Φιλική Συναυλία Studies in Mediterranean ... · the earthen surface, excavated with...

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Φιλική Συναυλία Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology for Mario Benzi BAR International Series 2460 2013 Edited by Giampaolo Graziadio Riccardo Guglielmino Valeria Lenuzza Salvatore Vitale

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  • Φιλική Συναυλία Studies in Mediterranean

    Archaeology for Mario Benzi

    BAR International Series 24602013

    Edited by

    Giampaolo GraziadioRiccardo Guglielmino

    Valeria LenuzzaSalvatore Vitale

  • Published by

    ArchaeopressPublishers of British Archaeological ReportsGordon House276 Banbury RoadOxford OX2 [email protected]

    BAR 2460

    Φιλική Συναυλία: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology for Mario Benzi

    © Archaeopress and the individual authors 2013

    ISBN 978 1 4073 1068 8

    Articles written in English by non-native speakers were edited for language by Teresa Hancock Vitale

    Printed in England by Information Press, Oxford

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    Hadrian Books Ltd122 Banbury RoadOxfordOX2 7BPEnglandwww.hadrianbooks.co.uk

    The current BAR catalogue with details of all titles in print, prices and means of payment is available free from Hadrian Books or may be downloaded from www.archaeopress.com

  • 123

    TWO LH IIIA1 DEPOSITS FROM MITROU, EAST LOKRIS: A CHRONOLOGICAL, TYPOLOGICAL, AND FUNCTIONAL

    ANALYSIS OF THE POTTERY*

    SALVATORE VITALE

    ABSTRACT This paper presents two deposits of Late Helladic IIIA1 ceramics excavated in Trench LE795 in the NW excavation sector at the site of Mitrou, East Lokris. After a discussion of the stratigraphy, a quantitative assessment of the pottery is provided in terms of fabric, typology (shapes and decoration), and function. The exact chronological placement of the assemblages is considered in relation to the history of the site and the most significant closed find groups from the Mycenaean mainland. Contextual examination of the evidence suggests that the LH IIIA1 deposits from Trench LE795 contained domestic refuse materials probably deriving from the final phase of use of Building H.

    KEYWORDS Mitrou, Late Helladic IIIA1, Mycenaean pottery, chronology, typology, functional analysis

    There are two things about my teacher that are well known among all of his past and present students. First, his lectures are extremely sophisticated and attractive. Second, his dry sense of humour may sound, from time to time, terribly intimidating, especially during a university exam. In the course of the last 18 years, however, I have had the opportunity to learn a third thing: Mario Benzi has an exquisite human touch. Although this side of his personality tends to be obscured by his proverbial irony, I had the privilege to experience it, particularly in a couple of delicate situations.

    This paper, which presents two Late Helladic (LH) IIIA1 ceramic deposits from Mitrou, East Lokris,1 is intended as a small sign of my gratitude for all his teaching and support.

    context And strAtIgrAphy

    The materials discussed here come from an exterior earthen occupation surface found immediately SE of Building H’s Room 1, in Mitrou’s NW excavation sector, as well as from a pit that had been dug into this surface [Figure 1a]. Technically, the pottery sherds from the exterior surface may be classified as a dump, those from the pit as a fill. The exterior occupation surface was unearthed at the bottom of stratigraphic unit (SU) LE795-036, at a

    * The present study was carried out in the context of a postdoctoral research scholarship at the Italian School of Archaeology at Athens (May 2009 to March 2010). I would like to particularly thank the following for their support during my work at Mitrou and/or their useful comments on the manuscript of this article: Eleonora Ballan, Carmen Basile, Giuliana Bianco, Luigi Coluccia, Giampaolo Graziadio, Emanuele Greco, Riccardo Guglielmino, Nicholas Herrmann, Olga Kyriazi, Valeria Lenuzza, Bartek Lis, Penelope Mountjoy, Kerill O’Neill, Tina Ross, Jeremy Rutter, Štěpán Rückl, Patrick Thomas, Arianna Trecarichi, Aleydis Van de Moortel, and Eleni Zahou. 1 The Mitrou Archaeological Project (www.mitrou.org), directed by A. Van de Moortel and E. Zahou, is a joint undertaking of the University of Tennessee and the 14th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiqui-ties at Lamia, under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. For recent or forthcoming publications on Mitrou, see Van de Moortel 2007, 2009; Van de Moortel and Zahou 2006, 2011, forthcoming.

    depth of circa +5.34m [Figure 1b]. It was found littered with medium to large ceramic sherds. The vast majority of these fragments was chronologically homogeneous and dates to LH IIIA1, while a small percentage could be assigned to earlier phases.2 The construction date of the exterior surface can be assigned also to LH IIIA1, as is suggested by the latest sherds below it, excavated in SUs LE 795-040 and -045.

    The shape of the preserved part of the pit was roughly circular, measuring circa 1.5m in diameter and 20cm at its maximum depth. Its fill was excavated in a single SU, LE795-038, and contained cobbles, pebbles, pottery, bones, and shells. As in the case of the material on top of the earthen surface, excavated with LE 795-036, the bulk of the ceramic fragments from the pit dates to LH IIIA1 with only a small amount of earlier material.3

    The analysis of the stratigraphy indicates that the pit and the earthen surface to its NW had been disturbed in LH IIIA1 and this explains the presence of some joins between SUs LE795-036 and -038.4

    The latest pottery from the exterior surface and the pit matches with the final occupational phase of Room 1 within Building H. Here, the upper of two successive

    2  The total number of diagnostic sherds from SU LE795-036, after the mending process was completed, was 112, including all painted sherds and unpainted features. Of these 112 fragments, 89 (79.5%) are LH IIIA1 pieces, weighing 2.120kg (91.4%), while 23 fragments (20.5%) are earlier, weighing 0.200kg (8.6%). If all of the sherds recovered from SU LE795-036 are considered, however, LH IIIA1 diagnostic fragments plus fragments datable to LH IIIA1 by context are 250 (91.6%), weighing 4.105kg (95.4%), while earlier pieces are 23 (8.4%), weighing 0.200kg (4.6%).3  Diagnostic sherds from SU LE795-038 after mending were 93, includ-ing all painted sherds and unpainted features. Of these 93, LH IIIA1 pieces are 83 (89.2%), weighing 3.340kg (97.4%), while earlier materials are 10 (10.8%), weighing 0.090kg (2.6%). If all of the sherds from SU LE795-038 are taken into account, LH IIIA1 diagnostic fragments plus fragments datable to LH IIIA1 by context are 218 (95.6%), weighing 6.135kg (98.6%), while earlier pieces are 10 (4.4%) weighing 0.090kg (1.4%). 4  Since SUs LE795-036 and -038 do not contain any pottery later than LH IIIA1, the area must have been disturbed during this period.

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    closely spaced floors was uncovered in SUs LE795-012, -013 (western half of the room), and -027 (eastern half). This floor sloped down in a S-SW direction, ranging from +5.25m to +5.10m. The ceramic material on top of it was mixed, with a latest date of LH IIIC/Protogeometric (PG). The only two mendable vases from this context, however, can be attributed to LH IIIA1. They are a piriform jar FS 31 with scale pattern FM 70 [Figure 1c] and a goblet FS 255 with a partially preserved spiraliform decoration [Figure 1d], possibly representing the remains of a curved stemmed-spiral FM 49. The later sherds most likely are intrusive, and have been introduced by successive grave digging activity in this area, as is shown by the presence of Late PG Cist 18, which was built directly on top of Wall 74, about 1.2m to the NE.

    The construction of the upper floor of Room 1 may be dated to LH IIIA1 as well, as suggested by the latest ceramic fragments from SU’s LE795-030, -032, -033, -034, and -037, situated below SU LE795-027 in the eastern part of the room. The stratigraphy in the western part of the room is disturbed, as is shown by cross-joins between SU LE795-012 and SU LE795-024 underneath.

    An earlier architectural phase is documented in the western half of Room 1 by another floor found at the bottom of SU LE795-024 (+5.19m to +4.99m), underneath LE795-012 and -013. This floor was constructed in LH IIB, as is suggested by the latest sherds recovered from SU LE795-025 underlying SU LE795-024.

    generAl chArActerIstIcs oF the lh IIIA1 pottery FroM sus le795-036 And -038

    The pottery from the exterior surface (LE795-036) and the pit (LE795-038) is presented here together. This was done for three reasons: (a) The strong typological and chronological homogeneity of the two groups, which indicates that they are identical in date; (b) The occurrence of cross joins; and (c) The possibility that at least some of the materials from the two assemblages may have had a common origin because of the mixing caused by the disturbance mentioned above.

    The material from the LE795-036 and -038 deposits was sorted into seven basic categories. Painted sherds are classified as patterned, linear or monochrome. Unpainted fragments are typified as fine pale, fine dark, medium-coarse, and coarse. The term ‘fine’ refers to fabrics with inclusions no larger than 2mm, ‘medium-coarse’ to fabrics with the largest inclusions ranging between 2mm and 4mm, ‘coarse’ to fabrics with inclusions larger than 4mm (for similar definitions, cf. Thomas 2005: 457; 2011: 183, note 20). The distinction between ‘fine pale’ and ‘fine dark’ is based essentially on colour. The latter continues from the Middle Helladic period, when it was the most widespread fine unpainted class together with Grey Minyan.

    General counts, weights, and percentages before mending are provided in Table 1 (cf. Appendix).5 Sherds of painted pottery make up 14.3% by count and 9.9% by weight, while those from unpainted ceramics correspond to 85.7% by count and 90.1% by weight. Among painted sherds, there is a very high proportion of monochrome coating, 63.4%, while patterned fragments represent a relatively small group (15.5%). Among the unpainted pottery, fine fabrics constitute 64.8%, medium-coarse and coarse 31.6% and 3.6% respectively.

    The degree of mendability of the deposits, that is the decrease in the absolute number of fragments after mending, is comparatively low, accounting for 7.0% in the painted fraction, 5.2% in the unpainted, and 5.5% for both fractions combined [Appendix, Table 1].

    The distribution of different functional classes is shown in Table 2 (cf. Appendix). Fragments of unpainted fine and painted fine and medium-coarse serving vessels represent 69.9% of the total count, whereas medium-coarse and coarse cooking pottery make up 21.6%, and medium-coarse and coarse storage containers account for 8.5%.

    If these data are compared to other significant LH IIIA and LH IIIB assemblages from the Mycenaean mainland, some peculiarities emerge (cf. Thomas 2005: 457-460, table 2; 2011: 183-186, table 2). First of all, among the painted pottery from LE795-036 and -038 there is a remarkable tendency toward simple decorative schemes (patterned sherds take up only 15.5% vs. 84.5% for linear and monochrome fragments). Secondly, the proportion of unpainted vs. painted pottery is rather high (85.7% vs. 14.3%). Finally, the distribution of functional classes shows an emphasis on serving and cooking vessels. The percentage of cooking pot fragments is especially high in comparison to other Late Bronze Age contexts at Mitrou, where its average is around 15.0% by count (cf. Lis 2012: 20, table 1).

    The possible meaning of these three features and their potential implications for the interpretation of the LH IIIA1 deposits from SUs LE795-036 and -038 will be addressed below in the section concerning the functional analysis of the materials.

    typologIcAl overvIeW

    Among painted pottery [Appendix, Table 3], the most frequent open shape is the goblet. Besides canonical FS 255 specimens (23.2%) [Figure 2a-b], two base fragments may be assigned to the type recently termed ‘kantharos’ [Figure 2c] by P.A. Mountjoy (4.7%). Kantharoi, which seem to be absent in Attica and Boeotia, constitute one of the main features of a Phocian regional style, extending to the Gulf of Corinth and the Ionian Islands (Mountjoy 1999: 29, 744–745, 756). The kantharos sherds from the

    5  Table 1 is designed following previous examples by P.M. Thomas (2005: 458, table 1; 2011: 184, table 1).

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    Two LH IIIA1 DeposITs from mITrou, eAsT LokrIs: A CHronoLogICAL, TypoLogICAL, AnD funCTIonAL AnALysIs of THe poTTery

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  • 127

    Two LH IIIA1 DeposITs from mITrou, eAsT LokrIs: A CHronoLogICAL, TypoLogICAL, AnD funCTIonAL AnALysIs of THe poTTery

    LE795 deposits are the first that can be securely dated as early as LH IIIA1. At Mitrou, kantharoi continue into LH IIIA2 Early and die out by LH IIIA2 Middle (Vitale 2011: 334, 338, fig. 2.4-5). One of the monochrome goblet rim fragments FS 255 is an Aeginetan import [Figure 2d].

    The next most popular open shape is the krater FS 6/7 (13.9%). Recovered sherds include local specimens [Figure 2e] as well as an Aeginetan Painted and Burnish example [Figure 2f]. Other represented vessel types are the shallow cup FS 219 (4.7%) [Figure 2g], the mug FS 225 (4.7%), the carinated conical cup FS 230 (4.7%), the cup with high-swung handle FS 238 (2.3%) [Figure 2h], and the basin FS 294 (2.3%). Non-identified sherds make up 39.5% of painted open shapes [Figure 2i-j], including an Aeginetan import.

    Among painted closed shapes [Appendix, Table 4], fragments could be assigned either to large (28.6%) or medium size (4.8%) amphoras/jugs/hydrias FS 69/105/128 or FS 69/110/128. The former group contains an Aeginetan Matt Painted handle [Figure 2k]. Non-identified sherds make up 66.6% of painted closed vases.

    As stated above, the decorative repertoire is extremely limited. The vast majority of the sherds are either linear or monochrome painted (84.5%). Among patterned fragments, only three motifs are represented: the ivy FM 12 [Figure 2i], the wavy line FM 53, and the stipple pattern FM 77 [Figure 2j].

    Within the unpainted fine fraction [Appendix, Table 5], the most frequent open shape is the kylix FS 264/266/267 (53.6%) [Figure 2l-n], followed by the goblet FS 255 (23.2%) [Figure 2o], the basin FS 294 (8.9%), the krater FS 6/7 (5.3%) [Figure 2p], the dipper FS 236 (3.6%) [Figure 2q], and the shallow angular bowl FS 295 (1.8%) [Figure 2r].6 Unpainted fine closed shapes include the piriform jar FS 22 (7.2%), amphoras/jugs/hydrias FS 69/105/128 (21.4%) or FS 69/110/128 (21.4%), and the narrow-necked jug FS 120 (7.2%) [Figure 2s]. Non-identified sherds constitute 3.6% of unpainted open and 42.8% of unpainted closed vessels.

    Unpainted medium-coarse and coarse fragments are considered together since the latter are represented by two feature sherds only [Appendix, Table 6]. Cooking containers, such as miscellaneous cooking jars FS 65, 66/67, or 320 (55.6%) [Figure 2t-u] and tripods FS 320 (25.9%) [Figure 2v], are predominant. Storage shapes include pithoi (14.8%) [Figure 2w-x] and amphoras/jugs/hydrias FS 69/105/128 (3.7%) [Figure 2y]. Within cooking pottery, only two body sherds out of a total of 107 fragments represent Aeginetan imports (1.9% of the entire cooking assemblage) [Appendix, Table 2].

    6  Unless explicitly stated otherwise, the percentages provided for un-painted fine, medium-coarse, and coarse open and closed shapes do not refer to all of the materials recovered, but only to feature sherds, that is, rims, handle bases, bases, legs, and stems [cf. Appendix, Tables 5-6].

    relAtIve chronology And WIder relAtIons

    Other than the two deposits from SUs LE795-036 and -038, no significant LH IIIA1 assemblage was found elsewhere at Mitrou, although small amounts of stratified and unstratified pottery of this date are well documented from various areas on the site.

    In addition to the material from Building H’s Room 1 discussed above, there are pottery fragments from three LH IIIA1 pebbled surfaces belonging to Road 1 [Figure 3a-b], situated between Buildings D and F in the NE excavation sector (Trench LM783, cf. Vitale 2011: 332, fig. 1.1-2). Some 15 meters to the SE, in Trench LP782, the floor associated with Wall 122 [Figure 3a], which was part of Building D’s complex, was built in LH IIIA1 and abandoned after a severe fire destruction in LH IIIA2 Early (cf. Vitale 2011: 332, table 1, fig. 1.1). Most importantly, LH IIIA1 represents the final phase of use of built Chamber Tomb 73 [Figure 3a], as is suggested by its latest mendable vase: a linear rounded alabastron FS 84 [Figure 3c].7 This element is particularly important. Although it was robbed in antiquity, Tomb 73 has revealed a rich array of offerings to the deceased in its final phase, including boar’s tusks platelets pierced to be part of one or more helmets, arrowheads, and precious and semiprecious ornaments in gold, bronze, amber, etc. In addition to the wealth of the finds, Tomb 73, which was constructed within Building D’s complex, stands out for its monumental and extraordinary architectural layout. Obviously, it was built for the burial of some of the most distinguished individuals of the community. The intentional display of high social status implies the existence of a powerful ruling elite8 and suggests that Mitrou was an important political centre in East Lokris during the Mycenaean Prepalatial period. After the LH IIIA2 Early destruction horizon, which is well documented in the NE excavation sector (Van de Moortel 2007: 247; Vitale 2008: 229; 2011: 332), Mitrou may have come under domination of one of the nearby major centres, possibly Orchomenos or Thebes (Van de Moortel 2007: 253; Van de Moortel, Zahou, and Rutter: forthcoming).

    The position of the deposits from SUs LE795-036 and -038 within Mitrou’s ceramic sequence can be firmly assessed based on a stylistic comparison with the LH IIB and LH IIIA2 Early horizons at the site. The LE795-036 and -038 deposits postdate the former because of the prevalence of the kylix 264/266/267 [Figure 2l-n] over the goblet FS 255

    7  Rounded alabastra FS 84 with linear decoration are not very common. Nevertheless, some parallels are attested from central Greece (Nea Ionia, Volos) and the southern Peloponnese (the Menelaion in Laconia and Koukounara Tomb 1 in Messenia), all dating to LH IIIA1 (Marinatos 1965: 190, pl. 148α; Batziou-Efstathiou 1991: 22, pl. 15ζ; Mountjoy 1999: 325, 837; Catling 2009: 104, 103, 130, 350, nos. III5, VII3, WS4, figs. 126, 134, 177).8  For the social implications of the prestige finds recovered from built Chamber Tomb 73, cf., among others, Laffineur 1992: 108-111; Wright 1995: 69-75; Deger-Jalkotzy 1999: 121-123. Tomb 73 and its significance are more fully discussed in Van de Moortel, Zahou, and Rutter, forthcoming.

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    Two LH IIIA1 DeposITs from mITrou, eAsT LokrIs: A CHronoLogICAL, TypoLogICAL, AnD funCTIonAL AnALysIs of THe poTTery

    [Figure 2o] in the unpainted fine fraction, the occurrence of new painted shapes, such as the krater FS 6/7 [Figure 2e], the mug FS 225, and the carinated conical cup FS 230, as well as the absence of hallmarks of the previous phase such as the Vapheio cup FS 224 and the ring-handled cup FS 237. Likewise, the material from LE795-036 and -038 predates the LH IIIA2 Early phase since linear deep semi-globular cups FS 214, monochrome kylikes FS 264, and painted stemmed bowls FS 304 have not yet appeared and because of the presence of carinated conical cups FS 230 and Aeginetan Matt Painted imports [Figure 2k], which both died out by the beginning of LH IIIA2 (Vitale 2011: 332-338, tables 2a, 2b, and 5, fig. 2, fig. 3.1-4).9

    Outside Mitrou, the LH IIIA1 deposits from SUs LE795-036 and -038 may be considered chronologically contemporary with several significant ceramic assemblages from the Greek mainland including settlement as well as funerary contexts. The former are represented by the materials from the Atreus Bothros at Mycenae (French 1964), Building 49 at Tiryns (Podzuweit 1977: 132, fig. 7), the construction of Mansion 2 at the Menelaion (cf. Catling 2009: 348-359), the fill below Hall 65 and the destruction of the houses of the SW quarter at Pylos (Blegen et al. 1973: 36-37, 52-57, figs. 139, 141, 155.11-13), and Area IV at Nichoria (Martin 1992: 488-495, 534-537, figs. 9.24-38). Important funerary ceramic deposits come from the Prophites Elias Tomb 3 at Tiryns (Rudolph 1973: 29-32, pls. 13-14), the inner right quarter and left corner burials from Tomb 42 at Prosymna (Blegen 1937: 147-152, figs. 369, 372), Agora Chamber Tombs 17, 31, and 37 at Athens (Immerwahr 1971: 208-209, 232-233, 240, pls. 48, 55, 58, 67, 76), and cist Tombs 49, 166, 189, and 192 from Nea Ionia at Volos (Batziou-Efstathiou 1991: 23-24, 29-30, 42-43, 45-47, figs. 10, 21, 25, pls. 16β, 19γ, 25β-γ, 29δ).10

    FunctIonAl AnAlysIs

    As argued above, some characteristics of the LH IIIA1 deposits from SUs LE795-036 and -038 seem to deviate from the standard composition of Mycenaean domestic assemblages. They include a distinct tendency toward simple decorative schemes, a high proportion of unpainted vs. painted pottery, and an emphasis on serving and cooking vessels [cf. Appendix, Tables 1 and 2]. These features match the first three of the six criteria established by M. Dabney, P. Halstead, and P.M. Thomas for the identification of ceramics from feasting activities (Dabney, Halstead, and Thomas 2004: 202-203). However, the tendency toward simple decoration, more particularly the remarkable prevalence of monochrome sherds (63.4% of painted fragments before mending), may be due to chronological rather than functional reasons.11

    9  Elsewhere, conical carinated cups FS 230 are attested beyond the end of LH IIIA1, as is shown by the evidence from the EU9 deposit at Tsoungiza (cf. Thomas 2011, 194, n. 70, fig. 9), which is dated by the present author to LH IIIA2 Middle (cf. Vitale 2011: 339-342, table 5).10  For a more complete list of significant LH IIIA1 ceramic deposits from the Greek mainland and beyond, cf. Mountjoy 1999: 26-28. 11  A similar tendency toward simplified decorative schemes, including

    Moreover, the two LE795 deposits lack two features that are particularly significant for the identification of a feasting deposit, especially if the assemblage is relatively small as in the present case: (a) The occurrence of ritual and/or specialized shapes; and (b) The presence of pots designed for and/or alluding to shared consumption, for example oversized drinking/eating vessels (cf. Dabney, Halstead, and Thomas 2004: 202-203, criteria n. 4 and 6). These two characteristics were the most decisive elements for previous identifications of feasting assemblages at Mitrou, such as those from Trenches LL784-785 and LM-LN 784 (cf. Vitale 2008: 230-236; forthcoming). For these reasons, although tempting, the hypothesis of a connection between the two LE795 deposits and feasting activities should be treated with much caution, particularly before the analysis of bones and shells from SU’s LE795-036 and -038 is accomplished.

    At the present stage of research, the most likely interpretation of the evidence is that the LH IIIA1 ceramics from the exterior surface and pit in Trench LE795 represent materials discarded during the last phase of use of Building H. This conclusion would explain also the presence of the pit. Similar rubbish pits connected to nearby houses are well documented at Tsoungiza in the Corinthia during LH IIIA2 and LH IIIB (Thomas 2005: 454, fig. 2).12

    concludIng reMArKs

    To date, the pottery from SUs LE795-036 and -038 represents the only domestic assemblage dating to LH IIIA1 from central Greece that has been the subject of an in-depth quantitative analysis. Despite the relatively small amount of recovered material, its publication contributes to a better comprehension of this phase in the area. The evidence presented here is even more important if one considers that LH IIIA1 homogeneous domestic deposits are not very well represented in the Greek mainland as a whole (cf. Mountjoy 1999: 26-28).

    The final publication of Mitrou’s LH IIIA1 ceramics will no doubt provide us with a wider repertoire of shapes and decorative motifs in comparison to that described in this paper, thus enlarging our knowledge of the local ceramic assemblage. The contextual and functional examination of the LE795-036 and -038 deposits, however, remains by itself significant because it sheds new light on an important moment in the history of Mitrou, which may have represented one of the flourishing phases of the site during the late formative period of Mycenaean Palatial society.

    a clear preference for monochrome vessels, is evident in at least three significant ceramic assemblages, which are close in date to LH IIIA1: the LH IIIA2 Early horizons from Mitrou and Nichoria (Shelmerdine 1992: 495–503, 537–538, figs. 9.39-40; Vitale 2008; 2011: 332-338, tables 2a and 2b, fig. 2, fig. 3.1-4; forthcoming: figs. 2-3) and the EU 9 deposit from Tsoungiza (Thomas 2011), which is assigned by the present author to LH IIIA2 Middle (cf. Vitale 2011: 339-342, table 5).12  Another possible LH IIIA1 pit was uncovered in nearby Trench LH792 at Mitrou (SU LH792-025). Unfortunately, its stratigraphy is heavily disturbed, preventing a clear interpretation of the evidence.

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    TAL

    100.

    0%10

    0.0%

    495

    (468

    *;10

    .240

    5136

    307

    836

    3

    degr

    ee o

    f men

    dabi

    lity

    is 5

    .5%

    )C

    ount

    s, w

    eigh

    ts, a

    nd p

    erce

    ntag

    es re

    fer t

    o th

    e LH

    IIIA

    1 sh

    erds

    from

    SU

    s LE7

    95-0

    36 a

    nd -0

    38 a

    fter t

    he e

    xtra

    ctio

    n of

    ear

    lier f

    ragm

    ents

    was

    com

    plet

    ed

    * A

    fter m

    endi

    ng

    TAB

    LE

    2.

    CO

    UN

    TS,

    WE

    IGH

    TS,

    AN

    D P

    ER

    CE

    NTA

    GE

    S O

    F D

    IFFE

    RE

    NT

    FUN

    CT

    ION

    AL

    CL

    ASS

    ES

    (bef

    ore

    men

    ding

    )Fu

    nctio

    nal C

    lass

    es/C

    ount

    s, W

    eigh

    ts, P

    erce

    ntag

    esAb

    solu

    te N

    umbe

    r of S

    herd

    sW

    eigh

    t of S

    herd

    s(k

    g)Pa

    inte

    d Fi

    ne a

    nd M

    ediu

    m-C

    oars

    e Se

    rvin

    g Ve

    ssel

    s71

    (20.

    5% o

    f ser

    ving

    ves

    sels

    ; 14

    .3%

    of t

    otal

    )

    1.01

    5(2

    3.0%

    of s

    ervi

    ng v

    esse

    ls;

    9.9%

    of t

    otal

    )U

    npai

    nted

    Fin

    e Se

    rvin

    g Ve

    ssel

    s27

    5(7

    9.5%

    of s

    ervi

    ng v

    esse

    ls;

    55.6

    % o

    f tot

    al)

    3.40

    5(7

    7.0%

    of s

    ervi

    ng v

    esse

    ls;

    33.3

    % o

    f tot

    al)

    Subt

    otal

    346

    (69.

    9%)

    4.42

    0(4

    3.2%

    )U

    npai

    nted

    Med

    ium

    -Coa

    rse

    and

    Coa

    rse

    Coo

    king

    Pot

    tery

    107*

    (21.

    6%)

    2.54

    0(2

    4.8%

    )U

    npai

    nted

    Med

    ium

    -Coa

    rse

    and

    Coa

    rse

    Stor

    age

    Vess

    els

    42(8

    .5%

    )3.

    280

    (32.

    0%)

    TOTA

    L49

    5(1

    00.0

    %)

    10.2

    40(1

    00.0

    %)

    * Tw

    o ou

    t of t

    he 1

    07 c

    ooki

    ng p

    otte

    ry sh

    erds

    are

    Aeg

    inet

    an a

    ccou

    ntin

    g fo

    r 1.9

    % o

    f the

    ent

    ire c

    ooki

    ng p

    otte

    ry a

    ssem

    blag

    e

  • 131

    Two LH IIIA1 DeposITs from mITrou, eAsT LokrIs: A CHronoLogICAL, TypoLogICAL, AnD funCTIonAL AnALysIs of THe poTTery

    TAB

    LE

    3. P

    AIN

    TE

    D O

    PEN

    VE

    SSE

    LS:

    SH

    APE

    S A

    ND

    MO

    TIF

    S (a

    fter

    men

    ding

    )

    DECORATION/SHAPES

    KraterFS 6/7

    Shallow CupFS 219

    MugFS 225

    Carinated Conical Cup FS 230

    Cup with high-swung HandleFS 238

    Goblet or ‘Kantharos’FS 255

    GobletFS 255

    BasinFS 294

    Non-indentified

    TOTAL

    FM 1

    2 Iv

    y-

    1-

    --

    --

    --

    1

    FM 7

    7 St

    ippl

    e-

    --

    --

    --

    -1

    1

    Non

    -inde

    ntifi

    ed1

    1-

    --

    -1

    -1

    4

    Tota

    l Pat

    tern

    ed1

    2-

    --

    -1

    -2

    6

    Line

    ar3

    --

    --

    -2

    13

    9

    Mon

    ochr

    ome

    Out

    2-

    22

    12

    7-

    1228

    *

    TOTA

    L6

    (13.

    9%)

    2(4

    .7%

    )2

    (4.7

    %)

    2(4

    .7%

    )1

    (2.3

    %)

    2(4

    .7%

    )10

    (23.

    2%)

    1(2

    .3%

    )17

    (39.

    5%)

    43(1

    00.0

    %)

    Aeg

    inet

    an P

    aint

    ed a

    nd B

    urni

    shed

    (1)

    --

    --

    -(1

    )-

    (1)

    (3)

    Aeg

    inet

    an M

    att P

    aint

    ed-

    --

    --

    --

    --

    -

    Tota

    l Aeg

    inet

    an(1

    )-

    --

    --

    (1)

    -(1

    )(3

    )

    Mon

    ochr

    ome

    In(2

    )-

    (1)

    (1)

    (1)

    (1)

    (7)

    -(1

    3)(2

    6)

    * Tw

    o m

    onoc

    hrom

    e ha

    ndle

    stum

    ps c

    ould

    not

    be

    attri

    bute

    d to

    any

    ope

    n or

    clo

    sed

    vess

    el a

    nd, t

    hus,

    they

    are

    not

    cou

    nted

    in th

    is ta

    ble

    as w

    ell a

    s in

    Tabl

    e 4

    TAB

    LE

    4. P

    AIN

    TE

    D C

    LO

    SED

    VE

    SSE

    LS:

    SH

    APE

    S A

    ND

    MO

    TIF

    S (a

    fter

    men

    ding

    )

    DECORATION/SHAPES

    Amphora/Jug/Hydria, Large

    FS 69/105/128

    Amphora/Jug/Hydria, Medium

    FS 69/110/128

    Non-indentified

    TOTAL

    FM 5

    3 W

    avy

    Line

    --

    11

    Non

    -inde

    ntifi

    ed 1

    -3

    4

    Tota

    l Pat

    tern

    ed1

    -4

    5

    Line

    ar5

    -1

    6

    Mon

    ochr

    ome

    Out

    -1

    910

    TOTA

    L6

    (28.

    6%)

    1(4

    .8%

    )14

    (66.

    6%)

    21(1

    00.0

    %)

    Aeg

    inet

    an P

    aint

    ed a

    nd B

    urni

    shed

    --

    --

    Aeg

    inet

    an M

    att P

    aint

    ed(1

    )-

    -(1

    )

    Tota

    l Aeg

    inet

    an(1

    )-

    -(1

    )

    Mon

    ochr

    ome

    In-

    --

    -

  • 132

    Salvatore vitale

    TAB

    LE

    5. U

    NPA

    INT

    ED

    FIN

    E F

    RA

    CT

    ION

    . FR

    EQ

    UE

    NC

    Y O

    F O

    PEN

    AN

    D C

    LO

    SED

    SH

    APE

    FE

    ATU

    RE

    S (a

    fter

    men

    ding

    )O

    pen

    Shap

    esC

    lose

    d Sh

    apes

    FEATURES/SHAPES

    KraterFS 6/7

    DipperFS 236

    GobletFS 255

    KylixFS 264/266/267

    BasinFS 294

    Shallow Angular Bowl FS 295

    Non-indentified

    Subtotal

    Piriform Jar FS 22

    Amphora/Jug/ Hydria, LargeFS 69/105/128

    Amphora/Jug/ Hydria, MediumFS 69/110/128

    Narrow-necked Jug FS 120

    Non-indentified

    Subtotal

    TOTAL

    Rim

    s2

    24

    124

    11

    261

    --

    1-

    228

    Han

    dle

    Bas

    es1

    -4

    --

    --

    5-

    2-

    -4

    611

    *B

    ases

    --

    510

    1-

    117

    -1

    3-

    26

    23St

    ems

    --

    -8

    --

    -8

    --

    --

    --

    8

    TOTA

    L3

    (5.3

    %)

    (4.3

    %)

    2(3

    .6%

    )(2

    .8%

    )

    13(2

    3.2%

    )(1

    8.6%

    )

    30(5

    3.6%

    )(4

    2.9%

    )

    5(8

    .9%

    )(7

    .2%

    )

    1(1

    .8%

    )(1

    .4%

    )

    2(3

    .6%

    )(2

    .8%

    )

    56(1

    00.0

    %)

    (80.

    0%)

    1(7

    .2%

    )(1

    .4%

    )

    3(2

    1.4%

    )(4

    .3%

    )

    3(2

    1.4%

    )(4

    .3%

    )

    1(7

    .2%

    )(1

    .4%

    )

    6(4

    2.8%

    )(8

    .6%

    )

    14(1

    00.0

    %)

    (20%

    )

    70**

    (100

    .0%

    )

    * In

    add

    ition

    to th

    e 11

    han

    dle

    base

    s cou

    nted

    her

    e, th

    ere

    are

    nine

    unp

    aint

    ed fi

    ne h

    andl

    e st

    umps

    ** If

    the

    nine

    unp

    aint

    ed fi

    ne h

    andl

    e st

    umps

    are

    take

    n in

    to a

    ccou

    nt, t

    he to

    tal a

    mou

    nt o

    f unp

    aint

    ed fi

    ne fe

    atur

    es is

    equ

    al to

    79

    TAB

    LE

    6.

    UN

    PAIN

    TE

    D M

    ED

    IUM

    -CO

    AR

    SE A

    ND

    CO

    AR

    SE F

    RA

    CT

    ION

    . FR

    EQ

    UE

    NC

    Y O

    F O

    PEN

    AN

    D C

    LO

    SED

    SH

    APE

    FE

    ATU

    RE

    S (a

    fter

    men

    ding

    )*

    FEATURES/SHAPES

    Pithos

    Amphora/Jug/ Hydria, LargeFS 69/105/128

    Miscellaneous Cooking JarsFS 65, 66/67,

    or 320

    Tripod Cooking Pot FS 320

    TOTAL

    Rim

    s

    2**

    19

    -12

    Han

    dle

    Bas

    es1

    -5

    -6

    Bas

    es1

    -1

    13

    Legs

    --

    -6

    6TO

    TAL

    4(1

    4.8%

    )1

    (3.7

    %)

    15(5

    5.6%

    )7

    (25.

    9%)

    27(1

    00.0

    %)

    * Th

    ere

    are

    no u

    npai

    nted

    med

    ium

    -coa

    rse

    or c

    oars

    e op

    en sh

    ape

    feat

    ures

    **

    One

    of t

    he p

    ithos

    rim

    s and

    the

    pith

    os h

    andl

    e ar

    e in

    a c

    oars

    e fa

    bric

    . All

    of th

    e re

    mai

    ning

    feat

    ure

    sher

    ds

    in th

    e ch

    art a

    re in

    a m

    ediu

    m-c

    oars

    e fa

    bric

  • 133

    Two LH IIIA1 DeposITs from mITrou, eAsT LokrIs: A CHronoLogICAL, TypoLogICAL, AnD funCTIonAL AnALysIs of THe poTTery

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