04c Frac Design Variables (Fluid Loss) v4 SPE

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Hydraulic Fracture Design

Transcript of 04c Frac Design Variables (Fluid Loss) v4 SPE

  • Work Process1. Estimate Stresses and

    Pressures

    2. Determine Fcd and FOI (Evaluate Various Proppants and

    Frac Lengths)

    3. Preliminary Proppant

    Selection

    4. Estimate Fracture

    Geometrya) YoungsModulus

    b) Sand/Shale

    5. Fluid Loss C and Spurt Loss

    6. Fluid Selection a) Apparent Viscosity (cps)

    b) Basic Chemistry / Additives

    7. Calibrate Model Diagnosticsa) Fracturing Pressure

    b) Temperature/RA Logs

    c) Microseismic

    8. Final Treatment Pump

    Schedule

    9. Operations / Perforating

  • FRACTURE DESIGN VARIABLESFLUID LOSS

    H , E , C , KIc m , Q

  • Fluid Loss Mechanisms3 Fluid Loss Coefficients

    Linear Flow ASSUMPTION

    Viscosity Control, CI (or CV)

    (Effect of Viscous Bank)

    Reservoir Control, CII

    Filter Cake Control, CIII (or CW)

    )(

    2

    At

    dACQLoss

  • C/t --> Low Loss Near Well

    1020304050

    0.05

    0.10

    0.15

    0.20

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    TIME (min)

    Q-Loss (bpm/100 sq. ft)C = 0.003 ft/min

    V-Loss (bbl/100 sq. ft)

  • Fluid Loss

    Matrix Fluid Loss Behavior

    Most of

    Fluid Loss

    Near

    Fracture

    Tip

    x (ft)

    Q-L

    oss (

    bp

    m/1

    00 s

    q.

    ft)

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

    0.05

    0.10

    0.15

    C = 0.002 ft/mint = 30 min

    Xf = 200 feet

    1/2 the TotalFluid Loss

    Fluid Loss Into Formation

  • CI , CII , & CIII

  • Lab Test For CW

  • 8/22/2014Provided by Constien & Associates, Inc.

    Dynamic Fluid Loss Cell

    Formation

    Filtrate

  • CW + Spurt Loss

    Time (min)

    Volume Lost/Unit Area Spurt Loss

    Spurt Time

    Lab Test Data For Cw

    Slope --> Cw

  • Typical CW Values

    0.0010.0020.0030.005 0.01 0.020.030.05 0.10.0001

    0.0002

    0.0003

    0.0005

    0.001

    0.002

    0.003

    0.005

    0.01

    Permeability, k (md)

    Wall Building Fluid Loss Coefficient C or C (ft/

    min)III

    WTypical Lab C Values - 150 FW

    Crosslink Cellulose

    X-Link Guar Gum

    Polymer Emulsion

    X-Link Guar Gum + 5% Diesel

  • Combined Fluid Loss , CT

    f

    rI

    pkC

    m

    0015.0

    m

    CtkpCII 0012.0

    )( datalabfromCC wallIII

    IIIIIIT CCCC

    1111 BUT

  • Spurt Loss

    Strange Behavior

    0 for low permeability (small pore

    throat diameter) cases

    Increases with k

    Returns to 0 for high k formations

    Behavior somewhat statistical in nature

  • Spurt Loss Lab Data

    0.10.20.5125102050

    0.002

    0.005

    0.01

    0.02

    0.05

    0.1

    0.2

    0.5

    Permeability (md)

    Spurt (gal/sq. foot)20 ppt (lb/M-Gal)

    50

    60

    80 ppt (lb/M-Gal) gel

    40

    HPGX-Link Gel---------------125 deg F

  • Effect of Temperature on Cw

    100150200250300

    1

    2

    3

    Temperature (deg F)

    Temperature Effect on Cw

    Water Base Fluids

    Test at 80 deg F

    Test at 125 deg F

  • Effect of Temperature on Cw

    100150200250300

    0.002

    0.004

    0.006

    0.008

    0.01

    Temperature (deg F)

    Cw (ft/min1/2) HPG Titinate X-Link Gel 30 lb gel data 40 lb gel data 50 lb gel data

    Solid Lines = Cw (at 80 deg F) X (m)-1/2

    W

  • Fluid Loss Additives

    ONLY Two Types

    - Solid

    - Liquid (3 to 5% hydrocarbon)

    Solids

    - Used to reduce or eliminate spurt loss and

    allow a wall cake to build

    - Do NOT Reduce CW or CT- Many flavors !

    Liquids

    - Used to reduce CW- Wall cake MUST from first

  • Solid FLA --> Reduce Spurt

    10 20 30 40

    0.0005

    0.001

    0.002

    0.003

    0.005

    0.01

    FLA Concentration(lb or gal/M-Gal))

    C Polymer-Resin Silica Flour Polymer-Silica-Clay Diesel (0.1 - 10 md)W

  • Solid FLA Guidelines

    Particles sizes:

    If > 1/2 of pore throat, solids will quickly bridge on the

    face of the formation face

    If < 1/3 of pore throat, solids will invade and will

    probably cause fracture face damage

    If < 1/7 of pore throat, solids will invade but will

    probably not cause damage

    For sandstones:

    Pore throat in microns (est):

    Pt = permeability 0.5 (md)

    Do Frc_Skl 1 7

  • Do Frc_Skl 1 8

    Use a Net Pressure (Pn) of 300 psi

    P = (Pc+Pn) Pr

    Diesel Concentration = 2%

  • Typical CW Values

    Crosslink

    Cellulos

    e Deriva

    tive

    Crosslink G

    uar Derivat

    ive

    Polymer Emulsion

    Crosslink Guar D

    erivative + Hydro

    carbon

    0.001 0.01 0.10.0001

    0.001

    0.01

    Permeability, k (md)

    Wall B

    uild

    ing

    Lo

    ss C

    oeff

    icie

    nt

    C (

    ft /

    m

    in)

    III