4-Level Laser Scheme ï¼nï¼n...

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  • 4-Level Laser Schemenm n excitation

    n m radiative decay slow

    k l fast(ish)

    l m fast to maintain

    population inversionkm l n

  • 1 =1388 cm-1symmetric stretch

  • 1 =1388 cm-1symmetric stretch3 = 2349 cm-1asymmetric stretch

  • 2 = 667 cm-1 bend1 =1388 cm-1symmetric stretch3 = 2349 cm-1asymmetric stretch

  • 2 = 667 cm-1 bend1 =1388 cm-1symmetric stretch3 = 2349 cm-1asymmetric stretch

  • 1 =1388 cm-1inactive2 = 667 cm-1active3 = 2349 cm-1active

  • 2800 2500 2200 1900 1600 1300 1000 700 cm-1

  • N2CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2N2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment.

  • N2002001CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2CO210-4 sN2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment10-6 s

  • N2002001CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2CO210-4 sN2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment and transfer energy to the resonant antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CO210-6 s

  • N2002001CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2100CO210.610-4 sN2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment and transfer energy to the resonant antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CO210-6 s

  • N2002001CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2100CO210.610-4 sN2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment and transfer energy to the resonant antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CO210-6 sLower (100) level de-populated by collisional transfer ro the resonant (020) level020

  • N2Collisions and radiative decay to the ground state002001CO2 Laser Energy Level Schemev = 1v = 2100CO201010.610-4 sN2 vibrational states excited by discharge but cannot emit as no dipole moment and transfer energy to the resonant antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CO210-6 sLower (100) level de-populated by collisional transfer ro the resonant (020) level020

  • http://web.fe.infn.it/spinlab/LaserBarion/index.html

  • Kumar Patel

  • CO2 Laserhttp://www.rp-photonics.com/co2_lasers.html

  • 25 Watthttp://www.timefracture.org/laserpics/firebrick.jpg

  • http://members.misty.com/don/lasercc2.htm

  • Selection RulesHarry Kroto 2004N =?

  • 1 =1388 cm-1inactive2 = 667 cm-13 = 2349 cm-1

  • Resonant Collisional Energy TransferHe+632.8 nm Collisions21S Ne3S 2P 1S Helium-Neon Laser Energy Level SchemeHe ionised by electron impact in discharge

  • 4-Level Laser Schemenm n excitation

    n m radiative decay slow

    k l fast(ish)

    l m fast to maintain

    population inversionkm l nThe general view was that it would be impossible or at least very difficult to achieve population inversion relative to the ground state

  • Neodymium-YAG LaserAn example of a solid-state laser, the neodymium-YAG uses the Nd3+ ion to dope the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) host crystal to produce the triplet geometry which makes population inversion possible. Neodymium-YAG lasers have become very important because they can be used to produce high powers. Such lasers have been constructed to produce over a kilowatt of continuous laser power at 1065 nm and can achieve extremely high powers in a pulsed mode. Neodymium-YAG lasers are used in pulse mode in laser oscillators for the production of a series of very short pulses for research with femtosecond time resolution.http://www.studyvilla.com/laser.aspx

  • Themes > Science > Physics > Optics > Laser Tutorial > Creating a Population Inversion Finding substances in which a population inversion can be set up is central to the develpment of new kinds of laser. The first material used was synthetic ruby. Ruby is crystalline alumina (Al2O3) in which a small fraction of the Al3+ ions have been replaced by chromium ions, Cr3+. It is the chromium ions that give rise to the characteristic pink or red colour of ruby and it is in these ions that a population inversion is set up in a ruby laser. In a ruby laser, a rod of ruby is irradiated with the intense flash of light from xenon-filled flashtubes. Light in the green and blue regions of the spectrum is absorbed by chromium ions, raising the energy of electrons of the ions from the ground state level to the broad F bands of levels. Electrons in the F bands rapidly undergo non-radiative transitions to the two metastable E levels. A non-radiative transition does not result in the emission of light; the energy released in the transition is dissipated as heat in the ruby crystal. The metastable levels are unusual in that they have a relatively long lifetime of about 4 milliseconds (4 x 10-3 s), the major decay process being a transition from the lower level to the ground state. This long lifetime allows a high proportion (more than a half) of the chromium ions to build up in the metastable levels so that a population inversion is set up between these levels and the ground state level. This population inversion is the condition required for stimulated emission to overcome absorption and so give rise to the amplification of light. In an assembly of chromium ions in which a population inversion has been set up, some will decay spontaneously to the ground state level emitting red light of wavelength 694.3 nm in the process. This light can then interact with other chromium ions that are in the metastable levels causing them to emit light of the same wavelength by stimulated emission. As each stimulating photon leads to the emission of two photons, the intensity of the light emitted will build up quickly. This cascade process in which photons emitted from excited chromium ions cause stimulated emission from other excited ions is indicated below: The ruby laser is often referred to as an example of a three-level system. More than three energy levels are actually involved but they can be put into three categories.These are; the lower level form which pumping takes place, the F levels into which the chromium ions are pumped, and the metastable levels from which stimulated emission occurs. Other types of laser operate on a four level system and , in general, the mechanism of amplification differs for different lasing materials. However, in all cases, it is necessary to set up a population inversion so that stimulated emission occurs more often than absorption. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/physics/optics/LaserTutorial/Creating/Creating.htm

  • http://members.misty.com/don/laserchn.htm

  • http://www.jklasers.com/HeNe/Laser_4_Brewster_Windows_Big.JPGhttp://www.emred.fi/htmls_en/lasers_en.html

  • http://kottan-labs.bgsu.edu/teaching/workshop2001/chapter4a.htm

  • Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) laser: Diode lasers make a convenient pump source for various gain media, typically those solid state media utilizing Neodymium as the dopant (Neodymium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet or Nd:YAG, Nd:Yttrium Vanadate or Nd:YVO4). The 1064 nm output is typically frequency doubled to 532nm. The familiar green laser pointer is a DPSS laser.