)

    1.38

    e7(1

    .46e

    6)1.

    39e7

    (1.4

    6e6)

    1.39

    e7(1

    .46e

    6)1.

    39e7

    (1.4

    7e6)

    1.39

    e7(1

    .47e

    6)1.

    39e7

    (1.4

    7e6)

    1,10

    01.

    38e7

    (8.4

    4e5)

    1.37

    e7(8

    .49e

    5)1.

    36e7

    (8.5

    4e5)

    1.35

    e7(8

    .57e

    5)1.

    35e7

    (8.6

    0e5)

    1.34

    e7(8

    .64e

    5)1.

    3