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### Transcript of Adiabats: How cP and cV get into the exponent PV gja/thermo/lectures/ get into the exponent PV ......

• ...Thermodynamics

Adiabats: How cP and cV get into the exponent PV

Free expansion (Joule); Constant UForced expansion (Joule-Kelvin); Constant H

Joule-Kelvin coefficient - heating or cooling on JKexpansion?

Equations of state: van der Waals; Virial; Murnaghan

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 1 / 19

• Does Irreversible mean Friction ?

Irreversibility defines time itself (but not units)

First Law - Work + heat equivalent - time reversible

Friction - Work done becomes heat - irreversible

Dissipation - Work done becomes heat - irreversible

Joules paddle wheel - Work done becomes heat - irreversible

Does irreversibility mean that work/motion always turns into heat?

Everything tends to a natural state of rest Aristotle

Unless it has Qi or Vitalism.

Ask an 70-year old physics expert..

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 2 / 19

• No say the Engines

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 3 / 19

• Cyclic processes - Carnot cycle and engine

A cyclic process:

system returns to initial equilibrium

surroundings change

work is done

All processes quasistatic/reversible.During the cycle the values of the statevariables change, system exchanges heat andmechanical energy with its surroundings.e.g. Carnot cycle:

1 isothermal expansion,

3 isothermal compression,

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 4 / 19

• The Carnot cycle and engine

Surroundings:Two constant temperature heat reservoirs,Pistons moving in all processesHeat is only exchanged along the two isothermsWork done =

PdV = area inside the closed curve.

In each cycle, heat Q1 Q2 enters and work W is delivered.Illustrates general principles of heat engines.Heat pumps and refrigerators are similar, using work to move heat fromcold to hot.System is a fluid known as the working substance.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 5 / 19

• The efficiency of a heat engine

A schematic of a general engine.

Q1, Q2 and W are heat in, heat out andwork done by the working substance.Work done on the working substance is W

First Law for each complete cycle:

U = Q1 Q2 + (W ) = 0

From this, W = Q1 Q2, and the efficiency of the engine is given by

= W /Q1 = 1 Q2/Q1

Power = Work per cycle cycles persecond.

?

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-6

hot body

cold body

T1

Q1

EW

Q2

T2

Heat Engine

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 6 / 19

• Working substance doesnt affect efficiency

= W /Q1 = 1 Q2/Q1

No mention of working substance!

Efficiency depends only on the heat flows.

Working substance does affect design of the engine.

Can run the engine backwards:put work in and move heat from hot to cold.

Reversed engine is a refrigerator or heat pump.

Efficiency is Energy you get out in divided by Energy you put in.This is different for engines, fridges and heat pumps.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 7 / 19

• The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Defines processes which can never occur even though they areenergetically possible.Use heat engines to help visualise these processes.There are two statements of the second law, one by Clausius, and theother by Kelvin, modified by Planck.

In contemporary language, these are:

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 8 / 19

• Clausius and Kelvin Second Law

It is impossible to construct a device that, operating in a cycle, producesno effect other than...

The Clausius statement:

... the transfer of heat from a colderto a hotter body

The Kelvin-Planck statement... the extraction of heat from a sin-gle body at a uniform temperatureand the performance of an equiva-lent amount of work.

Note the use of body rather than heat reservoir, meaning that engines canbe considered to operate between two bodies (one a source and the othera sink of heat) of which the hotter one cools and the colder one heats upwhilst the engine is running.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 9 / 19

• Clausius and Kelvin Second Law

R: forbidden refrigerator.

hot body

6Q

R?

6Q

cold body

NOTallowed by

CLAUSIUS

E forbidden engine.

hot body

?Q

6E

-W = Q

cold body

NOTallowed by

KELVIN

n.b. Body rather than heat reservoir:meaning the transfer of heat can change the temperature.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 10 / 19

• Equivalence of Clausius and Kelvin-Planck statements

Proved by showing that if either statement is false, so is the other.Suppose Kelvin-Planck is false.

KP-violating Engine (E) runsrefrigerator (R).R extracts Q2 from the coldbody, delivers Q1 + Q2 to thehot body (1st law).

E+R can be treated as acomposite refrigerator.E+R transfers heat Q2 froma colder to a hotter body.

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-

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\$%6

?

6

6

(A)hot body

T1

Q1 Q2 + Q1

Q2

EW

= Q1

R

T2cold body

6

6

'&

\$%

(B)

composite

refrigerator

?

Q2

Q2

hot body

T1

cold bodyT2

E+R violates Clausiuss statement.

Heat and work are considered per cycle in this argument.Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 11 / 19

• The Carnot cycle and engine

Surroundings:Two constant temperature heat reservoirs,Pistons moving in all processesHeat is only exchanged along the two isothermsWork done =

PdV = area inside the closed curve.

In each cycle, heat Q1 Q2 enters and work W is delivered.Illustrates general principles of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators.System is a fluid known as the working substance.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 12 / 19

• Carnots theorem

No engine operating between tworeservoirs can be more efficient than aCarnot engine operating between thesame two reservoirs.

Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire

Je suis le meilleur quil peut y avoir.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 13 / 19

• Carnots theorem and a corollary

Carnots theorem proved using Clausius Statement.

?

-

?

6 &%'\$

?

?

-

(A)hot reservoir

T1

Q1 Q1

Q2 = Q1 W

E

W

W

Q2

C

T2cold reservoir

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-

?

'

&

\$

%6 &%

'\$

6

6

(B)hot reservoir

T1

Q1 Q1

Q1 W = Q

2

E

W

Q2 =Q1 W

C

T2cold reservoir

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 14 / 19

• Proof that Carnots theorem is equivalent to Second Law

Consider a Carnot-violating engine E (efficiency ) and a Carnotengine C (efficiency C ) operating between the same heat reservoirs.

Assume the engines do equal Work (W=W)

Carnot engine is reversible, so it can be driven backwards.

Assuming > , W /Q 1 = W /Q1 > W /Q1 leads to Q1 > Q

1.

Use C to drive E.

C + E is a refrigerator which moves heat Q1 Q 1 from cold to hotreservoir without external work.

This contradicts Clausiuss statement of the 2nd law.

So the assumption > C cannot be valid.

If = C , then Q1 = Q1: heat flows are zero and no net work. The

efficiency for any real engine must therefore satisfy

C

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 15 / 19

• Corollary 1: Efficiency depends on temperature

Consider compound devices based on two Carnot engines, Ca and Cb, withefficiency ca , cb .

If Ca drives Cb backward, Carnots Theorem: ca cb .However, for Cb driving Ca backwards, cb ca .The only option is ca = cb ,

hence the corollary:

All Carnot engines operating between the same tworeservoirs have the same efficiency(INDEPENDENT of the working substance).

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 16 / 19

• Corollary 2: Existence of thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic efficiency of any reversible heat engines operatingbetween the same two temperature reservoirs is equal.

Efficiency, R = 1 Q2Q1 , can only depend on reservoir temperatures.Ratio Q1/Q2 is therefore some universal function T1 and T2:

Q1/Q2 = f (T1,T2)

We can say more about the functional form of f by considering acomposite engine made up of two different engines, one running on thewaste heat of the other.

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 17 / 19

• Existence of Thermodynamic Temperature

T1

T1

T2

T3

T3

Q1

Q2

Q2

Q3

W1

W2

Q1

Q3

W1+W2

composite engine

forQ2=Q2

Graeme Ackland Lecture 6: Cyclic Processes October 2, 2017 18 / 19

• The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

Composite engine made of two other engines,second uses ALL the waste heat of the first.

No net heat enters reservoir at T2, and so noreservoir is in fact required.

T1

T1

T2

T3

T3

Q1

Q2

Q2

Q3

W1

W2

Q1

Q3

W1+W2

composite engine

forQ2=Q2

Composite engine has the same heat flows as the indivi