Η Αρχιτεκτονική Ενός Smartphone

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  • SMARTPHONE ms13056

  • ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Smartphone .................................................................................................... 7

    Chip ...........................................................................................................................................................8 .........................................................................................................................................11 CPU .........................................................................................................................13 ARM .............................................................................................................................15

    Exceptions ...............................................................................................................................................17Exception Handling .................................................................................................................................19 .......................................................................................................................21Jazelle .................................................................................................................................................21Thumb.................................................................................................................................................21

    .................................................................................................2232-bit ...........................................................................................................2264-bit .........................................................................................................23

    ..................................................................................................................................25 SoC ............................................................................................27

    ......................................................................................................................................30

  • smartphone

    .

    ( Oxford Dictionary,

    ,

    ). smartphone

    ,

    WiFi.

    .

    .

    smartphone Android,

    Symbian, iOS, BlackBerry OS Windows

    Mobile.

    1. Simon Personal Communicator

    smartphone,

  • 1973, 1994.

    1994, IBM BellSouth

    PDA Simon Personal

    Communicator. Simon

    smartphone, ( BellSouth Cellular

    US$899 US$1099

    . US$599

    ) (510). 2. GS 88 Penelope

    50.000

    1995.

    smartphones

    .

    smartphone 1997, Ericsson

    GS 88 Penelope .

    Smart Phone Nokia 9000 Communicator 1996.

    Nokia 9000 397 . GSM 900MHz,

    Intel 386 24 MHz GEOS,

    ROM-DOS. ,

  • Simon

    ,

    640 x 200 pixels.

    To 1999 Nokia

    communicator

    , 9110, 253 .

    158 x 56 x 27 mm .

    AMD Elan SC450 486 33 MHz.

    Smartphones

    Nokia, 2000-2001, .

    . x86, ARM9

    Nokia 52 MHz Symbian .

    , 2007

    smartphones. Apple iPhone .

    smartphone (

    ), smartphones

    .

    smartphones

    BlackBerries.

  • To BlackBerry, smartphone 2003.

    email & text

    . BlackBerry

    / email.

    Qwerty . Blackberry

    SoC , hardware,

    , .

    SmartPhone resources ( applications),

    .

  • SMARTPHONE

  • system-on-chip chip. components. application processor , middleware . BP ( baseband processor: is a device, a chip or part of a chip, ina network interface that manages all the radio functions) (, , ) .

    CHIP

    , . ARM chips x86. ARM 32 - bit RISC , , . , ARM , routers ADSL modems video games, Nintendo DS . 32 bit PC, ARM, , smartphone.

    ARM / (controllers) , , .

  • , . (processing cycles). . smartphone drivers, Stand by mode .

    OMAP2420, Texas Instruments, smartphones, Nokia, N95 E90.

    chips, SoC (System On Chip - ), CPU .

  • SoC ARM11, chip DSP , . video accelerator, video formats, ( ). 3D accelerator, 3D . , 2megapixels ( VooDoo 1 1996 50megapixels), .

  • CPU

    ARM RISC (Reduced

    Instruction Set Computer) :

    - register file

    RISC, CPU design instruction set , .

    CISC (ComplexInstruction Set Computing).

  • - load/store,

    registers .

    - ,

    registers .

    - , .

    ARM :

    - ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) (Shifter)

    ALU.

    - Auto-increment auto-decrement ,

    /.

    - Load store data throughput.

    RISC, ARM

    , ,

    , .

    CPU

    User mode, .

  • FIQ mode,

    FIQ

    IRQ mode,

    IRQ.

    Supervisor (svc) mode,

    reset CPU SVC.

    Abort mode,

    Prefetch Abort Data Abort.

    Undefined mode,

    undefined instruction exception.

    System mode (ARMv4 ),

    CPU .

    bits CPSR.

    Monitor Mode (ARMv6 ARMv7 Security Extensions, ARMv8 EL3),

    TrustZone

    ARM.

    Hyp Mode (ARMv7 Virtualization Extensions, ARMv8 EL2),

  • ARM

    . ARM 16

    modes. R0 R07

    cpu modes.

    exceptions.

    16 :

    Stack pointer Register 13 PUSH POP

    Link Register LR - Register 14

    Branch and Link ( BL BLX ),

    . ,

    Exception Mode.

    , o R14

    .

    Program counter - Register 15 Program Counter ( PC ).

    . ARM , ARM

    bytes ( word 32 - bit ) .

  • bits PC , PC

    30 bits .

    .

    Thumb T Jazelle J. PC

    halfword ( 16 - bit) byte .

    mode .

  • Program Status Register.

    EXCEPTIONS

    features hardware exceptions.

    O ARM ,

    . .

    Reset

    (Undefined instruction)

  • (SWI),

    .

    Prefetch Abort (instruction fetch memory abort), .

    Data Abort, data access memory abort.

    ( ), .

    IRQ, normal interrupt. IRQ

    IRQ .

    FIQ, .

    FIQ, fast interrupt, FIQ pin .

    FIQ .

    AR

    .

    debug events.

    - handler .

    System

    Mode,

    .

  • EXCEPTION HANDLING

    exception, :

    - CPSR SPSR_ mode.

  • - CPSR bits

    ARM

    exception mode

    , interrupts ( )

    - LR_ ( mode)

    - PC .

    handler exception :

    - CPSR SPSR

    - P , LR

    AR, Thumb-2

    Thumb.

  • JAZELLE

    Jazelle DBX (Direct Bytecode eXecution ) Java Bytecode

    ARM

    ( instruction set),

    ARM Thumb

    .

    "J" .

    ARMv5TEJ, ARM9EJ-S, ARM7EJ-S.

    ARMv6 ,

    acceleration

    .

    THUMB

    CISC , RISC.

    , Thumb.

    T , ARM7TDMI.

    instruction set Thumb 16bit

    32 bit ARM

    CISC , RISC . . RISC . .

  • 2 instruction sets CPU ARM

    Thumb ,

    32 bit.

    (fetch) , , .

    , , load /store , conditional

    unconditional . instruction sets, C

    Thumb. , device drivers

    Exception Handlers ARM.

    32-BIT

    ARM

    . :

    Linux Windows CE Symbian ChibiOS/RTFreeRTOS eCos Integrity Nucleus PLUS

    MicroC/OS-II PikeOS QNX RTEMSRTXC Quadros ThreadX VxWorks DRYOS

    MQX T-Kernel OSE SCIOPTAOS-9 RISC OS - -

  • SoC ARM

    . :

    iOS Android Windows Phone Windows RT

    Bada Blackberry OS / Blackberry 10 MeeGo Firefox OS

    Tizen Ubuntu Touch Sailfish webOS

    Desktop & server

    ARM RISC OS Unix

    , BSD (NetBSD, FreeBSD), OpenSolaris

    Linux Ubuntu Chrome OS.

    64-BIT

    iOS 7 64-bit Apple A7 SOC ARMv8-A

    .

  • Desktop & server

    Linux kernel version 3.7 2012 ARMv8-A.

    ARMv8-A Linux .

  • Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

    ARM

    .

    SoC, AMBA.

  • advanced High-performance Bus

    (modules).

    burst () (split transactions),

    .

    Advanced System Bus (ASB)

    (modules). burst

    ().

    Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

    .

    JTAG boundary scan t