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1 John 20 (20:1) πρωΐ = “(adverb of time) early, early in the morning” under BAGD 724b. σκοτία, ας, ἡ = “darkness, gloom, (figuratively of the darkening of the mind or spirit, of ignorance in moral and religious matters)” under BAGD 757a. οὔσης – present active participle εἰμί. μνημεῖον, ου, τό = “monument, memorial, grave, tomb” under BAGD 524b. ἠρμένον – perfect passive participle αἴρω = “lift up, take up, pick up” under BAGD 24a. (20:2) τρέχω = “run, (figurative) (using the foot-races in the stadium as a basis), proceed quickly and without hindrance” under BAGD 825b. μαθητής, ῆς, ὁ = “pupil, apprentice, disciple, adherent, learner” under BAGD 485b. ἐφίλει – imperfect active φιλέω. ἦραν – aorist active αἴρω.

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John 20


= (adverb of time) early, early in the morning under BAGD 724b.

, , = darkness, gloom, (figuratively of the darkening of the mind or spirit, of ignorance in moral and religious matters) under BAGD 757a.

present active participle .

, , = monument, memorial, grave, tomb under BAGD 524b.

perfect passive participle = lift up, take up, pick up under BAGD 24a.


= run, (figurative) (using the foot-races in the stadium as a basis), proceed quickly and without hindrance under BAGD 825b.

, , = pupil, apprentice, disciple, adherent, learner under BAGD


imperfect active .

aorist active .

perfect active . This is another one of those verbs in which different stems are used for different tenses/aspects.

aorist active = (active and passive) put, place, lay, lay (away), set up, put (away), place before someone, serve under BAGD 615b-.


imperfect middle .

imperfect active .

= together, (in the same place), at the same time (as), in company (with) under BAGD 569a.

aorist active = progress under BAGD 722a. Note the form of the stem in the aorist.

= quickly, at once, without delay, soon, (also in the unfavorable sense) too quickly, too esily, hastily, more quickly, faster under BAGD 806b.

, , = first (of several, also when only two persons or things are involved), (of time), first, earliest, earlier, (of number of sequence) under BAGD 725a.

Grammatical note = The Semantic Domain of Proper Prepositions. Grammarians divide prepositions into two categories proper and improper prepositions. Proper prepositions are those that occur both in prepositional phrases and as prefixes to compound verbs. The term improper preposition refers to a preposition that is never prefixed to a verbal stem to create a compound verb. / Proper prepositions are extremely common. For instance, is the most common with nearly three thousand occurrences in the GNT. At the intermediate level of studying Greek, students should begin broadening their understanding of the semantic domains (fields of meaning) of common prepositions. (1786x, object: acc). See KMP, 399-402.

Grammatical note = Genitive Case. Comparison. At times the genitive is used to denote comparison (in which case the appropriate translation is than). In such instances, the basis or standard on which the comparison is made is put in the genitive case. The genitive of comparison is regularly used in conjunction with a comparative adjective (eg, ). See KMP, 102.

Grammatical note = Comparative for Superlative. In such (rare) cases, the comparative adjective is used in place of the superlative. As Zerwick points out, in popular speech the distinction between comparative (the better of the two) and superlative(the best of three or more) tends not to be strictly observed. While in English the superlative may be used in both cases, in Greek the general tendency was toward the comparative form. What is more, the comparative tended to supplant the superlative even in its elative sense (very big). See KMP, 175 and n70.


aorist active participle = bend over, (literal) (figurative) under BAGD 619a. Rare.

present passive participle = lie, recline, (of things), (figurative) be appointed, set, destined for something, be given, exist, be valid, occur, appear, be found, find oneself under BAGD 426b.

, , = linen cloth, bandage (used in preparing a corpse for burial) under BAGD 555b. Rare.

= really, actually, (mostly adversative) though, to be sure, indeed, nevertheless, (weakened) but under BAGD 503b.


present active participle = follow, (literally) come after, go along with under BAGD 31a.

= be a spectator, look at, observe, perceive, see, (of perception by the mind or spirit) notice, perceive, observe, find, experience under BAGD 360a.

present passive participle .


, , = face-cloth (for wiping perspiration, somewhat like our handkerchief) under BAGD 759b. Rare. Lat sudarium.

, , = head, (metaphorical), (figurative) (in the case of living beings, to denote superior rank), (of things) the uppermost part, extremity, end, point under BAGD 430a.

= separately, apart, by itself, separated from someone, far from someone, without someone, without (or) apart, besides, in addition to, except (for) someone under BAGD 890b.

perfect passive participle = wrap (up), fold up under BAGD 270a.

Ordinarily one might not be too concerned over the exact meaning of a phrase but on this occasion it is important. What is the author describing? That the sudarium is (a) by itself, apart (b) folded up, in (c) in one place.


aorist active = see, catch sight of, notice (of sense perception under BAGD 577b.

aorist active present active participle = believe, believe (in) something, be convinced of something, believe that under BAGD 660a.


pluperfect active . We do not see the pluperfect often in Koine Greek.

, , = (in the NT exclusively with a sacred meaning), (Scripture as a whole), (the singular as desiantion of Scripture as a whole) under BAGD 166a.

, , = dead, (literal) (of living beings), lifeless, (figurative), (of things) under BAGD 534b.

aorist active infinitive = (transitive) raise, erect, raise up, cause to appear (or) be born (intransitive) rise, stand up, get up, arise (to help the poor, of God), (with weakened basic meaning to indicate the beginning of an action expressed by another verb) under BAGD 70a.


aorist active = go away, depart, go (with indication of place) under BAGD 84b.

Literally toward them = to their (homes).


pluperfect active . Another pluperfect! So what is the time frame being described? Mary had been standing?

present active participle = weep, cry (transitive) weep for, bewail someone under BAGD 433a.

imperfect active .

aorist active . Good opportunity to practice parsing aorist forms.

[footnoteRef:1] [1: {C} c B L W X 050 f1. Dgrsupp K f13.... * A ita, b, c, e, ff2, r1, v syrs, p Diatessarona, s, t.]

Grammatical note = Past State Pluperfect. This category applies to certain verbs that convey a past state with no antecedent action. This type of usage is found with verbs that are stative in nature with no implication of a previous act that produced the state. Verbs in this category are , , , and . Because of the frequent use of the pluperfect form of (occurring 33 times), this is the most common pluperfect category. See KMP, 306.

Grammatical note = The Participle may also denote the means by which the action of the principal verb is brought about, or the manner in which it is effected, or the circumstances which attend its performance. Manner: But others mocking said is often inserted before a participle of Manner. See Nunn 258.


, , = messenger, (of human messengers) an envoy, one who is sent, angels (as messengers of God) under BAGD 7a.

present middle participle = sit, sit down under BAGD 388b.

, , = foot, (of persons or [rarely in our literature] of animals or the strange creatures), (figurative) (the one who is vanquished lies beneath the victors feet), the foot (as a measure of length) under BAGD 696b.

imperfect passive . Phew! We are slowly building up a verb paradigm for .


aorist active .

aorist active .


aorist active participle .

aorist passive = turn, change (intransitive) turn (away) (passive) (with reflexive meaning) turn around, turn toward under BAGD 771a.

= (used as adverb of place) behind, back, after under BAGD 575a.

perfect active participle .

pluperfect active . This verb is a little unusual in that the perfect is used to express the present and the pluperfect is used to express the past.


= seek, look for (in order to find), (what one desires somehow to bring into relation with oneself or to obtain without knowing where it is to be found, look for, search out someone, investigate, examine, consider, deliberate under BAGD 338b.

present active participle = (transitive) think, believe, suppose, consider (of subjective opinion) (intransitive) seem, be influential, be recognized as being something, have a reputation, (impersonal) it seems to me, I think, believe under BAGD 201b.

, , = gardener under BAGD 430b. Hapax in the NT.

aorist active = take up, carry, bear, endure under BAGD 137a.

- future active .


aorist passive participle .

Note the use of the demonstrative as a pronoun a few times in this pericope.

= (adverb) in Hebrew.

, , = teacher, master (in the British sense of teacher) under BAGD 191b.

[footnoteRef:2] [2: {B} *, b A B K L W X . ita, r1. D itd. , it(e), ff2. , a (f13 ) 1195* 1230 syrs, h, pal geo2 Cyril.]


present middle imperative = light, kindle (middle) touch, take hold of, hold someone or something, (figurative) take hold of under BAGD 102b.

perfect active = go up, ascend under BAGD 50a.

present middle imperative = go, proceed, travel, conduct oneself, live, walk under BAGD 692a.

Interesting statement that resembles Ruth 1:16.

[footnoteRef:3] [3: {C} B D W itb, d, e syrpal Irenaeuslat. 66 A K L X ]

Grammatical note = Prepositions. (13x, object: acc). is used as a prepositional prefix to a compound verb expressing upward movement. See KMP, 401.


present active participle = announce (something) to someone under BAGD 7a. Hapax in the NT.

perfect active .


, , = , , = (adjective ) late under BAGD 601b.

, , = one, single, only one under BAGD 230b.

, , = door under BAGD 365b.

perfect passive participle = shut, lock, bar under BAGD 434a.

aorist active = set, place, bring, allow to come, put forward, propose (for a certain purpose), (intransitive) stand still, stop, come up, stand, appear under BAGD 382a.

, , = middle, in the middle under BAGD 507a.

, , = peace, harmony (with ) under BAGD 227a.

Grammatical note = Pronouns: semantic categories Conceptual Antecedent/Postcedent. The neuter of is routinely used to refer to a phrase or clause. In such cases, the thing referred to is not a specific noun or substantive. The singular is used to refer both to an antecedent and a postcedent on a regular basis, while the plural is almost exclusively shut up to retrospective uses. Certain formulaic phrases are used, such as , referring back to the previous argument, or , referring to the previous events. Debatable Example The issues here are complex and cannot be solved by grammar alone. Nevertheless, syntactical considerations do tend toward one of the latter two views. For what it is worth, an examination of all 22 instances of in the NT yielded the following results: 14 or 15 had a conceptual referent (John 20:20). See Wallace, 334-35, and n56.


aorist active participle = = utter in words, say, tell, give expression to (orally but also in writing) under BAGD 468a. Another example of different verb stems used for different tenses.

aorist active = point out, show, make known something (or) someone to someone, explain, prove under BAGD 172b.

, , = hand under BAGD 879b.

, , = side under BAGD 668a.

aorist active = rejoice, be glad under BAGD 873a.

aorist active participle = see, catch sight of, notice (of sense perception under BAGD 577b. The functions of the aorist active are taken over by and the forms belonging to it. is used for the present and imperfect for the most part. Phew!


perfect active = send away or out someone under BAGD 98b.

= send, send (someone) to, into under BAGD 641b.


aorist active = breathe on someone under BAGD 258a.

= (more actively) take, take in the hand, take hold of, grasp, take away, remote (with or without the use of force) under BAGD 464a.

, , = blowing, breathing (even the glowing exaltations of a volcanic crater), the breathing out of air, blowing, breath, breath, (life-)spirit, soul, the spirir (as a part of the human personality) under BAGD 674b.


aorist active subjunctive = let go, send away, cancel, remit, pardon, give up under BAGD 125b.

perfect passive .

Curious construction. Not they are forgiven but you are forgiven with regard to them.

present active subjunctive = take into ones possession (or) custody, arrest, take into custody, apprehend, hold, hold upright, support under BAGD 448b.

perfect passive .

[footnoteRef:4] [4: {B} c A D (L ) X 050. * it(a), (d), (e, ff2), q, (r1) syrpal. 69* 127.]

Grammatical note = Perfect tense (futuristic). Proleptic (Futuristic) Perfect. The perfect can be used to refer to a state resulting from an antecedent action that is future from the time of speaking. (This is similar to one of the strands of the proleptic aorist.) This usage occurs in the apodosis of a conditional clause (either explicit or implicit) and depends on the time of the verb in the protasis. The proleptic perfect is quite rare. Compare John 20:23. See Wallace, 581.


= twelve under BAGD 210a.


, , = other under BAGD 39b.

perfect active = .

aorist active subjunctive . Note the form.

, , = visible impression (of a stroke or pressure), mark, trace, copy, image under BAGD 829b. So this is where the important term type comes from.

, , = nail under BAGD 345b. Hapax in New Testament?

aorist active subjunctive = throw, put, place, lay, bring under BAGD 130b-.

aorist active subjunctive = believe, believe (in) something, believe that under BAGD 660a.

Grammatical note = Article: regular uses As a pronoun ([partially] Independent Use). The article is not a true pronoun in Koine Greek, even though it derived from the demonstrative. But in many instances it can function semantically in the place of a pronoun. Each category needs to be analyzed on its own. Personal Pronoun (he, she, it). The article is often used in the place of a third person personal pronoun in the nominative case. It is only used this way with the ... construction or with alone. (This, ... or simple .) These constructions occur frequently in the Gospels and Acts, almost never elsewhere. See Wallace, 211-12.

Grammatical note = Moods: subjunctive. Prohibitive Subjunctive. This is the use of the subjunctive in a prohibition that is, a negative command. It is used to forbid the occurrence of an action. The structure is usually + aorist subjunctive, typically in the second person. Its force is equivalent to an imperative after ; hence, it should be translated Do not rather than You should not. The prohibitive subjunctive is frequently used in the NT. See Wallace, 469.


= eight under BAGD 563a.

= (adverb) in, into, inside, within under BAGD 314a.

For the vocabulary see verses 20-21.

Grammatical note = Present tense: special uses Historical Present (Dramatic Present). The historical present is used fairly frequently in narrative literature to describe a past event. The reason for the use of the historical present is normally to portray an event vividly, as though the reader were in the midst of the scene as it unfolds. Such vividness might be rhetorical (to focus on some aspect of the narrative) or literary (to to indicate a change in topic). The present tense may be used to describe a past event, either for the sake of vividness or to highlight some aspect of the narrative. It may be intentional (conscious) or unintentional (subconscious) on the part of the speaker. If intentional, then it is probably used to show the prominence of the events following. If unintentional, then it is probably used for vividness, as if the author were reliving the experience.

However, with and other verbs introducing (in)direct discourse, the historical present is for the most part a stereotyped idiom that has lost its original rhetorical powers. / is by far the most common verb used as a historical present, accounting for well over half of all the instances.

Time Vs Aspect. The aspectual value of the historical present is normally, if not always, reduced to zero. The verbs used, such as and , normally introduce an action in the midst of aorists without the slightest hint that an internal or progressive aspect is intended. The historical present has suppressed its aspect, but not its time. But the time element is rhetorical rather than real. With Reference to Person. The only person in which the historical present occurs is the third person (either singular or plural). See Wallace, 528-29.


, , = finger under BAGD 170a.

present middle imperative .

, = unbelievable, incredible, faithless, unbelieving under BAGD 85a.

, , = trustworthy, faithful, dependable, inspiring trust or faith (active) trusting, cherishing faith or trust under BAGD 664b-.

Grammatical note = Nominative of Exclamation. The nominative substantive is used in an exclamation without any grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence. This use of the nominative is actually a subcategory of the nominative for vocative Nominative of exclamation will not be used in direct address. It is a primitive use of the language where emotion overrides syntax. The emotional topic is exclaimed without any verb stated. (John 20:27) Though other constructions also follow (especially whole clauses); the accusative follows as direct object of or twice (John 20:27) See Wallace, 59-60 and n88.

Grammatical note = Article: with multiple substantives Mixed Elements in the TSKS Personal Construction. The monotonous pattern of personal singular substantives in the TSKS construction indicating an identical referent immediately places such substantives in a different category from proper names, impersonal nouns, or plural nouns. The statistics accentuate this difference: In the TSKS construction there are about a dozen personal proper names in the NT (none having an identical referent); close to fifty impersonal nouns more than seventy plural substantives and eighty TSKS constructions fitting the structural requirements of the rule (the christologically significant texts excepted), all of which apparently having an identical referent. It is evident that Sharps limitation to personal singular substantives does indeed have substance.

Granville Sharp believed that several christologically significant texts involved the TSKS construction. However, several of these involved dubious textual variants and others had proper names It has frequently been alleged that is a proper name and that Sharps rule cannot apply to constructions in which it is employed. We have already argued that is not a proper name in Greek. We simple wish to point out here that in the TSKS construction is used over a dozen times in the NT (John 20:27) and always in reference to one person. This phenomenon is not true of any other proper name in said construction. Since that argument carries no weight, there is no good reason to reject Titus 2:13 as an explicit affirmation of the deity of Christ. See Wallace, 275-76.

Once again those who reject the deity of Christ and/or Christ as God incarnate are probably without recognizing such having to ignore the very grammar of the New Testament. As I have noted elsewhere they might reject this or that book of Scripture this or that periscope however it gets the point where the deity of Christ is embedded in the very grammar of the Greek New Testament. They think we can lop off a limb. Maybe excise a cell. However the classical doctrine of the deity of Chris is figuratively speaking in the DNA of the Greek New Testament. How far will such advocates go in order to deny or reject the textual support for the doctrine of Christ as God incarnate?


aorist active = answer, reply, (Hebraistically of the continuation of discourse like ) under BAGD 93a-.

Grammatical note = Nominative: grammatically independent uses. Nominative for Vocative (Nominative of Address). A substantive in the nominative is used in the place of th vocative case. It is used (as is the vocative) in direct address to designate the addressee. The reason for the nominative came to be used for the vocative was due to formal overlap. The nominative for vocative can be broken down into two structural categories: anarthrous and articular. The anarthrous use has two further structure: with and without . Each anarthrous use parallels the similar vocative construction Articular. (John 20:28) In all but two instances in the NT (both in the same verse, Matthew 27:46), God is addressed with the nominative, most likely due to Semitic influence. See Wallace, 57-58.

Grammatical note = Article: anarthrous pre-verbal predicate nominatives. Application of Colwells Construction [Rw which is what?] to John 1:1. If were indefinite, we would translate it a god (as is done in the New World Translation). If so, the theological implication would be some form of polytheism, perhaps suggesting that the Word was merely a secondary god in a pantheon of deities. The grammatical argument that the PN here is indefinite is weak

According to Dixons study, if were indefinite in John 1:1, it would be the only anarthrous pre-verbal PN in Johns Gospel to be so Thus, contextually and grammatically it is highly improbably that the Logos could be a god according to John. Finally, the evangelists own theology militates against this view, for there is an exalted Christology in the Fourth Gospel, to the point that Jesus Christ is identified as God (compare John 20:28 and so on). See Wallace, 266-67.

This is not to say that in a given context Jesus could not be identified with in John 20:28, for example, where the crescendo of the Gospel comes in Thomas confession, Jesus is called . But there is nothing in that context that would identify him with the Father. See Wallace, 268 and n29.


perfect active . Good practice parsing forms of .

perfect active .

, , = blessed, fortunate, happy, (usually in the sense) privileged recipient of divine favor under BAGD 486b.

aorist middle participle . This is an important verse and the use of the aorist here is interesting. Not those who believe in an ongoing sense but more like those who started to believe.

Grammatical note = Article: with multiple substantives. Both Groups Identical. The idea of identical groups is the X who are Y. The second substantive functions either in a descriptive or restrictive manner. This category has greater attestation than any of the others in the NT, though it is notat all found among Noun+noun TSKS plural constructions. (John 20:28) The negative stipulation of not seeing the risen Lord is inadequate to procure a blessing. And, in this context, the Lord is pronouncing a blessing on those who believe apart from seeing him, in contrast to Thomas. See Wallace, 281-82.

Grammatical note = Present tense: special uses (historical). Historical Present (Dramatic Present). Time Vs Aspect With Reference to Person. The only person in which the historical present occurs is the third person. See Wallace, 528.


, , = sign, the sign or distinguishing mark by which something is known, token, indication under BAGD 747b.

= before, (of place) before someone (or) something, in the sight of, in the presence of, in the opinion (or) judgment of under BAGD 270b. Rw Very similar to or in Biblical Hebrew.

perfect passive participle . Take a moment to observe and understand the form.

[][footnoteRef:5] [5: {C} 66 C D L W f1 f13. A B K 0250.... discipulis suis, postquam resurrexit a mortuis ite.]