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### Transcript of 11/1/20151 Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university.

• **Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• *W = F x cos qWork = the product of force and displacement, times the cosine of the angle between the force and the direction of the displacement.How much work is done pulling with a 15 N force applied at 20o over a distance of 12 m?

W = Fx cos qW = 15 N (12 m) (cos 20)= 169J20o15 NW = F. x units: N.m or joule, j*Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• +ve work: Force acts in the same direction as the displacement. object gains energyve work: Force acts in the opposite direction as the displacement. object loses energySign of work: cos 90 = 0 No work is done on the loadWhen force F is at right angles to displacement s (F s): F x cos = 0No work is done if:F = 0 orx = 0 orq = 90o **Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• A 1500 kg car moves down the freeway at 30 m/sK.E. = (1500 kg)(30 m/s)2= 675,000 kgm2/s2 = 675 kJA 2 kg fish jumps out of the water with a speed of 1 m/s K.E. = (2 kg)(1 m/s)2= 1 kgm2/s2 = 1 JCalculate the work done by a child of weight 300N who climbs up a set of stairs consisting of 12 steps each of height 20cm.work = force x distancethe child must exert an upward force equal to its weightthe distance moved upwards equals (12 x 20cm) = 2.4mwork = 300 N x 2.4 m= 720 Jexample**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• 6-2 Kinetic EnergySame units as workRemember the Eq. of motionMultiply both sides by m,When work is done on a system and the only change in the system is in its speed, the work done by the net force equals the change in kinetic energy of the system.The speed of the system increases if the work done on it is positiveThe speed of the system decreases if the net work is negativeW = F DxW = DK Work-Energy Theorem**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• *Kinetic Energy the energy of motionKE = m v 2 units: kg (m/s) 2 = (kgm/s2) m = Nm = joule

Work Energy Theorem: W = D KEWork = the change in kinetic energy of a system.Note: v = speed NOT velocity. The direction of motion has no relevance to kinetic energy.*Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Factors Affecting Kinetic EnergyThe kinetic energy of an object depends on both its mass and its velocity. Kinetic energy increases as mass increases. For example, think about rolling a bowling ball and a golf ball down a bowling lane at the same velocity, as shown in Figure 2. The bowling ball has more mass than the golf ball. Therefore, you use more energy to roll the bowling ball than to roll the golf ball. The bowling ball is more likely to knock down the pins because it has more kinetic energy than the golf ball.**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Kinetic energy also increases when velocity increases. For example, suppose you have two identical bowling balls and you roll one ball so it moves at a greater velocity than the other. You must throw the faster ball harder to give it the greater velocity. In other words, you transfer more energy to it. Therefore, the faster ball has more kinetic energy.Figure 2Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy increases as mass and velocity increase. Predicting In each example, which object will transfer more energy to the pins? Why? **Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Calculating Kinetic EnergyThere is a mathematical relationship between kinetic energy, mass, and velocity. Example : A 6 kg bowling ball moves at 4 m/s. a) How much kinetic energy does the bowling ball have? b) How fast must a 2.5 kg tennis ball move in order to have the same kinetic energy as the bowling ball? K = mb vb K = (6 kg) (4 m/s) KE = 48 JKE = mt vtv = 2 K/m = 6.20 m/s**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Do changes in velocity and mass have the same effect on kinetic energy? Nochanging the velocity of an object will have a greater effect on its kinetic energy than changing its mass. This is because velocity is squared in the kinetic energy equation. For instance, doubling the mass of an object will double its kinetic energy. But doubling its velocity will quadruple its kinetic energy.**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Calculate the speed of a car of mass 1200kg if its kinetic energy is 15 000JK = m v215 000J = x 1200kg x v215 000 = 600 x v215 000 600 = v225 = v2v = 25speed = 5.0 ms-1example**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• exampleCalculate the braking distance a car of mass 900 kg travelling at an initial speed of 20 ms-1 if its brakes exert a constant force of 3 kN.

k.E. of car = m v2= x 900kg x (20ms-1)2= x 900 x 400= 450 x 400k = 180 000 J

The work done by the brakes will be equal to this kinetic energy.W = F x180 000 J = 3 kN x x180 000 = 3000 x xx = 180 000 / 3000

braking distance = 60 m**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• An object does not have to be moving to have energy. Some objects have stored energy as a result of their positions or shapes.When you lift a book up to your desk from the floor or compress a spring to wind a toy, you transfer energy to it. The energy you transfer is stored, or held in readiness. It might be used later when the book falls to the floorStored energy that results from the position or shape of an object is called potential energy. This type of energy has the potential to do work.

**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Gravitational Potential EnergyPotential energy related to an objects height is called gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy of an object is equal to the work done to lift it. Remember that Work=ForceDistance. The force you use to lift the object is equal to its weight. The distance you move the object is its height. You can calculate an objects gravitational potential energy using this formula:Gravitational Potential Energy = Weight x Heightchange in Gravitational potential energy . = mass x gravitational field strength x change in height

U = m g h **Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Gravitational potential energy:Potential energy only depends on y (height) and not on x (lateral distance)MUST pick a point where potential energy is considered zero!**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Calculate the change in Gravitational potential energy (g.p.e). when a mass of 200 g is lifted upwards by 30 cm. (g = 9.8 Nkg-1) U = m g h= 200 g x 9.8 Nkg-1 x 30 cm= 0.200 kg x 9.8 Nkg-1 x 0.30 mchange in g.p.e. = 0.59 J example**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Q: Calculate the gravitational potential energy in the following systemsa. a car with a mass of 1200 kg at the top of a 42 m high hill(1200 kg)( 9.8m/s/s)(42 m) = 4.9 x 105

b. a 65 kg climber on top of Mt. Everest (8800 m high) (65 kg) (9.8m/s/s) (8800 m) = 5.6 x 106 J

c. a 0.52 kg bird flying at an altitude of 550 m (.52 kg) (9.8m/s/s)(550) = 2.8 x 103 Jexample**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Conservation of EnergyLaw of conservation of energy- energy cannot be created or destroyedclosed system:- all energy remains in the system- nothing can enter or leaveopen system:- energy present at the beginning of the system may not be at present at the end**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Conservation of EnergyWhen we say that something is conserved it means that it remains constant, it doesnt mean that the quantity can not change form during that time, but it will always have the same amount.Conservation of Mechanical Energy:MEi = MEfinitial mechanical energy = final mechanical energy

If the only force acting on an object is the force of gravity:Ko + Uo = K + U

mvo + mgho = mv + mgh**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• At a construction site a 1.50 kg brick is dropped from rest and hit the ground at a speed of 26.0 m/s. Assuming air resistance can be ignored, calculate the gravitational potential energy of the brick before it was dropped? K+U = Ko+Uo

mv2+mgh= mv2o+ mgho mv2+0 = =o+ mgho U0 = mgho = (1.50 kg) (26.0m/s)2 = 507 Jexample**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• exampleA child of mass 40 kg climbs up a wall of height 2.0 m and then steps off. Assuming no significant air resistance calculate the maximum:(a) gravitational potential energy (gpe) of the child(b) speed of the child

g = 9.8 Nkg-1(a) maximum gravitational potential energy ( max gpe) occurs when the child is on the wall U = mgh= 40 x 9.8 x 2.0max gpe = 784 J

(b) max speed occurs when the child reaches the ground m v2 = m g h m v2 = 784 J v2 = (2 x 784) / 40v2 = 39.2v = 39.2max speed = 6.3 ms-1**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• A 10 kg shopping cart is pushed from rest by a 250 N force against a 50 N friction force over 10 m distance.m = 10.0 kg vi = 0Fp = 250.0 N Fk = 50.0 Nx = 10.0 m A. How much work is done by each force on the cart?Wg = 0 WN = 0Wp = Fp x cos = (250.0 N)(10.0 m)cos 0Wp = 2500 JWk = Fk x cos = (50.0 N)(10.0 m)cos 180= -500 J

example**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• B. How much kinetic energy has the cart gained?Wnet = KEWp + Wk = KEf - KEi2500 J + -500 J = KEf - 0KEf = 2000JC. What is the carts final speed?KE = 1/2 m v2v = ((2KE)/(m))v = ((2(2000 J))/(10.0 kg)) v = 20 m/s

**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Nonconservative ForcesA nonconservative force does not satisfy the conditions of conservative forcesNonconservative forces acting in a system cause a change in the mechanical energy of the system

The work done against friction is greater along the brown path than along the blue pathBecause the work done depends on the path, friction is a nonconservative force**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• On a frozen pond, a person kicks a 10.0 kg sled, giving it an initial speed of 2.2 m/s. How far does it travel if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the sled and the ice is .10?m = 10.0 kgvi = 2.2 m/svf = 0 m/sk = .10W = KEFx= Kf - Kik = Fk / FNFk = k (mg)k (-mg) x = 1/2 m vf2 - 1/2 m vi2k (-mg) x = - 1/2 m vi2x = (- 1/2 m vi2) / k (-mg)x = (- 1/2 (10.0 kg) (2.2 m/s)2) / (.10 (-10.0 kg) (9.8 m/s2))x = 2.47 mexample**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• A 20-g projectile strikes a mud bank, penetrating a distance of 6 cm before stopping. Find the stopping force F if the entrance velocity is 80 m/s.

W = KF x cos = K K0

F x cos = mv - mvo F (0.06 m) cos 1800 = 0 - 0 .5 (0.02 kg)(80 m/s)2F (0.06 m)(-1) = -64 J F = 1067 NWork to stop bullet = change in K.E. for bulletExampleW = mv - mvo = 0**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• A bus slams on brakes to avoid an accident. The tread marks of the tires are 80 m long. If k = 0.7, what was the speed before applying brakes?Work = F x (cos )f = k.N = k mgWork = - k mg x K = 1/2 mv2 - mvo2W = K vo = (2k g x)

example**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Power is the rate at which work is done.Power is the rate of energy transfer by any method.The SI unit of power is the watt, W1 watt = 1 Joule/s1000 watts = 1 kW

Work = force distancePower = forcedistance/timePower = forcevelocityP = Fv**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Calculate the power of a car engine that exerts a force of 40 kN over a distance of 20 m for 10 seconds.W = Fx= 40 kN x 20 m = 40 000 x 20 m= 800 000 J

exampleP = W / t= 800 000 J / 10 spower = 80 000 WIn 1935, R. Goddard, the America rocket pioneer, launched several A-series sounding rockets. Given that the engine had a constant thrust of 890 N, how much power did it transfer to the rocket while traveling at its maximum speed of 113.9 m/s.P = Fv = 890N x 313.9 m/s = 279 kW.**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• *

example

Together, two students exert a force of 825 N in pushing a car a distance of 35 m.A. How much work do they do on the car? W = F x = 825N (35m) = B. If the force was doubled, how much work would they do pushing the car the same distance?W = 2F x = 2(825N)(35m) = *Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• *A rock climber wears a 7.5 kg backpack while scaling a cliff. After 30.0 min, the climber is 8.2 m above the starting point.How much work does the climber do on the backpack? W = Fd = m g x= 7.5kg(9.8m/s2)(8.2m)b.How much power does the climber expend in this effort?P = W = 603 J = 0.34 watt t 1800 sexample*Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Example : A 200 kg curtain needs to be raised 8m. in as close to 5 s as possible. You need to decide among three motors to buy for this, each motor cost a little more the bigger the power rating. The power rating for the three motors are listed as 1.0 kw, 3.5 kw and 5.5 kw. Which motor is the best for the job?Given: m = 200 kg x = 8 m t = 5sUnknown: Power and workW = FxW = mghW = (200 kg)(9.81 m/s)(8 m) = 15,696 JoulesP = W/tP = 15,696 J / 5 s= 3,139 watts**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• exampleCalculate the power of a car that maintains a constant speed of 30 ms-1 against air resistance forces of 2 kN

As the car is travelling at a constant speed the cars engine must be exerting a force equal to the opposing air resistance forces.

P = F v= 2 kN x 30 ms-1 = 2 000 N x 30 ms-1power = 60 kW**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• What power is consumed in lifting a 70-kg robber 1.6 m in 0.50 s?A 100-kg cheetah moves from rest to 30 m/s in 4 s. What is the power?the work is equal to the change in kinetic energy:**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

• Summary If the force is constant and parallel to the displacement, work is force times distance If the force is not parallel to the displacement, The total work is the work done by the net force: SI unit of work: the joule, J Total work is equal to the change in kinetic energy:where Power is the rate at which work is done: SI unit of power: the watt, W**Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

Norah Ali Al Moneef king Saud university

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