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  • Mandarić S., Delibašić V., Criminal Aspect of Injuries in Sports..., PHYSICAL CULTURE 2016; 70 (2): 105-114


    15. Σαββίδης, Λάζαρος Ε. (2001). Παγκράτιον: Το ολυμπιακόν αγώνισμα: Η πολεμική τέχνη των αρχαίων Ελλήνων [Pankration: The Olympic events: The martial art of the ancient Greeks. In Greek]. Αθήνα: Ελεύθερη Σκέψις.

    16. Stefanović, Đ. (2011). Filosofija, nauka, teorija i praksa sporta [Philosophy, science, theory and practice of sport. In Serbian]. Beograd: Gnosis.

    17. Stojanović, Z. (2012). Komentar Krivičnog zakon- ika [Comment of the Criminal code. In Serbian]. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.

    18. Stojanović, Z. (2015). Krivično pravo opšti deo [Criminal law general part. In Serbian]. Beograd: Pravni fakultet u Beogradu, Pravna knjiga.

    19. Tyson, M., & Sloman, L. (2013). Undisputed Truth. New York: Plume Book.

    20. Harary, C. (2002). Aggressive Play or Criminal Assault? An In Depth Look at Sports Violence and Criminal Liability. Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts, 25, 197-217.

    21. Hosta, M. (2008). Ethics and sport: whose ethics, which ethos. Kinesiology, 40(1), 89-95.

    22. Ceraj, S. (2005). Šport je za osobu, a ne obrnu- to [Sport is for the person, not the other way around. In Slovenian]. Olimp, 17, 22–25.

    23. Čeh, M. (2013). Etika i sport [Ethics and Sport. In Croatian]. In Findak V (ed.), Proceedings of the 22 summer school kineziologa Croatian Repub- lic - organizational forms of work in the areas of education, sports, recreation, sports and physical training (pp. 404-408). Poreč: Croatian Kinesiol- ogy Association.


    Zusammenfassung: In dieser Arbeit wird der Begriff der Ethik im Sport definiert und darauf hingewiesen, dass Verhaltensformen existie- ren, die den Rahmen des Fair-Plays überschreiten. Im Rahmen der Arbeit werden ebenfalls der allgemeine Begriff der Straftat definiert, sowie Elemente des allgemeinen Begriffs der Straftat - Widerrechtlichkeit und Schuld - mit besonde- rer Beachtung der Grundlagen, die Widerrechlichkeit und Schuld, somit auch eine Straftat ausschließen. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit wird dem Einverständnis des Verletzten als Grundlage für die Ausschließung von Widerrechtlich- keit bei Sportwettbewerben gewidmet – mit der Betonung, dass mit seiner Zustimmung, an einem bestimmten Sport teilzunehmen, der Sportler nicht seine Zustimmung gibt, außerhalb eines für eine konkrete Sportart bestimmenden Rahmens verletzt zu werden. Es wird die Einstellung zum Ausdruck gebracht, dass der Sportler mit seiner Zustimmung die Möglichkeit akzeptiert, dass seine physische Integrität gefährdet wird, was immer noch nicht bedeutet, dass er da- mit einverstanden ist, wirklich verletzt zu werden, bzw. es wird ein Unterschied gemacht zwischen einer Folge, die aus einer Gefährdung besteht und einer Folge, die aus der Verletzung von Rechtsgut besteht. Die Arbeit weist auf Regeln hin, die für einzelne Sportarten gelten und in Verbindung mit dem Einverständnis des Verletzten gebracht werden. Es wird die Einstellung zum Ausdruck gebracht, dass das Einverständnis des Verletzten das Existieren einer Straftat nur dann ausschließt, wenn es zu einer Verletzung im Rahmen der Regeln einer konkreten Sportart gekommen ist. Wenn die Verletzung die Folge eines Verstoßes gegen die Sportregeln ist, handelt es sich um eine Straftat. In den Schlussbe- trachtungen wird die Meinung vertreten, dass es eine Notwendigkeit ist, gegen alle schädlichen Erscheinungen im Sport anzukämpfen, somit auch gegen Verletzungen von Sportlern, die eine Folge von groben Verstößen gegen Regeln dar- stellen, die für einen konkreten Sport gelten. Die Schlussfolgerung weist darauf hin, dass die Zustimmung des Verletzten keine Entschuldigung für die Nichtanwendung des Strafrechts sein darf, wenn es zu einer Verletzung auf Grund von Verstößen gegen die Regeln einer Sportart gekommen ist.


    Received: 10.05.2016. Accepted: 02.11.2016.

    © 2016 The Author. Published by Physical Culture (www.fizickakultura.com). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/3.0/rs/).


    Phys. Cult. (Belgr.) 2016; 70 (2): 115-125 PHYSICAL CULTURE

    ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER UDC: 338.48:797.21(497.13Dubrovnik) doi:10.5937/fizkul1602115S

    Correspondence to: Joško Sindik, Institute for Anthropological Research Zagreb, Ljudevita Gaja 32, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia: e-mail: josko.sindik@inantro.hr


    Joško Sindik

    Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia

    Abstract Scope of this study was to identify motivational factors related to specific recreational sport event: “Wild league” in water polo, which takes place in Dubrovnik, have very long tradition. First goal of the study is to determine the relationship between motivational factors related to this event, as well as with socio-demographic variables. Second goal is to deter- mine the differences in motivational factors, according to several independent variables, mainly related to the previous experiences with sports and touristic destination. The cross-sectional study is conducted. The sample of 125 participants was examined, using the Questionnaire on sports event. All participants were Croatian citizens, excluding those who are born, and currently live in Dubrovnik. Major sports tourism motives of the potential tourists in this sporting event, were obtained. In general, the importance of the benefits of sports and tourist destination prevailed, as compared with their limitations, which appeared as an important factor only in participants who didn’t visited Dubrovnik yet. At the participants, pull factors, i.e. advanced sports and travel motives slightly dominated over push motives, but statistically significant only in females, who expressed more sophisticated pulling tourist motives, such as the acquisition of knowl- edge about the destination. Correlations indicate that previous interest in sport, particularly in water polo and Wild League, are moderate positively associated with pushing motives. Moreover, previous recreationally engaging in sports, as well as destination-related origin, appeared as the important factors for having more emphasized pull motives for visiting this sport event. Level of the education did not appear as important factor in differentiating main type of motives in target population. Results provide initial information about the possibility of profiling potential tourists who could be motivated to visit the destination by this particular sports event.



    This research has a fundamental purpose of a framework to explore the motivation for sports tour- ism in the context of recreational water polo compe- tition Wild League in Dubrovnik. The insights from this study can provide the guidance on the possibility of improving conditions for sports and / or cultural tourism in terms of the local attractive recreation- al-sports event.

    Sports tourism

    Sports tourism includes travel from the primary residence for the purpose of participating in sports

    activities (recreational or competitive), travel by par- ticipating in sports competitions elite level, as well as visits to sporting attractions such as water parks or “houses of the fame” (Gibson, Attle, & Yiannakis, 1997; Gibson, 2004). The basic resources of a par- ticular tourist destination are natural and cultural resources, tourist facilities, communications infra- structure, accommodation and the restaurants. The combination of local tourism resources and the ser- vices that are offered, determines the type of tour- ism, which belongs to a particular place: for example, coastal (marine), mountain tourism, sport, religious tourism, gastronomic, conference, or business tour- ism (HM Government, 2014).

  • Sindik J., “Wild league” in water polo:..., PHYSICAL CULTURE 2016; 70 (2): 115-125


    Motives in sports tourism: push and pull factors

    Tourism and sport are the key elements of contem- porary culture, having an important impact on the society as a whole (Ottevanger, 2007; Whyte, Hood, & White, 2012). Within the sports tourism, there is an essential difference between active and passive partic- ipating sports audience. The last (several dozen) years there has been a significant increase in sports tourism related to sporting events, and for many tourists, at- tending or participating in sporting events, has be- come the main reason for travel (Delpy, 1997). Most of the motives of sports tourism in the literature tends to categorize the reasons for tourist travel motives as “escaping from” (e.g. the noise, working everyday routine, routine in general, etc.) and / or “running on” (e.g. places where you can confidently relax or enter- tain) certain destination (Pizam, & Mansfeld, 2000; Mohamed, & Othman, 2012).

    A “pushing” (push) factors represent mostly so- cio-psychological motivation, based on the need “running away from” everyday current human en- vironment. The desire to escape on certain tourist destination (due to its attractiveness, or some other reason), can be called “pulling” (pull) factors (Ot- tev