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Transcript of 1st & 2nd Declensions Present, Future, Imperfect ... 1st & 2nd Declensions Present, Future,...

  • 1st & 2nd Declensions Present, Future, Imperfect Tenses

    Definite Article Adjectives

    May 24-26, 2016 Online Intensive Classical Greek

    Prof. Kristina Chew

  • 1st Declension nouns (fem.) α η α αι ας ης ης ῶν ᾳ ῃ ῃ αις αν ην αν ας α η α αι

    singular

    ὥρα ὥραι ὥρας ὡρῶν ὥρᾳ ὥραις ὥραν ὥρας ὥρα ὥραι

    τέχνη τέχναι τέχνης τέχνῶν τέχνῃ τέχναις τέχνην τέχνας τέχνη τέχναι

    θάλαττα θάλατται θαλάττης θαλαττῶν θαλάττῃ θαλάτταις θάλατταν θαλάττας θάλαττα θάλατται

    plural

  • 1st Declension m.nouns Endings

    singular plural ης ας αι ου ου ῶν ῃ ᾳ αις ην αν ας α|η α αι

    δεσπότης δεσπόται δεσπότου δεσποτῶν δεσπότῃ δεσπόταις δεσπότην δεσπότας δεσπότη δεσπόται

    ὁ νεανίας οἱ νεανίαι τοῦ νεανίου τῶν νεανιῶν τῷ νεανίᾳ τοῖς νεανίαις τὸν νεανίαν τοὐς νεανίας ὦ νεανία ὦ νεανίαι

    ὁ μαθητής

  • 2nd Declension nouns

    ος ον οι α ου ου ων ων ῳ ῳ οις οις ον ον ους α ε ον οι α

    ὁ τό οἱ τά τοῦ τοῦ τῶν τῶν τῷ τῷ τοῖς τοῖς τόν τόν τούς τά

    Endings for 2nd Decl. nouns Definite article (m., n.) singular plural sg. pl.

    λόγος

    m. n. m. m. m.n. n. n.

    ἔργον

  • The Definite Article

    m. f. n. m. f. n. ὁ ἡ τό οἱ αἱ τά τοῦ τῆς τοῦ τῶν τῶν τῶν τῷ τῃ τῷ τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς τόν τήν τόν τούς τάς τά

    singular plural

  • Demonstratives

    ~ used in predicate position, before or after a noun οὗτος ὁ ἵππος = this horse [not this the horse]

    this (here), these this, these | that, those that, those

    points out smne/smthg very close; what will follow in the next sentence. τόδε τὸ βιβλίον ἔγραπον.

    points out smne/smthg far away; the former. ἐκεῖνο τὸ βιβλίον ἔβαλλον.

    points out smne/smthg less close; what was in the preceding sentence; the latter. τοῦτο τὸ βιβλίον ἔγραπον.

    ταῦτα μὲν Ὅμηρος ἔλεγεν, τάδε δ᾽ Ἡσίοδος ἔλεγεν. These preceding things Homer was saying; the following things, Hesiod said.

    this person’s

  • Personal Pronouns Ι, me ἐγώ ἐμοῦ | μου ἐμοί | μοι ἐμέ | με

    you σύ σοῦ | σου σοί | σοι σέ | σε

    we, us ἡμεῖς ἡμῶν ἡμῖν ἡμᾶς

    you (pl.) ὑμεῖς ὑμῶν ὑμῖν ὑμᾶς

    he, she, it, they; same; self αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό αὐτοί αὐταί αὐτά αὐτοῦ αὐτῆς αὐτοῦ αὐτῶν αὐτῶν αὐτῶν αὐτῷ αὐτῇ αὐτῷ αὐτοῖς αὐταῖς αὐτοῖς αὐτόν αὐτήν αὐτόν αὐτούς αὐτάς αὐτά

    ego me tu te nos vos

  • one

  • 3rd Declension nouns —,ς — ες α ος ος ων ων ι ι σι(ν) σι(ν) α — ας α —,ς — ες α

    singular plural m./f. n. m./f. n.

    —,ς ες — α ος ων ος ων

    ι σι(ν) ι σι(ν) α ας — α —,ς ες — α

    m./f. n. sg. pl. sg. pl.

    ης εις ος ος η ας α ως ους ων ους ων ως ων ους ει εσι(ν) ει εσι(ν) αι,ᾳ ασι(ν) οι η εις ος η ας α ω ες εις ος η ας α ως

    Sigma- stems

    nom

    gen

    dat

    acc

    voc

    εσ-stem m/f εσ-stem n ασ-stem n οσ-stem f

    τριήρης τεῖχος γέρας αἰδώς

  • 1st, 2nd, 3rd declensions

    α η α αι ας ης ης ῶν ᾳ ῃ ῃ αις αν ην αν ας α η α αι

    1st Decl.(f.)

    ης ας αι ου ου ῶν

    ῃ ᾳ αις ην αν ας α|η α αι

    ος οι ον α ου ων ου ων ῳ οις ῳ οις ον ους ον α ε οι ον α

    —,ς, ος ες — α ος ων ος ων

    ι σι(ν) ι σι(ν) α ας — α —,ς* ες — α

    1st Decl.(m.)

    2nd Decl.(m./f., n.)

    3rd Decl.(m./f., n.)

    ψυχή θάλαττα οἰκέτης στρατιώτης

    λόγος δῶρον

    *m/f voc usually = nom; sometimes = pure stem

    ἀσπίς χάρις νύξ ἀνήρ γυνή κύων παῖς ἰχθύς αἷμα ὄνομα τεῖχος γέρας φῶς

  • Present tense of λύω (αctive)

    ω

    εις

    ει

    ομεν

    ετε

    ουσι(ν)

    λύω

    λύεις

    λύει

    λύομεν

    λύετε

    λύουσι(ν)

    I loosen, undo

    you loosen

    he/she/it/one loosens

    we loosen

    you (pl.) loosen

    they loosen

    ENDINGS VERB TRANSLATION

    ε ετω ετε οντων

    λύε λυέτω λύετε λυόντων

    loosen! (sg.) let him loosen! loosen! (pl.) let them loosen!

    INFINITIVE ειν λύειν to loosen

    IMPERATIVE 3rd

    1st principal part

  • Future tense of λύω (active)

    σ + ω

    σ + εις

    σ + ει

    σ + ομεν

    σ + ετε

    σ + ουσι(ν)

    λύσω

    λύσεις

    λύσει

    λύσομεν

    λύσετε

    λύσουσι(ν)

    I will loosen, undo

    you will loosen

    he/she/it/one will loosen

    we will loosen

    you (pl.) will loosen

    they will loosen

    ENDINGS VERB TRANSLATION INFINITIVE σ + ειν λύσειν to be about to loosen

    π, β, φ, πτ + σ => ψ πέμπω, πέμψω βλάπτω, βλάψω

    τ, δ, θ + σ => σσ => σ σπεῦδω, σπεῦσω

    κ, γ, χ, ττ + σ => ξ διώκω, διώξω φυλάττω φυλάξω

    Euphonic changes to form the future tense endings

    Verb stem ends in.. add σ present, future tenses

    2nd principal part

  • Imperfect tense of λύω (active)

    ον

    ες

    ε (ν)

    ομεν

    ετε

    ον

    ἔλυον

    ἔλυες

    ἔλυε(ν)

    ἐλύομεν

    ἐλύετε

    ἔλυον

    I was loosening. loosened

    you were loosening. loosened

    he/she/it/one was loosening. loosened

    we were loosening. loosened

    you (pl.) were loosening. loosened

    they were loosening. loosened

    ENDINGS VERB TRANSLATION

    Verb begins w/ a vowel

    AUGMENT

    ~ Syllabic augment

    ἐ ~ Temporal augment

    Verb begins w/ consonant

    1st principal part

  • Present tense of λύω (middle/passive)

    λύομαι

    λύῃ

    λύεται

    λυόμεθα

    λύεσθε

    λύονται

    ENDINGS VERB TRANSLATION

    ου εσθω εσθε εσθων

    λύου λυέσθω λύεσθε λυέσθων

    loosen for yourself/be loosened! (sg.) let him loosen for himself/be loosened! loosen! (pl.) for yourself/be loosened! let them loosen for themselves/be loosened!

    IMPERATIVE

    ομαι

    ῃ | ει*

    εται

    ομεθα

    εσθε

    ονται