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  • 1. ONE-SCHOOL.NET Physics Equation List :Form 5 Introduction to PhysicsRelative Deviation Relative Deviation = Mean Deviation 100% Mean ValuePrefixes PrefixesValueStandard form Symbol Tera 1 000 000 000 0001012 T Giga 1 000 000 000 109 G Mega 1 000 000 106 M Kilo 1 000 103 k deci 0.110-1 d centi0.01 10-2 c milli0.00110-3 m micro0.000 00110-6 nano 0.000 000 00110-9 n pico 0.000 000 000 00110-12pUnits for Area and Volume 1 m = 102 cm (100 cm)1 2 4 2 2 1 cm = 10-2 m ( m) 1 m = 10 cm(10,000 cm ) 100 1 m3 = 106 cm3 (1,000,000 cm3)1 1 cm2 = 10-4 m2(m2 )10,0001 1 cm3 = 10-6 m3( m3 )1,000,000http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 1

2. ONE-SCHOOL.NET Force and MotionAverage SpeedAverage Speed = Total Distance Total TimeVelocity(ms-1) v= sv = velocitys = displacement(m)t t = time(s)Acceleration vua = acceleration(ms-2) a= v = final velocityu = initial velocity(ms-1)(ms-1)tt =time for the velocity change(s)Equation of Linear MotionLinear Motion Motion withMotion withMotion withconstant changingconstant velocity acceleration accelerationsv = u + at Using Calculus v=(In Additionalt1 s = (u + v)tMathematics 2 Syllabus)1s = ut + at 22v 2 = u 2 + 2as u = initial velocity(ms-1) v = final velocity(ms-1) a = acceleration(ms-2) s = displacement(m) t = time(s)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html2 3. ONE-SCHOOL.NETTicker TapeFinding Velocity: s velocity =number of ticks 0.02s1 tick = 0.02sFinding Acceleration:vu a= ta = acceleration (ms-2)v = final velocity (ms-1)u = initial velocity (ms-1)t = time for the velocity change (s)Graph of MotionGradient of a Graph The gradient m of a line segment between twopoints and is defined as follows:Change in y coordinate, yGradient, m =Change in x coordinate, xor ym= xhttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html3 4. ONE-SCHOOL.NETDisplacement-Time Graph Velocity-Time GraphGradient = Velocity (ms-1)Gradient = Acceleration (ms-2)Area in between the graph and x-axis =DisplacementMomentum p = mv p = momentum m = mass(kg ms-1)(kg) v = velocity (ms-1)Principle of Conservation of Momentum m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2 v2 m1 = mass of object 1(kg) m2 = mass of object 2(kg) u1 = initial velocity of object 1(ms-1) u2 = initial velocity of object 2(ms-1) v1 = final velocity of object 1(ms-1) v2 = final velocity of object 2(ms-1)Newtons Law of MotionNewtons First LawIn the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues inmotion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line).http://www.one-school.net/notes.html4 5. ONE-SCHOOL.NETNewtons Second Law mv mu The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to theF resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction.tF = Net Force(N or kgms-2) m = mass (kg) F = maa = acceleration (ms-2) Implication When there is resultant force acting on an object, the object will accelerate (moving faster, moving slower or change direction).Newtons Third LawNewtons third law of motion states that for every force, there is a reaction force with the same magnitudebut in the opposite direction.Impulse Impulse = FtF = force t = time (N) (s)Impulse = mv mum = mass v = final velocity (kg) (ms-1) u = initial velocity(ms-1)Impulsive Forcemv muF = Force (N or kgms-2)F= t = time m = mass (s) (kg) t v = final velocity(ms-1) u = initial velocity(ms-1)Gravitational Field Strength g = gravitational field strength(N kg-1)F g=F = gravitational force m = mass (N or kgms-2) (kg)mWeightW = mgW = Weightm = mass (kg)(N or kgms-2) g = gravitational field strength/gravitational acceleration (ms-2)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html5 6. ONE-SCHOOL.NETVertical Motion If an object is release from a high position: If an object is launched vertically upward: The initial velocity, u = 0. The velocity at the maximum height, v = 0. The acceleration of the object = gravitational The deceleration of the object = -gravitationalacceleration = 10ms-2(or 9.81 ms-2). acceleration = -10ms-2(or -9.81 ms-2). The displacement of the object when it reach the The displacement of the object when it reach theground = the height of the original position, h. ground = the height of the original position, h.LiftIn Stationary When a man standing inside an elevator, there are two forces acting on him. (a) His weight which acting downward. (b) Normal reaction (R), acting in the opposite direction of weight. The reading of the balance is equal to the normal reaction.R = mghttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html 6 7. ONE-SCHOOL.NETMoving Upward with positive acceleration Moving downward with positive accelerationR = mg + ma R = mg maMoving Upward with constant velocity Moving downward with constant velocity. R = mgR = mgMoving Upward with negative acceleration Moving downward with negative accelerationR = mg ma R = mg + mahttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html 7 8. ONE-SCHOOL.NETSmooth PulleyWith 1 Load Moving with uniform speed:T1 = T2T1 = mgStationary:Accelerating:T1 = mgT1 mg = maWith 2 LoadsFinding Acceleration:(If m2 > m1) m2g m1g = (m1+ m2)aFinding Tension:(If m2 > m1) T1 = T2T1 m1g = mam2g T2 = maVectorVector Addition (Perpendicular Vector) Magnitude =x2 + y2| y| Direction = tan 1| x|Vector Resolution | x |=| p | sin | y |=| p | coshttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html8 9. ONE-SCHOOL.NETInclined PlaneComponent parallel to the plane = mgsinComponent perpendicular to the plane= mgcosForces In EquilibriumT3 = mgT3 = mgT2 sin = mgT2 cos = T1 cos T2 cos = T1 T2 sin + T1 sin = mgT1 tan = mgWork DoneW = Fx cos W = Work Done(J or Nm)F = Force(N or kgms-2)x = displacement (m) = angle between the force and the direction of motion (o )When the force and motion are in the same direction. W = Fs W = Work DoneF = Force (J or Nm) (N or kgms-2)s = displacement (m)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 9 10. ONE-SCHOOL.NETEnergyKinetic Energy1EK = Kinetic Energy(J)EK = mv 2m = mass (kg)2v = velocity (ms-1)Gravitational Potential EnergyEP = mghEP = Potential Energym = mass (J) (kg)g = gravitational acceleration (ms-2)h = height (m)Elastic Potential Energy1EP = Potential Energy (J)EP = kx 2k = spring constant (N m-1)2x = extension of spring (m)1EP = FxF = Force (N)2Power and EfficiencyPowerW P = power (W or Js-1) P= W = work done (J or Nm)t E = energy change (J or Nm) Et = time(s) P= tEfficiencyUseful Energy Efficiency = 100% Energy OrPower Output Efficiency = 100% Power InputHookes LawF = kxF = Forcek = spring constant (N or kgms-2) (N m-1)x = extension or compression of spring (m)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 10 11. ONE-SCHOOL.NET Force and PressureDensity m= V = density (kg m-3) m = mass(kg) V = volume(m3)Pressure FP = Pressure(Pa or N m-2)P=A = Area of the surface (m2) AF = Force acting normally to the surface (N or kgms-2)Liquid PressureP = h gh = depth (m) = density (kg m-3)g = gravitational Field Strength(N kg-1)Pressure in LiquidP = Patm + h g h = depth(m) = density(kg m-3) g = gravitational Field Strength (N kg-1) Patm = atmospheric Pressure(Pa or N m-2)Gas PressureManometerP = Patm + h g Pgas = Pressure(Pa or N m-2) Patm = Atmospheric Pressure(Pa or N m-2) g = gravitational field strength (N kg-1)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 11 12. ONE-SCHOOL.NETU=tubeh1 1 = h2 2Pressure in a Capillary TubePgas = gas pressure in the capillary tube(Pa or N m-2)Patm = atmospheric pressure(Pa or N m-2)h = length of the captured mercury (m) = density of mercury (kg m-3)g = gravitational field strength (N kg-1)Barometer Pressure in unit cmHg Pressure in unit Pa Pa = 0Pa = 0 P b = 26P b = 0.261360010 P c = 76P c = 0.761360010 P d = 76P d = 0.761360010 P e = 76P e = 0.761360010 P f = 84P f = 0.841360010(Density of mercury = 13600kgm-3)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html12 13. ONE-SCHOOL.NETPascals Principle F1 F2 = A1 A2 F1 = Force exerted on the small piston A1 = area of the small piston F2 = Force exerted on the big piston A2 = area of the big pistonArchimedes Principle Weight of the object, W = 1V1 g Upthrust, F = 2V2 g 1 = density of wooden block V1 = volume of the wooden block 2 = density of water V2 = volume of the displaced water g = gravitational field strengthDensity of water > Density of wood Density of Iron > Density of water F=T+WT+F=WVg = T + mgVg + T = mghttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html 13 14. ONE-SCHOOL.NETHeatHeat ChangeQ = mcm = mass (kg)c = specific heat capacity (J kg-1 oC-1) = temperature change (o)Electric Heater Mixing 2 LiquidEnergy Supply, E = Pt Heat Gain by Liquid 1 = Heat Loss by Liquid 2Energy Receive, Q = mc m1c11 = m2 c2 2Energy Supply, E = Energy Receive, Qm1 = mass of liquid 1c1 = specific heat capacity of liquid 1 Pt = mc 1 = temperature change of liquid 1 E = electrical Energy (J or Nm)m2 = mass of liquid 2 P = Power of the electric heater (W) c2 = specific heat capacity of liquid 2 t = time (in second)(s)2 = temperature change of liquid 2 Q = Heat Change (J or Nm) m = mass(kg) c = specific heat capacity (J kg-1 oC-1) = temperature change (o)Specific Latent HeatQ = mLQ = Heat Change (J or Nm)m = mass(kg)L = specific latent heat (J kg-1)Boyles Law PV1 = P2V21(Requirement: Temperature in constant)Pressure Law P P21= T1 T2(Requirement: Volume is constant)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 14 15. ONE-SCHOOL.NETCharless Law V1 V2 = T1 T2(Requirement: Pressure is constant)Universal Gas Law PV1 PV21= 2 T1 T2 P = Pressure(Pa or cmHg .) V = Volume (m3 or cm3) T = Temperature(MUST be in K(Kelvin))LightRefractive IndexSnells LawReal depth/Apparent Depthsin in=sin rn = refractive index(No unit)i = angle of incident (o)r = angle of reflection(o ) Dn= dn = refractive index(No unit)D = real depth(m or cm)d = apparent depth (m or cm)Speed of lightTotal Internal Reflectionc 1 n=n=v sin c n = refractive index(No unit) n = refractive index(No unit) c = speed of light in vacuum(ms-1) c = critical angle (o ) v = speed of light in a medium (like water, glass ) (ms-1)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 15 16. ONE-SCHOOL.NETLensPower 1