Amra 4-Chem Composition 2 Bibliography

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Transcript of Amra 4-Chem Composition 2 Bibliography

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Chemical compositionMagniferin Gallotannin Gallic and M-digallic acids Ethylegallate Isoquerecetin Quercetin sitosterol Epicatechin Carotene Xanthophyll Citric acid Ellagic acid Malic acid M-trigallic acids Riboflavin Magniferol Isoamyl alcohols Leucine Tyrosine Valine Magniferonic acid Magniferolic acid Hydroxymagniferonic acids

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Mgneferin-3- methylether

ToxicologyThe LD 50 of Mangiferin in albino rats was 365 mg/kg i.p. The LD 50of 50% ethanolic extract of the whole plant (excluding root) is reported to be more than 1000 mg/ kg i.p. in mice.

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Parts Used

Stem Bark Leaf Flower Seed kernel Root

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Therapeutic uses .-

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- Juice of ripe mango added with honey is useful in enlargement of spleen. . - . - . -

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Atisara: Seed kernel of Amra, jambu, bilwa, kapittha and shunthi should be taken with liquid gruel in case of diarrhoea. (ch.ci.8/127) Chardi & Atisara: Decoction of Bilwa and seed kernel of Amra mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhoea. Atisara: Tender leaves of Amra and kapittha fruit arte pounded together and taken with rice water in case of diarrhea. (B.S. Atisaara.61)

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Rakta-Atisara: Bark of Shallaki, Badari, Jambu, Priyaala, Amra and Arjuna mixed with honey taken with milk checks haemorrhage in diarrhea. (VM.3.41) Chardi & Atisara: Decoction of seed kernel of Amra and Bilwa added with honey and sugar. It controls severe vomiting and diarrhea. (VM. 3.41) Rakta-Atisara: Juice of Amra bark extracted by Putapaaka is added with oil and taken. It alleviates diarrhea with blood and mucus. (VM.6.7) Raktapitta: One should take cold infusion of Amra, jambu and Arjuna added with honey in Raktapitta. (sha.Sam. 2.4.2, Su.Sam.U. 45.23) Epistaxis: In Epistaxis, the juice of mango seed is instilled into the nostrils. (Ch.Chi.4) Chardi: Linctus made of Mango-seed kernel, parched paddy and rock salt with honey checks vomiting. (VM.66.11) Chardi: Leaves and roots of Bijapura, Amra and Jambu are cooked by closed heating. Intake of the juice so obtained is taken with honey. It alleviates severe vomiting. (Sha.Sam. 2.1.32.33) Trishna & Chardi: Decoction of Amra and jambu added with honey alleviates all types of vommiting and thirst. (VM.16.10) Sun-Stroke :Roasted tender fruits of Amra are added with water and mixed with Jiraka, Salt and Maricha. It should be taken in proper dose b one afflicted with Sun stroke. (Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala 4.38) Spleen Enlargement: Juice of ripe mango added with honey is useful in enlargement of spleen. Puyameha (Gunorrhoea): Bark of Mango is pounded and added with milk and sugar. This is efficacious in Gonorrhoea if taken for a fortnight. (S.B.M. 4.8.10) Skin disease : Pulp of mango fruit mixed with rock salt is rubbed with water in acoppe vessel. This is applied on the skin in psoriasis. (VS Kushtha.113) Dandruff : Equal powders of mango seed and haritaki are pounded together with milk and applied to the scalp in case of dandruff. (S.G. 3.11.20) Slackness of Vagina : Paste made of mango seed kernel, honey and camphor is applied to vagina.It makes the vagina contracted and firm. (S.G. 3.11.111) Stomatitis : In stomatitis of children, seed kernel of Mango, Lauha Bhasm, red ochre and rasanjana mixed with honey. (B.S. Balaroga-108) Indigestion : In indigestion caused by fish and meat, unripe fruit and seed of mango are useful respectively. (B.P. Chi.6.139)

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Oedema : Gheee cooked with the decoction of Punarnava leaves and Amra root alleviates all types of Oedema, Vaatabalasaka, Gulma, Udara, spleenomegally, piles and Dyspepsia. (B.S.Shotha.93-94) Loss of Relish : Amra paanaka. (kshema kutuhala 11.21,12.52-55) Fever: Hot infusion prepared of tender leaves of amra and Jambu, leaf buds and hanging roots of Vata and Ushira mixed with honey allays fever. (S.G. 2.3.6)

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Posology-

50-100ml 1-4 gm 1-3 gm 1-2 gm

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Yogaas

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Research1.

Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver

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Departamento de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Centro de Qumica Farmacutica, Calle 200, Esq. 21, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg1 body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg1 body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum ironbinding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanineamine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

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Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria

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Departamento de Patologia Clnica, Faculdade de Cincias Mdicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brasil. The extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) is able to prevent iron mediated mitochondrial damage by means of oxidation of reduced transition metals required for the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and direct free radical scavenging activity. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of Vimang as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used

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as quantitative measures of lipoperoxidation. Vimang at 10 M mangiferin concentration equivalent induced near-full protection against 50 M Fe2+-citrate-induced mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (). The IC50value for Vimang protection against Fe2+-citrate-induced mitochondrial TBARS formation (7.89 1.19 M) was around 10 times lower than that for tert-butylhydroperoxide mitochondrial induction of TBARS formation. The extract also inhibited the iron citrate induction of mitochondrial antimycin Ainsensitive oxygen consumption, stimulated oxygen consumption due to Fe2+ autoxidation and prevented Fe3+ ascorbate reduction. The extracted polyphenolic compound, mainly mangiferin, could form a complex with Fe2+, accelerating Fe2+ oxidation and the formation of more stable Fe3+-polyphenol complexes, unable to participate in Fenton-type reactions and lipoperoxidation propagation phase. The strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with an apparent IC50 of 2.45 0.08 M suggests that besides its iron-complexing capacity, Vimang could also protect mitochondria from Fe2+-citrate lipoperoxidation through direct free radical scavenging ability, mainly lipoperoxyl and alcoxyl radicals, acting as both a chain-breaking and iron-complexing antioxidant. These results are of pharmacological relevance since Vimang could be a potential candidate for antioxidant therapy in diseases related to abnormal intracellular iron distribution or iron overload.

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Interaction of Vimang (Mangifera indica L. extract) with Fe(III) improves its antioxidant and cytoprotecting activity

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Departamento de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Centro de Qumica Farmacutica, Calle 200, Esq. 21, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. A standard aqueous stem bark extract from selected species of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae)Vimang, whose major polyphenolic component is mangiferin, displays potent in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The present study provides evidence that the VimangFe(III) mixture is more effective at scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, as well as in protecting against t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced hepatocytes injury, compared to Vimang alone. Voltammetric assays demonstrated that Vimang, in line with the high mangiferin content of the extract, behaves electrochemically like mangiferin, as well as interacts with Fe(III) in close similarity with mangiferin's interaction with the cation. These results justify the high efficiency of Vimang as an agent protecting from iron-induced oxidative damage. We propose Vimang as a potential therapy against the deleterious action of reactive oxygen species generated during iron-overload, such as that occurring in diseases like -thalassemia, Friedre