1st Primary School of Sitia-Erasmus +- Θαλάσσια...

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Transcript of 1st Primary School of Sitia-Erasmus +- Θαλάσσια...

ERASMUS K2 +

ERASMUS K2 +SEA BREEZEBRINGING EUROPEAN PEOPLE TOGETHER

1

1st Primary School of Sitia

arine pollution

Cleaning an oil spillExperiment

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Spilled oil can harm living creatures because its chemical constituents are poisonous. This can affect organisms both from internal exposure to oil through ingestion or inhalation and from external exposure through skin and eye irritation. Oil also destroys coat feathers and fur, reducing birds' and mammals' ability to maintain their body temperature. Cleaning an oil spill is a difficult and complicated process, as we can see by ourselves with the experiment below.

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You will need:1 bowl out of glasswater1 tablespoon oilsyringe or droppercotton spoonalcohol dish soapcleaning petrol /dry cleaning fluid

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Pour the water into the bowl.

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Add a tablespoon of oil (that is an oil spill!)

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Slowly stir the water (just like the waves or the wind )

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At first try to collect the oil by using the cotton, the syringe or the dropper and the spoon.

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Now try to dissolve the rest of the oil by using the chemicals (spirit, dish cleaner, cleaning petrol).

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Stir the water and check which of the chemicals dissolve the oil.

dish cleaner

cleaning petrol

cleaning petrol

spirit

: , . , 4 .The research led us to the following information:No two oil spills are the same because of the variation in oil types, locations, and weather conditions involved. However, broadly speaking, there are four main methods of response.How to clean an oil spill

1. Leave the oil alone so that it breaks down by natural means. If there is no possibility of the oil polluting coastal regions, the best method is to leave it to disperse by natural means. A combination of wind, sun, current, and wave action will rapidly disperse and evaporate most oils.

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2. Contain the spill with booms and collect it from the water surface using skimmer equipment. Spilt oil floats on water and initially forms a slick that is a few millimeters thick. There are various types of booms that can be used either to surround and isolate a slick, or to block the passage of a slick to vulnerable areas.Skimmers float across the top of the slick contained within the boom and suck or scoop the oil into storage tanks on nearby vessels or on the shore. However, booms and skimmers are less effective when deployed in high winds and rough sea.2. . . . . , .

3. Use dispersants to break up the oil and speed its natural biodegradation. Dispersants act by stoping oil and water from mixing. Dispersants are most effective when used within an hour or two of the initial spill. However, they are not appropriate for all oils and all locations. hey can also affect marine organisms like deep-water corals and sea grass. Decisions on whether or not to use dispersants to combat an oil spill must be made in each individual case. The decision will take into account the time since the spill, the weather conditions, the particular environment involved, and the type of oil that has been spilt. . . . . , . . , , .

4. Introduce biological agents to the spill to hasten biodegradation. Most of the components of oil washed up along a shoreline can be broken down by bacteria and other microorganisms into harmless substances . This action is called biodegradation. The natural process can be speeded up by the addition of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, which stimulate growth of the microorganisms concerned. However the effectiveness of this technique depends on factors such as whether the ground treated has sand or pebbles.4. . . . , , . , .