á`dÉ`M 2004 ºdÉ©dG »a »FGò¨dG øeC’G ΩGó©f GE .á`dÉ`M ºdÉ©dG »a »FGò¨dG...

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Transcript of á`dÉ`M 2004 ºdÉ©dG »a »FGò¨dG øeC’G ΩGó©f GE .á`dÉ`M ºdÉ©dG »a »FGò¨dG...

  • `d`MGddG a FGdG eCG GfE

    JEG a RdG dG UQjZCd ddG dG JDe GgCGdCd FEG GgCGh

    2004

  • :Y 2004 Y QUIdG eCd YGQdGh jZCG e

    Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy

    CG Y J VY jWh eYEG OGG g eG UhCGfdG VdH j a IG Cd YGQdGh jZCG UN CGQ

    hCG JH j a hCG ,e hCG je hCG bEG hCG H C dG hCG .eJh gOhM H

    YO CG ,jQdG JeY hCG Je hCG ,H cT g hCG cP j .IG Cd YGQdGh jZCG e b e Y G hCG cdG d

    MSG Rjh .IG Cd YGQdGh jZCG Xfi dGZ hCG ,dG VGZCd G Ye IOQGdG eYEG OGG fh

    MU fL e e NJ CG hO ,jQdG Z VGZCG e dPOGG SG jh .QH ec IQH jdG H ,dG M

    e dP Z hCG ,dG IOYEG VGZC G Ye IOQGdG eYEGW Jh .dG M MU e e NJ hO ,jQdG VGZCG

    :EG dSG OhMh e VdG H e NdG Gg Y dG

    jJ e SOdG dG g YCGeCG GfG dM

    dG FGdGXe e hJ HjObG hDdG e JOb ,G

    .YLGh

    jG ,g O jJQg OG g SCGJ bhjObG hDdG YG dG

    SSc dP YSh ,YLGh YGQdG dG QhO IQGOEG FQ ,deS

    jdG SFH b dG ,jObG dGe cQe jQfCG qb dc .SSCG dG

    SDeKnowledgeView Ltdub IYe.jjdGh jdG MdG e

    SSCG dG jdG AYCG H e ch:e c YLGh jObG hDdG e

    jQG SGQdG IMh e jhH LObG b e jS jQh ;dGe ZQc SQCG Yh ;FEGh YGQdGb e T TcGHh ;IQdGh dG b

    b e fe QLh ;jdGh jZCG.AMEG

    ge gDhSCG ddG G Xe qbhIMh e HgT jRL :Ye a

    hDdG e) dG jQG SGQdGe Qjf Lh ;(YLGh jObG

    hDdG e) YG dG jG e,J Jh ;(YLGh jObG

    ,jS hOQjQh ,ZcSc dghAMEG b e ehSeGQ dSh;(YLGh jObG hDdG e)

    ,dQc hLh ,chH eSh ,dCG cdh,jQa jZQeh ,aGO eHh

    ,jg fZh ,je-L eOCGhH gOGHh ,e dOeh ,jQg chfh

    e) FEGh YGQdG ObG b e,OQH Jh ;(YLGh jObG hDdG

    jZCG b e ff Zh ,c LhjObG hDdG e) jdGh

    jQ Lh ,EG JQeh ;(YLGhGfG Y eG f J IMh e

    SQh jZCG d VdGh FGdG eCGjObG hDdG e) dG GP FGG

    gh ,dc fch ;(YLGhe) IQdGh dG b e fGSL

    ah ;(YLGh jObG hDdGdG b e JdhR jGh ,jSZ

    ;(eGG dG e) jQdGh OTQEGhfGG dG b e ce jQfCGh

    .(dG hdG e)

    jZCG H G SSCG GAMEG eCGgYCG a ,dG g IOQGdG cSGh

    FMEG fdG a e c GdG Y AMEG b FMEG dG IQGOEGh

    .G

    jd UG gT Y G oJhd ,IG G ,jeH ''fH''

    OGYEGh jdG JYeh KdG T.eSdG

    YG jh J Y dJhhDdG e YEG H LfEGh

    Yh dG jdG eN ,YEGh edGY LdG Y dJ H .dG

    hDTh Gh DG b LdG.SGG

    Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division,FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy

    copyright@fao.org :hdEG jdG SGH hCG

    FAO 2004

    ISBN 92-5-605178-8

    djEG W

    :QdG:Qj EG dG e

    Thi ha Thein Nyan/UNEP/Topham; Claudio Marcozzi/UNEP/Topham;Felix O Granmakou/UNEP/Topham.

  • `d`MGddG a FGdG eCG GfE

    JEG a RdG dG UQjZCd ddG dG JDe GgCGdCd FEG GgCGh

    2004

  • 2004 ddG a FGdG eCG GfEG dM3

    4jJ

    dG dJ KJ dG dG LGe :jZCd ddG dG JDe g H f

    6ddG AfCG e a jZCG f

    6GjdG NBG :YdG OGJ

    8IadGh d ja dG je :d jdG dG

    11SGh dGh LfG a GQdH FN :d jObG ddG

    14GKCJ cCG GAGLE aCG GjJ :dG Sb

    16NdG dG f

    18UdG dG

    18edG GdG a IdG jZCG fh dGh ddG

    20edG GdG a YQGdG QU Y FGdG dG J KCG

    22jdG ASh d IdG IQdG

    24jZCd ddG dG JDe eGdH AadG f

    24dG HQe LCG e dG

    26jdG eRCG e dG a dGh jZCG f QhO

    28FGdG eCGh jdG dG J

    30FGdG eCGh RQCG

    32dG e d fCG IJh J :eCG dEG jdG

    34hGdG

    40QOdG

    jdG H

  • 2004 ddG a FGdG eCG GfEG dM 2

    edG jdG jY(IAWG-FIVIMS)dGh FdG fdG chdhdG d dGSCG dcdG

    dhdG d jdG dcdGfdG e a hd HhQhCG dG

    dG hd fdCG dcdGIdG dG a dhdG dG IQGRh

    dhdG d jeCG dcdGjeCG YGQdG IQGRh

    ROhh jHh IdG eCG chIdG eCd YGQdGh jZCG e

    YGQdG d dhdG hdGdhdG dG e

    IdG eCG a YLGh jObG hDdG effEG hDdG J e

    FfEG IdG eCG efHd IdG eCG efH

    dd IdG eCG hUd IdG eCG hU

    dhdG dGddG jZCG efHddG dG e

    jdG OUQCd ddG dGjdH dG IdG eCG ed FGdG dG

    YGQdG d dhdG dGdhdG YGQdG d jQSG YdG

    FGdG SdG d dhdG dGjdG YGQdG d dhdG edG

    FGSG YGQd dhdG cdGedG Z dhdG dG

    dhdG c g echQ SDe

    IdG dG a ddG PfEG hUddG OQGdG ebEG dG

    jaCG d FfEG YdGdG e a dG ad hdG H cdG FGdG dG

    ee Hd L CG e fG b keY CG j CG AG Y j jd2003 dG FGdG eCG GfG dMIc YH bdG EG .

    dG e jG dH AdG jT dh ,e d dHLh JCS jCG e hj eY dH Ghj CG H jdG FGOY CG jdG Gg f dP eh .ejEG cCG NBG Y ifG d ,ddGUdG dG CGh , j LQH kJe Gj FG dGIeG IG Y dG ddG CGh ,gQJ LQH AH dEGkGJ KMCG b f Qh .gjJ LQH Ic IQG OQGGhIM dh .dEG UdG eCG jdG ddGh WCG dhCG IM

    .dG Ggh G b RJ GJ jNBG jcedG jd LQG dG EG VG dG jJ TCG bhFGdG eCG GfG Y eG H G cdG H G OGYEG j c dG ,dG GP FGG SQh jZCG d VdGhGQOG H UQ Hh .GOfG jCG dG Lj a .bdG dPeCG GfG Y eG f CG EG N ,jd HjEG FdGh a b dG GP FGG SQh jZCG d VdGh FGdGe d IjL oS OjEH fDhYCG J bh .G JQb SGf foCG eY Y fc kMEG cCG dG GJ LM dY JG ,2004 f/jHCG dG YLG Nh .eGUNh ,d Y N SH BG f fh .jL J g

    .eOdG ed ddG jdhCG GP dG jHee of ebEG Y GdG IYe gh ,J hO ag Gj hZd eRdG jdG eG aJ FGdG eCG GfG Y ILdG GgCG RG dG Udh da eGHh SSj Y Rhf CG EG LH fh .AGS M Y Gh jdGhfl Y OjEG EG a FG UTCG e dG IM aNG

    .VG jcP e icP O G BG a oJ Y -

    (dhdG dG) hGH .Q d edG H dG cdG H dG edG jdG FQY

    dG GP FGG SQh jZCG d VdGh FGdG eCG GfG

    jJ hj FGdG eCG GfG dM2004 dGOG dGh RG dG

    dG De OM dG dG d dhGOY N gh ,1996 Y jZCd dGdG eG G fj jdG dG

    .2015 Y H dG EGfGYh jdG e hCG dG hjh

    dG AfCG fl jZCG fNBG ,

    f fj jdG UTCG Od GjdGAd dhCG HM fL EG jZCGASh G Vj dG dG ObG

    .jdG qc oJhUG dGKCG Y dG Gg

    edG GdG NdGh d jdG dG.FGdG eCGh G Y

    G dG hjhAadG f

    jZCd dG dG De eGdHeCGAad SSCG oJ dG GAGLEGh jddG dG De Y N eGdHG dCd FEG GgCGh jZCd

    .G HdM Y e GTDe hGG oJh dG GdGh edG GdG dG

    . M

    2

    jdG Gg Y ee

    dG GP FGdG SQh jZCG d VdGh FGdG eCG GfG Y edG f

  • 2004 ddG a FGdG eCG GfEG dM55

    jOcCG JLCG dG SGQdG MJhjdG Gg a IQcdGh dH VdGJdG jeCGh jaCG a kGH 15 CGY LdG jdG AS oJ CG JQGH JhdG e IdG bdG fdH 2015 Y Mh BG e dGYh .dG a QhO e 25 RhJ QSG Gg qS GS Y Ia900 000 f IM J aOg NJa LCG jW Se QS fCG c ,WQe e cCG b RhJ LfEG

    .QhOjZCG e Vh dG GjdG eCGd dG e adGh dd YGQdGhddG dG JDe g H f dGedG GQSG CH Ma jZCdfL dEG ,QhO Qe 24 J dG jdGdEG ODS ,aVEG UdG GQSGQGH dG dLEG dG JdG aQIdG eCG dWE f QhO Qe 120

    .dG Jhe g hdG GDdG j d ,WHhLdG GAGLEG f CG f c GPEGdG JDe g d eRdG jQdGhf CG BG SH g H ,jZCd ddGdG c g GDdG Gg Y HLEGh ?dP

    .jhdGhh ,QfG j FdaJS a j CG dhdG dG j

    .jW

    V L QcO dG jdGYGQdGh jZCG d

    :edG ddG a jZCG bf OYjZCd ddG dG JDd adG bQCd ah bdGh MdG dG

    dG FGaeG GQSG IOjR e aGh ddG GjJ

    dG De g Hh G e J d eRdG2015-2002 ,jZCd dG

    dG eekSe keJ M kGH 30 e cCG jZCG bf OY

    jZCd dG dG De g H f

    jH

    G G

    jH

    YGQdGh jZCG e :QG

    YGQdGh jZCG e :QG YGQdGh jZCG e :QG

    De IOQGdG dG GjJ fjZCd dG dG

    (1996) jZCd dG dG De S UdG f

    jZCd dG dG De g

    2004 Y Vh dG dG GjJ

    jHGQhdG GQ

    - aGG dG JQG

    LEG

    - ddGGQSG IOjR

    eG

    LG IdG GjJ fjZCd dG dG D

    %50 H dG fLG IdG N e

    dG GjJ

  • 2004 ddG a FGdG eCG GfEG dM 4

    :jZCd ddG dG JDe g H fdG dJ KJ dG dG LGe

    Ibr

    4

    Ye a M e kjJ IMGh je.c edG GdG

    j CG kjCG GdG J e jY SGhhOdG QdG JGSG J f jWeCG T jJ CG - dG adcCG FGe Y dG j H YLGMf eh ,Mf e Gg ,dEG LdGdPh d FdG SCG ae iNCGIOjRh ,FGdG fEG d GQOHe Jh ,XdG AGOCG ie

    .dG QfGAdG'' efH KCG dG H ahjZCG AGT CG jRGdG a ''dG Y edGT e gdh SQdG jdG eGdIdG dG QGdG e FGdG eCGjQdG H dH j dG SehIOjRh ,jdG J eGb de M aJh ,NdG ie aQh ,jZCG aGJ

    .FGdG eCG

    fAGOCG qf CG e Ue

    kW EG f CG j ,bNCG MdG eASh dG H mGK N c j kGMGh fCG JGP M a J M gh ,jdGS kaGQ j CH d f CG j

    .a Gg .jdGb dG Ea ,jObG MdG e eCGa .LQdG H ee dh YCG JdG H dGh fdG f NCj WFdG a 10h 5 H e S jdG ASh,ddG dG Yh .JM GW NO eJjH dG a j S c EaS dG bYEGh IadG oJ ddGa edG GdG LfEG Y dJbdG a IQdG b QqoJ H dG

    .cCG hCG QhO Qe 500 H VdGbCG j MdG ObG AdG Gghaj jdG gh ,dMG Y IQb SdGGdGh ,dG a MGh QhO e bCH dJh JGObG bJ hCG CWJ dG

    .OQGdGh LfEG f H

    IdG e VGSG e BG f fhdG JDe g H f dG CHe Vh jJ NBG Ea ,jZCd ddGFGdG eCG GfG dM Y YGQdGh jZCG,dZEG j FM K Roj ddG a

    :e e LSG KK dEG jhOL fc BG M :dhCG dGedG ddG a edG dG ICWh JOY d HdG YdG e H bCGY Rhj Ye a dG QGH YdGCG j PEG .(fdG SdG fCG) 2015

    .fAGOCG qofNGJh dG AH ZQ :fdG dGa IjY kfGH Ea ,ddG idG YeCG dG CG KCG edG ddG dbCG Lj ,kGH 30 e cCG SG a .e,f Qe 2^2 e cCG fS ea 25 H jZCG f QfG JJ f kSe keJ M c ,FdG.2015 Y H dG QGH YdG OY

    .fAGOCG qof CG f PEGGAGLEG PJG Y dJ :ddG dGcCH ddG a dG d IOLh jQadEG J dJ g J d Ke HdG FdG dSdG g gh .Ye bQCGS a .jdG Gg AGb dEG LhCG CG OhCGIH OJ ddG Jje Y dGh JedG GdG Jh W je 5 e cCGa IQdG H GQhdG e GQeNdG dJ hJh .GOGjEGh LfEGkGc kJ dG e d eRdGUe a .J e e fQe cJ dCe

    .fAGOCG qf CG e PEG

    fAGOCG uof CG j

    a YdG OY CH dG GjJ NBG Je a je 9 QGH fG edG ddG,jZCd ddG dG D LG IdGH .bdG dP a QU dG GdG ZQa dH OGR OdG Gg CG dP e NCG EGY aGJ dG INCG dG GdG

    edG HQCG dbCG e KK ah .bQCG-2000 Ia a jZCG bf OY c-1995 Ia a Y c e cCG 2002dGh JdG jeCG bEG ch .1997kVfG qS dG MdG g jQdG

    .YdG OY a kVGe

    fAGOCG qof CG f

    S f J ,kGH 30 e cCG gjdG dG CG KCG ,kjJ edG ddG

    .dG dd eCG ebh ,eg GdG e LdG YdG gh.IjY SC gdG dEG YJ Yed CG ,a e edG dbCG aObG gf c dG dbCG aSBGh .SGh f Y IOTEG Ve jdG.YdG OY a VfG cCG M dG gCH J idG AGdG L jaCG dhdG QfG J YSG fGH eb dP c EGh ,cCG hCG FdG a 25 HddG jZCG f jH Sb J

    .jGdG e kGLGH IY g ,jaCG GdG H ehhdG CG gh ,NBG ke SQO qJkHSCG gQYG j fdG YGdGhLCG Ib FGdG QGd FQf Y edG dG Qf H ae kGNCG J dG GdG a .SGhH fe J GH g YGdG SHcJDe e ke keJ S dG YdGGdG Ye Hh jZCd ddG dGdG GdG a jS Se S dG

    .INCGGdG e c a j NBG AT ghe J a kjS keJ M dGe YCG c YGQdG dG CG gh ,dGKdG GdG a .Se LQH SdGf jW J dG KdG e cCG hCGOGR jZCd ddG dG JDe g HS SH YGQdG dLEG dG JdGf QGH SCG CG ,FdG a 3^2 de

  • 2004 ddG a FGdG eCG GfEG dM7

    YGQdGh jZCG e :QG

    edG YdG dbCG jZCG bf f GdG

    0 10 20 30 40

    50- 40- 30- 20- 10- 0 10 2010- 0 10 20

    dG GdG M28

    fOCG dG jaCG Th39

    JdG jeCG jQdG dGh53

    :edG GdG815