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5) Παραμετροποιήσεις Φυσικών Διαδικασιών. Ακόμα και αν αυξηθεί πάρα πολύ η χωρική διακριτοποίηση ενός αριθμητικού μοντέλου , ένας μεγάλος αριθμός φυσικών διεργασιών δεν μπορεί να αναλυθεί από το πλέγμα του μοντέλου . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • , . , , / , , ...5)

  • 5.1) S ,(RSWin - RSWout) , RLWin , Stephan-Boltzmann (5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4), Tsfc , ,LvET , Lv (2.5x106 Jkg-1) a .

  • Tsoil1 () , Zsoil1 DFsoil

    Edir , Et Ec . 5 mm

  • (land-surface parameterization schemes) . Beljaars et al. (1993) ECMWF . , , . , - . Henderson-Sellers et al. (1995) .

    5.2)

  • 5.2.1) The bucket model

    Manabe (1969) .

    (.. Arakawa, 1972; Delworth and Manabe, 1988; Robock et al., 1995; Pitman et al., 2003).

    - . - (canopy) 1-m ( 1 )

  • E=Eo, W WK

    E= , W < WK

    Eo , W ( 1 ) WK .

    Alpatev (1954) 70-80% (field capacity), , WK=0.75WFC, WFC . 0.15 m WFC .

    Eo=(h)CD(h)|V(h)|(rws-r(h)) , h , CD , V , r rws .

  • , Budyko (1956):

    , W < WFC

    & rf=RA-Eo, W = WFC RA > Eo

    RA rf .

    , .

    , .

  • , :- .

    . Pan (1990) , .

  • 5.2.2) OSU scheme Oregon State University (OSU) Mahrt and Pan (1984) and Pan and Mahrt (1987). NCEP (Chen et al., 1997), SKIRON/Eta (Kallos, 1997), POSEIDON (Papadopoulos et al., 2002) MM5 (Chen and Dudhia, 2001). OSU SKIRON/Eta.

  • (ET)

    Edir , Et Ec . 5 mm.

    (Potential evaporation - ETp)

  • :

    q0 q0s , , Lv (2.5x106 JKg-1), cp (1004.6 JKg-1K-1), air Tair , Rd (287.04 JKg-1K-1), psfc (Pa), ch (ms-1).Potential evaporation is the evaporation from this surface, when saturated and extensive enough to obviate any effect of local advection, under the same meteorological conditions. Due to the feedback effects of evaporation on air characteristics, it does not represent the "real" evaporation. Each surface has its own potential evaporation.

  • , (5 mm). 5mm . . (.. ) . .

  • (diffusivity), DSMC, (conductivity), KSMC, (SMC - Soil Moisture Content)

    DFsoil Cv , , SMC

  • 5.3)

    .

    , .

    , , .

    , .

  • 5.3.1) (Bulk aerodynamic formulas) . .

    , Fx,

    Fx/*=-Kxv1-v0(X1-X0) * , v1 , v0 (0 0 ), X1 X0 X , , Kx , , .

  • SKIRON , ( ).5.3.2)

  • .

    , , .

    , .

  • 3 : (i) (smooth and transitional), (ii) (rough), (iii) (rough with spray), (friction velocity u*)

    ( , ) (u*)

  • (roughness length - z0) (u*). .

  • q1, qs, qlm= , , KHbulk= Z1q= z=zlm-z1q ( )= (0.000021 m2/s)

  • . . . . 2003(VISCOUSyes-VISCOUSno) , .

  • . . . . . 2003(VISCOUSyes-VISCOUSno)

  • . 2003(VISCOUSyes-VISCOUSno) .

  • Chart3

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