A Mobility Management Protocol for IP-Based Cellular Networks P.D. Silva and H. Sirisena, University...
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A Mobility Management Protocol for IP-Based Cellular Networks
P.D. Silva and H. Sirisena, University of CanterburyIEEE Wireless Communications, June 2002
Speaker - 691430017 Wei-Jen Lin2003/12/17
OutlineIntroductionRequirements for IP-Based Mobility ManagementMobile IP with Regional RegistrationsMicro-Mobile IP (MIP)Protocol OperationHandoff/Paging SupportProtocol AnalysisHandoff PerformanceSignaling Cost AnalysisConclusionsReferences
IntroductionThis article presents an IP-Based mobility management protocol based on extensions to an existing proposed protocol, Regional Registrations, and packaged under the name micro-Mobile IP (MIP).
Introduction Requirements for IP-Based Mobility ManagementMobility Management Location managementHandoff managementRequirements Hierarchical architectureFast handoffPaging functionalityCompatibility with QoS mechanisms
Introduction Regional RegistrationsHAGFARFA1RFA2RFA3MNHome Address GFA IPHome Address RFAx IP (FA-CoA) or Home Address Co-Located CoAHome Address Local CoALocal CoA (RFAx IP or Co-Located CoA)Home Registration (CoA is GFA IP)Regional Registration (CoA is Local CoA)Regional Registration RequestRegional Registration ReplyRegistration RequestRegistration Reply
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP)MIP = Mobile IP + Regional Registration + Fast Handoff + Paging
Regional Registration Reducing signaling cost.Fast Handoff Reducing packet loss.Paging Reducing signaling cost and power consumption.
A group of Subnet Agents (SA) forms a multicast Paging Area group.
The core network operates independent of the radio access network.
Beacon Domain ID, Paging Area ID and Gateway Mobility Agent Care-of Address.
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP) - ArchitectureHome Address GMA IPHome Address SAx IP Home Address Link Layer Identity
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP) Protocol OperationGMA and SA monitor the Registration Request message sended by MN, build up the mapping table and decide to forward to HA or not through the check of N,P bits.Across the Subnet Agent (Active)Across the Paging Area (Idle)GMA forward it to HAPeriodically
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP) Fast HandoffIn general, handoff schemes can be classified as either Proactive or Reactive.
Some Fast Proactive Handoff schemes : Hierarchical Mobile IPv4/v6 and Fast Handoffs.Foreign Agent Assisted Handoffs.Mechanisms and Hierarchical Topology for Fast Handover in Wireless IP Networks.
But, MIP buffers the packets in GMA and using a new Handoff Imminent extension appended to the Registration Request message.
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP) Fast HandoffThe original IP path restored faster while the handoff fail.It also avoids duplicated traffic generated by bicasting.
Micro-Mobile IP (MIP) - PagingTwo modes Idle and ActiveManually configuring subnet agent paging groups.GMA buffers the packets destined to MN and sends page solicitation message to page the MN.MN responds by sending registration request (N=0, P=0).GMASA1SA2SA3MulticastIPRANPA 1PA 2Home Address SAx IP SAx IP PAx Multicast IP
Protocol AnalysisNS-2 v2.1b7a (Physical layer uses 802.11)CN send streaming audio date (64kb/s, G.711 codec) to a MN and an average packet size of 200 bytes (50 packets/s, Data/RTP/UDP/IP/Layer-2).HAFAFAMNCNGMASA10 Mb/s10 Mb/s 0~100 ms
Protocol Analysis Handoff Performance - IPacket loss during Proactive Handoff.
Protocol Analysis Handoff Performance - IIHandoff latency during Proactive Handoff.MNs Velocity is 55 km/h
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost AnalysisUser Mobility Model Fluid Flow Model
rc : SA boundary-crossing rate (mobiles/sec).p : MNs density in the cell.v : MNs average Velocity.l : Cells perimeter.
The analysis doesnt extend to the cell level. (No IP-level signaling messages !)
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost AnalysisParameter values used in analysis.
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost Analysis - ISignaling Cost vs. Paging Area Size.
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost Analysis - IISignaling Cost vs. MN Velocity.With an active population base of 5 percent.
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost Analysis - IIISignaling Cost vs. Active MN Population.
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost Analysis - IVIn MIP, the Cells perimeter is changed to the perimeter of the Paging Area.
Protocol Analysis Signaling Cost Analysis - IV
ConclusionsMIP = Mobile IP + Regional Registration + Fast-Handoff + Paging Handoff latency was shown to be well below 200 ms threshold with beacon periods of 100 ms.Fast-Handoff in MIP doesnt employ bicasting.Reducing packets loss by buffering at the gateway mobility agent level, previous path could be restored quickly in the event of handoff failures.
ReferencesP. D. Silva and H. Sirisena, A Mobility Management Protocol for IP-Based Cellular Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications, June 2002.E. Gustafsson, A. Johnson, and C. Perkins, Mobile IP Regional Registration, Internet draft, Nov. 2003, ietf-mobility-reg-tunnel-08.txt.X. Zhang, J. G. Castellanos and A. T. Campbell, P-MIP: Paging in Mobile IP, June 2000.
Final ProjectsGMAFA1MNHA MIP with Associated PagingFA3Home Address GMA IPStack Size=3 Home Address FAx IP , FAy IP , FAz IPHome Address Link Layer Identity MN sends Reg. Message by judgement of Beacon includes the domain ID. FAm IP , FAn IP , FAo IP
Probable path of Paging Req. MessageFA2Not good in the concept of OSI model !Cellular Network
Final ProjectsMobile IP with Regional Registrations and Associated PagingGFARFA1MNHARFA3Home Address GMA IPStack Size=3 Home Address FAx IP , FAy IP , FAz IPHome Address Local CoA MN sends Reg. Message by judgement of Agent Advertisement includes the RFAxs IP address. FAm IP , FAn IP , FAo IP
Probable path of Paging Req. MessageRFA2Local CoA is FA-CoA.Paging Request
Des : 255.255.255.255Paging IP : MNs Home Address
Now, 11/21/2003, IETF release version 08.GFA : Gateway Foreign AgentRFA : Regional Foreign AgentMNs CoA is GMA IP.MN just send Reg. Req. message with N,P bits. No other message need (Regional Reg. Req.).
1.MN get New APs beacon and re-back Old AP. MN send Reg. To New AP and request bicasting. MN handoff to New AP.2.Old FA know MN will handoff. Old FA determines a possible New FA (through prior to knowledge of network configuration). Old FA redirect packet to New FA and bicasting.3.On each handoff the MN sends additional message to the FA instructing that neighboring FAs join a multicast group.Packet loss count : the period of MN sending Reg. Req. and GMA receiving it.Buffering period : time between GMA receiving a Reg. Req. with HOImm ext. and a Reg. Req without HOImm.Proactive MIP need two Reg. Req. Messages.Increasing the number of SA in the paging area will result in addition of signaling messages.(More messages must multicast to SAs in a Paging Area.)At lower values of mobility, the additional component of paging renewals adds to the signaling cost.Proactive MIP needs two Reg. Req. Messages. Table in FAx is always exist.Table in FAx could also be deleted as timeout as using the broadcasting Paging Req. Message includes the Home Address of MN. But if using broadcast in all cellular network is not good.If GFA is exist, is hierarchy. But if non-exist, its still work.RFAx must have the feature that receive the unicast Paging Req. and broadcast it to wireless interface.The Associated Paging is been Plug-in in GFA/HA and RFAx. Operation of Mobile IP is not change.Table in RFAx can be deleted as timeout. Because we search MN by Paging Request Message with broadcasting.