Amra 4-Chem Composition 2 Bibliography

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Transcript of Amra 4-Chem Composition 2 Bibliography

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Chemical compositionMagniferin Gallotannin Gallic and M-digallic acids Ethylegallate Isoquerecetin Quercetin sitosterol Epicatechin Carotene Xanthophyll Citric acid Ellagic acid Malic acid M-trigallic acids Riboflavin Magniferol Isoamyl alcohols Leucine Tyrosine Valine Magniferonic acid Magniferolic acid Hydroxymagniferonic acids

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Mgneferin-3- methylether

ToxicologyThe LD 50 of Mangiferin in albino rats was 365 mg/kg i.p. The LD 50of 50% ethanolic extract of the whole plant (excluding root) is reported to be more than 1000 mg/ kg i.p. in mice.

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Parts Used

Stem Bark Leaf Flower Seed kernel Root

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Therapeutic uses .-

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Atisara: Seed kernel of Amra, jambu, bilwa, kapittha and shunthi should be taken with liquid gruel in case of diarrhoea. (ch.ci.8/127) Chardi & Atisara: Decoction of Bilwa and seed kernel of Amra mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhoea. Atisara: Tender leaves of Amra and kapittha fruit arte pounded together and taken with rice water in case of diarrhea. (B.S. Atisaara.61)

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Rakta-Atisara: Bark of Shallaki, Badari, Jambu, Priyaala, Amra and Arjuna mixed with honey taken with milk checks haemorrhage in diarrhea. (VM.3.41) Chardi & Atisara: Decoction of seed kernel of Amra and Bilwa added with honey and sugar. It controls severe vomiting and diarrhea. (VM. 3.41) Rakta-Atisara: Juice of Amra bark extracted by Putapaaka is added with oil and taken. It alleviates diarrhea with blood and mucus. (VM.6.7) Raktapitta: One should take cold infusion of Amra, jambu and Arjuna added with honey in Raktapitta. (sha.Sam. 2.4.2, Su.Sam.U. 45.23) Epistaxis: In Epistaxis, the juice of mango seed is instilled into the nostrils. (Ch.Chi.4) Chardi: Linctus made of Mango-seed kernel, parched paddy and rock salt with honey checks vomiting. (VM.66.11) Chardi: Leaves and roots of Bijapura, Amra and Jambu are cooked by closed heating. Intake of the juice so obtained is taken with honey. It alleviates severe vomiting. (Sha.Sam. 2.1.32.33) Trishna & Chardi: Decoction of Amra and jambu added with honey alleviates all types of vommiting and thirst. (VM.16.10) Sun-Stroke :Roasted tender fruits of Amra are added with water and mixed with Jiraka, Salt and Maricha. It should be taken in proper dose b one afflicted with Sun stroke. (Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala 4.38) Spleen Enlargement: Juice of ripe mango added with honey is useful in enlargement of spleen. Puyameha (Gunorrhoea): Bark of Mango is pounded and added with milk and sugar. This is efficacious in Gonorrhoea if taken for a fortnight. (S.B.M. 4.8.10) Skin disease : Pulp of mango fruit mixed with rock salt is rubbed with water in acoppe vessel. This is applied on the skin in psoriasis. (VS Kushtha.113) Dandruff : Equal powders of mango seed and haritaki are pounded together with milk and applied to the scalp in case of dandruff. (S.G. 3.11.20) Slackness of Vagina : Paste made of mango seed kernel, honey and camphor is applied to vagina.It makes the vagina contracted and firm. (S.G. 3.11.111) Stomatitis : In stomatitis of children, seed kernel of Mango, Lauha Bhasm, red ochre and rasanjana mixed with honey. (B.S. Balaroga-108) Indigestion : In indigestion caused by fish and meat, unripe fruit and seed of mango are useful respectively. (B.P. Chi.6.139)

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Oedema : Gheee cooked with the decoction of Punarnava leaves and Amra root alleviates all types of Oedema, Vaatabalasaka, Gulma, Udara, spleenomegally, piles and Dyspepsia. (B.S.Shotha.93-94) Loss of Relish : Amra paanaka. (kshema kutuhala 11.21,12.52-55) Fever: Hot infusion prepared of tender leaves of amra and Jambu, leaf buds and hanging roots of Vata and Ushira mixed with honey allays fever. (S.G. 2.3.6)

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Posology-

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Yogaas

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Research1.

Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver

a

Departamento de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Centro de Qumica Farmacutica, Calle 200, Esq. 21, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg1 body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg1 body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum ironbinding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanineamine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

2.

Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria

a

Departamento de Patologia Clnica, Faculdade de Cincias Mdicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brasil. The extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) is able to prevent iron mediated mitochondrial damage by means of oxidation of reduced transition metals required for the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and direct free radical scavenging activity. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of Vimang as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used

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as quantitative measures of lipoperoxidation. Vimang at 10 M mangiferin concentration equivalent induced near-full protection against 50 M Fe2+-citrate-induced mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (). The IC50value for Vimang protection against Fe2+-citrate-induced mitochondrial TBARS formation (7.89 1.19 M) was around 10 times lower than that for tert-butylhydroperoxide mitochondrial induction of TBARS formation. The extract also inhibited the iron citrate induction of mitochondrial antimycin Ainsensitive oxygen consumption, stimulated oxygen consumption due to Fe2+ autoxidation and prevented Fe3+ ascorbate reduction. The extracted polyphenolic compound, mainly mangiferin, could form a complex with Fe2+, accelerating Fe2+ oxidation and the formation of more stable Fe3+-polyphenol complexes, unable to participate in Fenton-type reactions and lipoperoxidation propagation phase. The strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with an apparent IC50 of 2.45 0.08 M suggests that besides its iron-complexing capacity, Vimang could also protect mitochondria from Fe2+-citrate lipoperoxidation through direct free radical scavenging ability, mainly lipoperoxyl and alcoxyl radicals, acting as both a chain-breaking and iron-complexing antioxidant. These results are of pharmacological relevance since Vimang could be a potential candidate for antioxidant therapy in diseases related to abnormal intracellular iron distribution or iron overload.

3.

Interaction of Vimang (Mangifera indica L. extract) with Fe(III) improves its antioxidant and cytoprotecting activity

a

Departamento de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Centro de Qumica Farmacutica, Calle 200, Esq. 21, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. A standard aqueous stem bark extract from selected species of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae)Vimang, whose major polyphenolic component is mangiferin, displays potent in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The present study provides evidence that the VimangFe(III) mixture is more effective at scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, as well as in protecting against t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced hepatocytes injury, compared to Vimang alone. Voltammetric assays demonstrated that Vimang, in line with the high mangiferin content of the extract, behaves electrochemically like mangiferin, as well as interacts with Fe(III) in close similarity with mangiferin's interaction with the cation. These results justify the high efficiency of Vimang as an agent protecting from iron-induced oxidative damage. We propose Vimang as a potential therapy against the deleterious action of reactive oxygen species generated during iron-overload, such as that occurring in diseases like -thalassemia, Friedreich's ataxia and haemochromatosis.

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4.

Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat

Department of Pharmacology University of Calabar, Nigeria The leaves of Mangifera indica are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine. To determine whether or not there is a scientific basis for this use, the effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves on blood glucose level was assessed in normoglycaemic, glucose - induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract given orally (1 g/kg) did not alter the blood glucose levels in either normoglycaemic or STZ-induced diabetic rats. In glucose - induced hyperglycaemia, however, antidiabetic activity was seen when the extract and glucose were administered simultaneously and also when the extract was given to the rats 60 min before the glucose. The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract was compared with that of an oral dose of chlorpropamide (200 mg/kg) under the same conditions. The results of this study indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves ofMangifera indica possess hypoglycaemic activity. This action may be due to an intestinal reduction of the absorption of glucose. However, other different mechanisms of action cannot be excluded. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.5.

Antibacterial activity of Amchur (Dried Pulp of Unripe Mangifera indica) extracts on some food borne bacteria

Department of Microbiology, C.C.S university, Meerut- 250005, India

To assess the antimicrobial activities of amchur extract on some food borne bacteria under invitro conditions and to determine the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of the herbal extract against the test bacteria. The antibacterial activity of amchur (dried pulp of unripe Mangifera indica) extract (50% ethanol) was tested against ten bacterial strains (7 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), mostly belongs to foodborne pathogens, by agar well diffusion method. The crude extract showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity be inhibiting both the groups of bacteria. Minimal inhibitory concentration of the spice against each test organism was also studied by observing their growth on Mueller Hinton Agar containing the spice extract at various incremental levels, equivalent to 62.5-500mg/mL of spice. The extract was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (26.0mm). Bacillus mycoides was found to be the most sensitive, survived only up to 62.5mg/mL concentration of the spice, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (125mg/mL), whereas Micrococcus luteus was found to be the most resistant organism which survived up to 500mg/mL. The chief significance of the above

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study was to search for the alternatives to chemical preservatives used in various food industries so as to minimize their side effects and simultaneously improving the shelf life of the food products. This study shows the potential to replace the synthetic preservatives by the use of natural extracts of amchur in various suitable food products.

6.

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycaemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions,

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as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities.

7.

Evaluation of the antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ilorin, Nigeria Department of Pharmacology, University of Calabar, Nigeria The leaves of Mangifera indica were assessed for antidiabetic properties using normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemia and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice. The aqueous extract produced a reduction of blood glucose level in normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia, but did not have any effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract was compared with that of an oral dose of chlorpropamide under the same conditions. The results of this study indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Mangifera indica possess hypoglycaemic activity.8.

Flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis effectiveness for dyslipidemia

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581, Kerala, India Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalisflavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels.

9.

Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats

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Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram- 695 581, India The oral administration of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis at a dose of 10 mg kg1 body weight day1 showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated on the basis of their effects on the activities of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione and lipid peroxide contents. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly decreased in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

10. Analgesic

and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract

Centro de Qumica Farmacutica, P.O. Box 16042, Atabey, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from elevated stress. To assess its possible analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, the results of a standard extract evaluation are presented. Analgesia was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema. Vimang (501000 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against acetic acid test in mice. The mean potency (DE50) was 54.5 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition attained was 94.4%. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain but not the first phase. The DE50 of the second phase was 8.4 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition was 99.5%, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited oedema formation (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) of both carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema in rat, guinea-pigs and mice (maximal inhibitions: 39.5, 45.0 and 48.6, respectively). The inhibitions were similar to those produced by indomethacin and sodium naproxen, p.o. The different polyphenols found in Vimang could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions reported here for the first time for M. indica bark aqueous extract. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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5) A lexicon of medicinal plants in India Vol I By D.N Guhabakshi, P.sensharma, D. C paul. Naya prakash, Calcutta. 6) Bhavaprakasha nighantu By Dr.Krishnachandra chunekar.choukhamba Amaravati prakashan. Varanasi 7) Charaka samhita. By (a) R.K sharma and Bhagavan dash.(b) Vaidya Harishchndra simha kushavaha.choukhamba orientalia pubcations Varanasi. 8) Chakradatta.Edited by P.V Sharma. choukhamba orientalia pubcations Varanasi. 9) Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda.Vol I, Central council for research in Ayurveda and siddha.Department of ISM and H, Ministry of health and family welfare Govt. Of India. 10) Dravya guna vijnana.By P.V sharma Choukhamba Bharati Academy. Varanasi. 11) Dravy guna vijnana. By Gnanendra pandey.Vol III, Krishna das academy.Varanasi. 12) Dravya guna vijnana By J.L.N shastry.choukhamba orientalia publications. Varanasi. 13) Dhanvantari nighantu.Edited by P.V sharma.Choukhamba orientalia publications. Varanasi. 16) Dravy guna Hastamalaka.By Dr Banvarilal mishra.Schaem publications.Jaipur. 17) Flora of Shimoga District. By Dr. S.N Ramaswamy, Dr. M. Radhakrishna Rao, Dr. D.A Govindappa.Prasaranga, university of Mysore. 18) Hrudaya Deepika nighantu.Choukhamba orientalia publications. Varanasi. 19) Indian medicinal plants.By Vaidya ratnam P.S Varier.Vol III, Orient Longman Ltd.Kottakal. 20) Indian medicinal plants.By Keertikar and Basu.Bishan singh, Mahendra pal singh.Vol III, 23-A, New connaught place.Dehradune. 21) Illustrated manual of herbal drugs used in AyurvedaBy Y.K Sarin.Council of scientific and industrial research and Indian council of medical research. 22) Indian medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic preparations.By A.C Dey.Bishan singh, Mahendra pal singh.23-A, New connaught place. Dehradune. 23) Kayyadeva nighantu Edited by P.V Sharma Choukhamba orientalia publications. Varanasi. 24) Materia medica and herbal pharmacology.By Dr. Amrith pal singh.Choukhamba orientalia publications. Delhi. 25) Madanapala nighantu.Edited by P.V Sharma Choukhamba orientalia publications.Varanasi. 26) Mahoushdha nighantu. By Aryadasa kumara simha bhishagvara.Choukhamba orientalia publications. Varanasi. 27) Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda By Dr. S.K Sharma.Rastreeya Ayurveda Vidyapeetha New Delhi. 28) Nighantu Ratnakara Choukhamba orientalia pubcations. Varanasi. 29) Nighantu Adarsha. By Bhopalal vaidya.Choukhamba Bharati Academy. Varanasi. 30) Namaroopa Jnanam.By P.V Sharma. Satyapriya prakashana.Varanasi. 31) One hundred useful drugs.By Dr. A. Laxmipathi.Choukhamba Sanskrit pratishthan. New

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