1 ECONOMICS 3150B Fall 2015 Professor Lazar Office: N205J, Schulich 736-5068.

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1 ECONOMICS 3150B Fall 2015 Professor Lazar Office: N205J, Schulich [email protected] 736-5068

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3 Comparative Advantage Models 1.Single Factor, Ricardian Model Assumptions: –One factor of production: X1 –Two goods: Y1, Y2 –Constant returns to scale [  Y = F( X1), δ=1] –PF: Y i =  i1 X1 [  i1 : units of product i per unit of factor of production 1] Resulting PPF: –Y1/  i1 + Y2/  21  0 X1 –Opportunity cost of Y1 in terms of Y2:  21 /  11 –No adjustment problems since sole factor of production can move costlessly and instantaneously between products

Transcript of 1 ECONOMICS 3150B Fall 2015 Professor Lazar Office: N205J, Schulich 736-5068.

1 ECONOMICS 3150B Fall 2015 Professor Lazar Office: N205J, Schulich 2 Lecture 15: November 5 Ch. 2-4 3 Comparative Advantage Models 1.Single Factor, Ricardian Model Assumptions: One factor of production: X1 Two goods: Y1, Y2 Constant returns to scale [ Y = F( X1), =1] PF: Y i = i1 X1 [ i1 : units of product i per unit of factor of production 1] Resulting PPF: Y1/ i1 + Y2/ 21 0 X1 Opportunity cost of Y1 in terms of Y2: 21 / 11 No adjustment problems since sole factor of production can move costlessly and instantaneously between products 4 Single Factor Ricardian Model Utility maximization optimal production and consumption point, P1, P2 Slope of straight line PFF: P2/P1 11 / 21 Relationship between relative prices and opportunity costs 5 Single Factor Ricardian Model Two countries, two products, one factor of production Conditions for pre-trade relative prices to differ [i.e. {P1/P2} A {P1/P2} B ] Different production functions: i1 (A) i1 (B) Different tastes will not produce different relative prices Absolute advantage vs. comparative advantage Implications for productivity, incomes per capita, migration Comparative advantage Country has comparative advantage in product with lower relative opportunity cost Country A has comparative advantage in product 1 if [ 21 / 11 ] A < [ 21 / 11 ] B {P1/P2} A < {P1/P2} B 6 Single Factor Ricardian Model Trade between A and B will equalize relative prices {P1/P2} A = {P1/P2} B Equilibrium relative prices post-trade between original pre-trade ratios If A is large country and B a small country, equilibrium relative prices post-trade closer to pre-trade ratio in A Specialization small country, not necessarily for large country Transportation costs Protection of industries Terms of trade: price of exported product relative to price of imported product For country: P1/P2 7 Single Factor Ricardian Model Gains from trade Consumption, production pre-trade and post-trade Exports, imports Higher level of utility, higher level of real income/GDP Equilibrium in currency market will result in current account balance = 0 Total value of exports = total value of imports D/S of countrys currency depend upon current account transactions only For Country A: P1 A EX(Y1) = P2 B IM(Y2)E* With no trade costs: P1 A = P1 B E* and P2 A = P2 B E* 8 Single Factor Ricardian Model Conclusions: Extreme degree of specialization No impact on distribution of income within each country no losers (full employment, one factor of production) Gains from trade No explanation of differences in production functions and relative and absolute productivities Volumes of exports and imports not determined If one country has absolute advantage in both (all) products), wage rates will not be equalized by trade Wage differences will reflect differences in absolute advantage 9 Extension of Ricardian Model Many products (i = 1, N), one factor of production Assumptions: Constant returns to scale Perfect competition: P i = MC i MC i = P(X1)/ i1 Allocation of production in two country world (A, B) Product i produced in country with lower MC Produced in A: {P(X1)E/ i1 } A < {P(X1)/ i1 } B {[P(X1)] A E /[P(X1)] B } < { i1 } A / { i1 } B Produced in B: {[P(X1)] A E /[P(X1)] B } >{ i1 } A / { i1 } B 10 Extension of Ricardian Model Order the products 1 to N so that { 11 } A / { 11 } B < { 21 } A / { 21 } B < .. < { N1 } A / { N1 } B All products 1 through K are produced in B and exported by B: {[P(X1)] A E /[P(X1)] B } > { K1 } A / { K1 } B and {[P(X1)] A E /[P(X1)] B } < { K+11 } A / { K+11 } B 11 Extension of Ricardian Model Products K+1 through N are produced and exported by A Not all products may be traded depends upon trade costs non-traded products Specialization, but if B is a large country, B also may produce, but not export some or all of the products 1 through K Assumes that E is at equilibrium level so that value of As exports = value of Bs imports If value of E changes so too does cut-off point K 12 Services 2013 World merchandise exports: US$17.8 T World commercial services exports: US$4.6T (20.5%) current dominance of world trade by manufacturesmay be only temporary. In the long run, trade in services, delivered electronically, may become the most important component of world trade. Measurement problem with services Unit of financial service; consulting service, legal service, call center service, etc. 13 Heckscher-Ohlin Model 2X2X2 model Two countries 2 factors of production 2 products different factor intensities Identical production technologies and state of technology Different relative resource availabilities: {X1/X2} A {X1/X2} B Basis for trade: different resource availabilities which give rise to different pre-trade relative prices Comparative advantage: interaction between relative abundance (supply) of resources (factors of production) and technology of production (relative intensity with which different factors of production used in production of different goods) Counties export goods whose production is intensive in factors with which the countries are abundantly endowed 14 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Factor intensity: {X1/X2} i Min TC = P(X1)X1 + P(X2)X2 s.t. 0 Y1 = F 1 (X1, X2, T) Factor intensity determined by intersection of isoquant and budget line Constant returns to scale and factor intensity Factor intensity {X1/X2} 1 depends upon {P(X2)/P(X1)} If {P(X2)/P(X1)} {X1/X2} 1 Relative prices of factors of production depend upon relative availabilities of factors of production If {X1/X2} A {P(X2)/P(X1)} A 15 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Relative prices of products {P1/P2} depend upon relative prices of factors of production [P=MC] {P(X1)/P(X2)} and relative factor intensities Assume Y1 uses X1 relatively more intensively than Y2 {X1/X2} 1 > {X1/X2} 2 As {P(X1)/P(X2)} so too does P1/P2 16 Heckscher-Ohlin Model If {X1/X2} A > {X1/X2} B then {P(X1)/P(X2)} A < {P(X1)/P(X2)} B and {P1/P2} A < {P1/P2} B A has comparative advantage in Y1 (Y1 uses X1 relatively more intensively and A has relative abundance of X1) A will export Y1 and import Y2 Specialization not necessary outcome even if one of the countries is a small country and the other is a large country Trade will tend to equalize relative prices of products and factors of production 17 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Winners and losers Net utility/income gains Full employment and no transition costs D for Y1 post-trade D for X1 in A P(X1) in A S of Y2 post-trade D for X2 in A P(X2) in A Welfare effects of changes in terms of trade: {P1/P2} for A Assume improvement in terms of trade for A Leads to improvement in aggregate welfare in A and increase in trade volumes Owners of a countrys abundant factors gain from trade; owners of countrys scarce factors lose relatively and may lose in absolute values as well Implications for income distribution between X1 and X2 D for X1 in A D for X2 in A 18 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Leontieff paradox US imports more capital-intensive than exports Effective factor endowments and relative abundance Effective factor endowment = actual factor endowment*factor productivity US labour more productive than in other countries Why productivity differences for various factors of production across countries? Effective R&D scientists = actual R&D scientists*R&D spending per scientist Ignores role of competitive advantage and risk-taking Possibility with more than 2 factors of production for one country to have relative abundance in more than one factor of abundance e.g. US in capital and skilled labour Overview High Tech Exports (2013) -- % (Tables 27.0 and 27.1) 19 Exports US$ B % of man. exports Receipts for use of IP (US$M) Payments for use of IP (US$M) Low IncomeNA5.5%9888 Lower Middle ,920 Upper Middle ,66938,038 High Income1, ,977243,199 Eurozone ,51189,422 World1, ,511289,245 20 Drivers of High Tech Exports Researchers in R&D (per million population) professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned Technicians in R&D (per million population) people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff) R&D expenditures as % of GDP R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development Competitive advantage and risk taking 21 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Increase in availability of factors of production in country A 1.Proportionate increase in both factors of production no change in relative availabilities Increase in volume of trade Change in terms of trade deterioration because of S of Y1 from country A and D for Y2 from country A 2.Increase in X1 (or disproportionate increase in X1) Biased growth Change in shape of PPF for country A change in relative prices, change in terms of trade Larger impacts on volume of trade and terms of trade Growth leads to more trade 22 Heckscher-Ohlin Model Determinants of relative abundance of factors of production Natural resources including climate Exploration/development Climate change Labor Skill level Education, training Population growth, demographics Capital Types Investment Technology R&D Production, products