Ο Πλανήτης Των Παραγκουπόλεων_Mike Davis

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MIKE DAVIS O ¶§ANHTH™ TøN ¶APA°KOY¶O§EøN \AÛÙ·Îc âÓ¤ÏÈÍË Î·d ôÙ˘Ô ÚÔÏÂÙ·ÚÈ¿ÙÔ ∞¶√π∞ ™∆π°ª∏ ∆√À Ã√¡√À, ÌÈa Á˘Ó·›Î· ıa ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂÈ Ùe ·È‰› Ù˘ ÛÙcÓ ·Ú·ÁÎÔ‡ÔÏË Ajegunle ÙÔÜ §¿ÁÔ˜, ≤Ó·˜ Ó·Úe˜ ıa âÁηٷÏ›„ÂÈ Ùe ¯ˆÚÈfi ÙÔ˘ ÛÙc ¢˘ÙÈÎc \I¿‚· ÁÈa K Ùa Ï·ÌÚa ÆáÙ· Ùɘ T˙·Î¿ÚÙ·, ≤Ó·˜ àÁÚfiÙ˘ ıa ÌÂٷƤÚÂÈ ÙcÓ âÍ·ıÏȈ̤ÓË ÔåÎÔÁ¤- ÓÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ûb οÔÈ· àe Ùa àÓ·Ú›ıÌËÙ· pueblos jovenes Ùɘ §›Ì·. Te ÁÂÁÔÓe˜ ηı·˘Ùe ıa ÂrÓ·È ôÓ¢ ÛËÌ·Û›·˜ ηd ıa ÂÚ¿ÛÂÈ à·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÙÔ. ^øÛÙfiÛÔ ıa ÛËÌ·ÙÔ‰ÔÙÂÖ ÌÈa ηÌc ÛÙcÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ^IÛÙÔÚ›·. °Èa ÚÒÙË ÆÔÚa ï ÏËı˘ÛÌe˜ ÙáÓ àÛÙÈÎáÓ Î¤ÓÙÚˆÓ Ùɘ °É˜ ıa ÍÂ- ÂÚÓÄ Ûb àÚÈıÌe ·éÙeÓ Ùɘ ñ·›ıÚÔ˘. ™ÙcÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ìb ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÙcÓ öÏÏÂÈ„Ë àÎÚ›- ‚ÂÈ·˜ ÙáÓ àÔÁÚ·ÆáÓ ÙÔÜ TÚ›ÙÔ˘ KfiÛÌÔ˘, ·éÙc ì ÎÔÛÌÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎc ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa ö¯ÂÈ õ‰Ë Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂÛÙÂÖ. ^H °É àÛÙÈÎÔÔÈ‹ıËΠàÎfiÌË Ù·¯‡ÙÂÚ· ηd àe ¬,ÙÈ ÚÔ¤‚Ï àÚ¯ÈÎa ì §¤Û¯Ë Ùɘ PÒ- Ì˘ ÛÙc ‰È·‚fiËÙ· M·ÏıÔ˘ÛÈ·Óc öÎıÂÛ‹ Ù˘ ÙÔÜ 1972, ≠OÚÈ· Ùɘ àÓ¿Ù˘Í˘. Te 1950 ñÉÚ¯·Ó ÛÙeÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ 86 fiÏÂȘ Ìb ÏËı˘ÛÌe ôÓˆ ÙÔÜ ëÓe˜ ëηÙÔÌÌ˘Ú›Ô˘. ™‹ÌÂÚ· ÂrÓ·È 400 ηd ̤¯ÚÈ Ùe 2015 ıa ö¯Ô˘Ó ÆÙ¿ÛÂÈ Ùd˜ 550 ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ. 1 ™ÙcÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ôî fiÏÂȘ àÔÚÚfiÆËÛ·Ó Ùa ‰‡Ô ÙÚ›Ù· Ùɘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ÏËı˘ÛÌÈ·Îɘ öÎÚË͢ Ôf ÛËÌÂÈÒıËΠÌÂÙa Ùe 1950 ηd Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÌÂÁ·ÏÒÓÔ˘Ó, ÂúÙ ÏfiÁˇˆ ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂˆÓ ÂúÙ ÏfiÁˇˆ Ùɘ ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ¢Û˘, ηÙa ≤Ó· ëηÙÔÌ̇ÚÈÔ ôÙÔÌ· οı 낉ÔÌ¿‰·. 2 ^O ÙˆÚÈÓe˜ ÏËı˘ÛÌe˜ ÙáÓ àÛÙÈÎáÓ Î¤ÓÙÚˆÓ (3,2 ‰ÈÛ.) ÍÂÂÚÓÄ ÙeÓ Û˘ÓÔÏÈÎe ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ ÏËı˘ÛÌe ÙÔÜ 1960. TcÓ ú‰È· œÚ·, ì ≈·ÈıÚÔ˜ ·Á- ÎÔÛÌ›ˆ˜ öÆÙ·Û ÛÙe Ì¿ÍÈÌÔ˘Ì ÙÔÜ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔÜ Ù˘ (3,2 ‰ÈÛ.) ηd ıa àÚ¯›ÛÂÈ Óa Û˘ÚÚÈÎÓÒ- ÓÂÙ·È ÌÂÙa Ùe 2020, Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Óa àÓÙÈÛÙÔȯÂÖ ÛÙd˜ fiÏÂȘ Ùe Û‡ÓÔÏÔ Ùɘ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎɘ ·ûÍËÛ˘ ÙÔÜ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ˘ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔÜ, ï ïÔÖÔ˜ àӷ̤ÓÂÙ·È Óa ÆÙ¿ÛÂÈ ÛÙe àfiÁÂÈfi ÙÔ˘, Â- Ú›Ô˘ 10 ‰ÈÛ., Ùe 2050. 3 NEW LEFT REVIEW Ù. 26 MAP A¶P 2004 1. UN Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2001 Revision, N¤· ^YfiÚÎË 2002. 2. Population Information Program, [¶ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ¶ÏËÚÔÆÔÚÈáÓ ÁÈa ÙeÓ ¶ÏËıˆÚÈÛÌfi], Population Reports: Meeting the Urban Challenge, Ù. XXX, àÚ. 4, ºıÈÓfiˆÚÔ 2002, Û. 1. 3. Wolfgang Lutz, Warren Sandeson & Sergei Scherbov, “ Doubling of world population unlikely ”, Nature 387, 19 \IÔ˘Ó›Ô˘ 1997, ÛÛ. 803-4. ^øÛÙfiÛÔ, Ôî ÏËı˘ÛÌÔd Ùɘ ñÔÛ·¯¿ÚÈ·˜ \AÆÚÈÎɘ ıa ÙÚÈÏ·ÛÈ·ÛÙÔÜÓ Î·d Ùɘ \IÓ‰›·˜ ıa ‰ÈÏ·ÛÈ·ÛÙÔÜÓ. 08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 ™ÂÏ›‰·183

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Ο πλανήτης των παραγκουπόλεων (Planet of Slums)

Transcript of Ο Πλανήτης Των Παραγκουπόλεων_Mike Davis

  • MIKE DAVIS

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN

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    NEW LEFT REVIEW . 26 MAP AP 2004

    1. UN Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2001 Revision, N ^Y 2002.2. Population Information Program, [ a e ], Population Reports:

    Meeting the Urban Challenge, . XXX, . 4, 2002, . 1. 3. Wolfgang Lutz, Warren Sandeson & Sergei Scherbov, Doubling of world population unlikely , Nature 387,

    19 \I 1997, . 803-4. ^, d \A a d \Ia .

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 183

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    184 MIKE DAVIS

    4. Global Urban Observatory [ \Ae ], Slums of the World: The Face of UrbanPoverty in the New Millennium?, N ^Y 2003, . 10.

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    5. M b , e - a g b b d - d . e r c c M, a b e 25 c 1990 ( -e c c c r 18 b 19 ). B. Yue-man Yeung, Geography in an age ofmega-cities , International Social Sciences Journal 151, 1997, . 93.

    6. a a c , . Yue-man Yeung, Viewpoint: Integration of the Pearl River Delta ,International Development Planning Review, . 25, . 3, 2003.

    7. Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, . 63. 8. UN-Habitat, The Challenge of the Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, 2003, . 3.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 184

  • e 193 e 1978 d 640. O e e f d , a c c , . Tc f a a d - b , c b j - f b . 9 c \A, , b , e (300.000 e 1950, 10 - ), e e e j , O, N, N, \A d M-, b e e a d e M. c c \A-, a e b c , - T, K, e T, e e d e M, d b e e d f 100.000 d 500.000. 10

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 185

    9. Gregory Guldin, Whats a Peasant to Do? Village Becoming Town in Southern China, M, K- 2001, . 13.

    10. Miguel Villa & Jorge Rodriguez, Demographic trends in Latin Americas metropolises, 1950-1990, eAlan Gilbert (.), The Mega-City in Latin America, T 1996, . 33-4.

    11. Guldin, Peasant, .., . 14, 17. B. Jing Neng Li, Structural and Spatial Economic Changes andtheir Effects on Recent Urbanization in China , e Gavin Jones and Pravin Visaria (.), Urbanization in LargeDeveloping Countries, \O 1997, . 44.

    12. B. T. McGee, The Emergence of Desakota Regions in Asia: Expanding a Hypothesis , e NorthonGinsburg, Bruce Koppell and T. McGee (.), The Extended Metropolis: Settlement Transition in Asia, X- 1991.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 185

  • K (Xe Ke - f) d b () d b e -T, b b-b e e T-\O, N ^Y- j e KP. \Aa e a r e c - : c e f a e c \I dc N K c c \I. 13 ^H , e , a e T, c N ^Y d e a e d f a - e b d . Te a r e d f d . ^O Guldin, , c K a b e i e , e a d c, f d e - f d . 14

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    186 MIKE DAVIS

    13. Yue-man Yeung & Fu-chen Lo, Global restructuring and emerging urban corridors in Pacific Asia , eLo and Yeung (.), Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia, T 1996, . 41.

    14. Guldin, Peasant, .., . 13. 15. Wang Mengkui, K , f Financial Times, 26 N-

    2003. Ma d a 70, e 300 - K e b b d . A 250 b 300 a d (Financial Times, 16 2003.)

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 186

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 187

    16. Josef Gugler, Introduction-II. Rural-Urban Migration , e Gugler (.), Cities in the Developing World:Issues, Theory and Policy, \O 1997, . 43. a a f a a - T d OHE a f f f c - 80, . Deborah Potts, Urban lives: Adopting new strategies and adapting rural links , e Carole Rakodi(.), The Urban Challenge in Africa: Growth and Management of Its Large Cities, T 1997, . 463-73.

    17. David Simon, Urbanization, globalization and economic crisis in Africa , e Rakodi, Urban Challenge, . 95.

    18. B. Josef Gugler, Overurbanization Reconsidered , e Gugler, Cities in the Developing World, . 114-23. b , E d K - c c e d d e c .

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 187

  • M, B d . , e e A, e , ea d a X, Me d f a c c c . \Aa N ef b e e , e , Emmet Larkin, q -e b d f e e 19 -. . . [d] b q e e . Te c f 1800 d 1850 ea a . 19

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    188 MIKE DAVIS

    19. e Jacinta Prunty, Dublin Slums 1800-1925: A Study in Urban Geography, 1998, . ix. 20. e a b a , a c e e b

    e c d . Nigel Harris, Urbanization, Economic Development and Policy in Developing Countries , Habitat International, . 14, . 4,1990, . 21-2.

    21. a c T K d c , . YorkBradshaw and Rita Noonan, Urbanization, Economic Growth, and Womens Labour-Force Participation , eGugler, Cities in the Developing World, . 9-10.

    22. a e c , . 8.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 188

  • a c . b e a M : a a c b a a c c j [ j ] a e e 90% .) 23

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    O , r , (j a b UN-Habitat) a e a e a f d , , d a c . b - a c f c c e c ja c d e c c c d c . \A a d, a f a - b c c ^H \E. hA -b \E \E a c Kc Mc - a d c e d b , a c c f c (a a e ). 26 Kd ad , e -

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 189

    23. Branko Milanovic, True World income Distribution 1988 and 1993, T, N ^Y 1999.^O M d Schlomo Yitzhaki r f c c b a a e .

    24. ^H UNICEF, a a , e NT a , - a c , e . B.The State of the Worlds Children, \O 1989, . 30.

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    c d c , e c , d d c - d c .

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 189

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    3. H ATIKOOIHH TH TXEIA

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    Michael Thelwell, The Harder They Come, 1980

    ^O e (a : slum) e 1812 e Vocabulary of the Flash Language Vaux, - j . 27 a , , d - 1830 d 40, slum q d a .M a , r c \Ac d c \I d - b . ^H c q ae a e , b b eCharles Booth , , d . a f 19 -, , c q c d e b c d a . O a d b , a a a a e e : -, c j , c b e d d b e . 28

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    190 MIKE DAVIS

    27. Prunty, Dublin Slums, .., . 2.28. , .., . 12.

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    ^Y e 250.000 b c . M - \A (K, B, , K d N) 15.000 b b e -

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 191

    29. , .., . 2-3.30. B. A. Oberai, Population Growth, Employment and Poverty in Third World Mega-Cities, N ^Y

    1993, . 28. Te 1980, a 0-19 d OOA e 19% b28% , d T K e 40% b 53%.

    31. Slums of the World, .., . 33-4.32. Simon, Urbanization in Africa, .., . 103, d Jean-Luc Piermay, Kinshasa: A reprieved mega-city? ,

    e Rakodi, Urban Challenge, .., . 236.33. Sabir Ali, Squatters: Slums within Slums , e Prodipto Roy & Shangon Das Gupta (.), Urbanization

    and Slums, d 1995, . 55-9.34. Jonathan Rigg, Southeast Asia: A Region in Transition, 1991, . 143. 35. Slums of the World, .., . 34

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 191

  • e 20 . \A e d - \A, - c \A d a A, f A d \I, a e f - a e M, e , c M de d d , \A, N, K, N, T, , \I d M. O b - r, , d , e a bustees K a chawlsd a zopadpattis B, a katchi abadis K, a kampungs T,d shammasas X, a umjondolos N, a intra-murios P, dbidonvilles \A, a baladis K, a gecekondu A, a con-ventillos K, d favelas B, d villas miseria M A, d dcolonias populares M. Er - d -a Offworlds Philip K. Dick c d a -.

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    192 MIKE DAVIS

    36. Salah El-Shakhs, Toward appropriate urban development policy in emerging mega-cities in Africa , eRakodi, Urban Challenge, . 516.

    37. Daily Times of Nigeria, 20 \O 2003. Te r c e c e T K e N. Te 1950 r 300.000 , a ae 10% e 1980, e e 6% f r f e e a .

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 193

    38. Amy Otchet, Lagos: the survival of the determined , UNESCO Courier, \I 1999. 39. , . 50.40. Winter King, Illegal Settlements and the Impact of Titling Programmes , Harvard Law Review, . 44, .

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    , c , , c ...

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  • f c c d a a . 43 \E e 57% \A e a b b c d b e N d - a d (. c b b -). 44 c B, c , a e c - a 500 d . M e 11% - c M d e 18% c N -. 45 \A a c HIV/AIDS, OHE f b - f c . 46

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    O , b d d i r, e. ^H a a a a c - , a e e a d e 2035. 49 T e - T K a e -

    194 MIKE DAVIS

    43. World Resources Institute, World Resources: 1996-97, \O 1996, . 21. 44. Slums of the World, .., . 25. 45. , .., . 99. 46. Slums of the World, .., . 12. 47. a a c , . Greg Bankoff, Constructing Vulnerability: The Historical,

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  • e . e 2030j e 2040 r a , e , c - d d . c , - b e dstricto sensu . 50 O b \A OHE, , e 2020 c e a - a e 45% b 50% b . 51

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 195

    50. , . 28. 51. Slums of the World, . 12. * e to sap (=) d e \A

    (Structural Adjustment Programme, : SAP). (...)52. Fidelis Odun Balogun, Adjusted Lives: Stories of Sructural Adjustment, Trenton, NJ 1995, . 80.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 195

  • . ^H 80, e NT d T , be e e , d T K, r c a c , a ff e c a d a f , f j e c .

    O , a A a c - d a b - d b , c c j d . 53 e NT d b c P d Mf db e e , , d b d , - c d c d - ( e 1985 O- HA Tg f f a e - (USAID) : d b - a ). 54 Tc , a A f - , , d f a - a a f e d - K. 55

    O Ha-Joon Chang, a A a c (.f f f d d ) f - OOA a a a e c c b a a d . 56 O c -

    196 MIKE DAVIS

    53. The Challenge of Slums, . 30. O d f a b -, Michael Lipton, d e e 1977, a - d , d a , -b d b b d b d d d b .^O, a . B. Lipton, Why Poor People Stay Poor: A Studyof Urban Bias in World Development, K 1977.

    54. e Tony Killick, Twenty-five Years in Development: the Rise and Impending Decline ofMarket Solutions , Development Policy Review, . 4, 1986, . 101.

    55. Deborah Bryceson, Disappearing Peasantries? Rural Labour Redundancy in the Neoliberal Era andBeyond , e Bryceson, Cristobal Kay & Jos Mooij (.), Disappearing Peasantries? Rural Labour in Africa, Asiaand Latin America, 2000, . 304-5.

    56. Ha-Joon Chang, Kicking Away the Ladder: Infant Industry Promotion in Historical Perspective , OxfordDevelopment Studies, . 31, . 1, 2003, . 21. Te a c d - a 3% f 1960 d 1980, a a 1,5% f 1980 d 2000. . . O e . O f - d b b e 1960-80 a d b (j ) b a d (. 28).

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 196

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 197

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    Sue Jones & Nici Nelson (.), Urban Poverty in Africa, 1999, . 21. 61. Adil Ahmad & Ata El-Batthani, Poverty in Khartoum , Environment and Urbanization, . 7, . 2, \O-

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  • \A, e d \A f r -e d b , c e g A b c c , c d c d b d c . 62 cN Balogun e e , d - b e , e \Ia .., b e e28% e 1980 e 66% e 1996. Te a c AE, 260 , T, r f a c - d e d e e 370 f r e 1985. 63

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    198 MIKE DAVIS

    62. Alain Dubresson, Abidjan , e Rakodi, Urban Challenge, .., . 261-3. 63. World Bank, Nigeria: Country Brief, 2003.64. UN, World Urbanization Prospects, .., . 12. 65. Luis Ainstein, Buenos Aires: a case of deepening social polarization , e Gilbert, Mega-City in Latin

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    d Gilbert, Latin American City, .., . 73.* c Gini : T ( , ...) -

    e e Corrado Gini d c c e f 0, e c (.. a e e ), d e 1 ( .. e d ). (...)

    67. Hamilton Tolosa, Rio de Janeiro: Urban expansion and structural change , e Gilbert, Mega-City inLatin America, .., . 211.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 198

  • , b c c \A, 80 a d - d b e .( b a a T e 2003, b Gini rc c \Ac a [b] , c \A, a17,5 , d OOA, d a 20,4 , c \Ac E.) 68

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 199

    68. World Bank, Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean, N ^Y 2003.69. Orlandina de Oliveira & Bryan Roberts, The Many Roles of the Informal Sector in Development , e

    Cathy Rakowski (.), Contrapunto: the Informal Sector Debate in Latin America, 1994, . 64-8.70. Christian Rogerson, Globalization or informalization? African urban economies in the 1990s , e

    Rakodi, Urban Challenge, .., . 348. 71. , .., . 2.

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    200 MIKE DAVIS

    72. Albert Park et al., The Growth of Wage Inequality in Urban China, 1988 to 1999, K T, 2003, . 27 (), d John Knight & Linda Song, Increasing urbanwage inequality in China , Economics of Transition, . 11, . 4, 2003, . 616 (d ).

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    T, 2000.

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  • e d b f a c eT K, c c (1870-1900). c , a c a - \A d \A c d e e e d -b . Te e , d c c \A, q c : - d f b r c c c e a . 75 (^ , 20e a , a a , e , a - d b c -.) ^H c , , a - . O : d a d , e f b , - d f d -. ^H [] , , r. . . . 76

    , c (f , a b -, b e e ) b e e -: e f c c d c cc c . \A Keith Hart, f c A, c a a e 1973 c , a - (f e a c - e c - [sub-subsistence]) b a a d a f b . 77 ^Y a , , - 80 c c c d , e e (survivalism) c c c T K.

    O Alejandro Portes d Kelly Hoffman e e d d bb \A e c 70 d . b OHE, d

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 201

    75. B. e Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nio Famines and the Making of the Third World, - 2001, d . 206-9.

    76. , . 40, 46.77. Keith Hart, Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana , Journal of Modern African

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  • e e b a c 70. \A, , g d c c -, . \A e , b a f ( - f e , f f - d f) d ( - , e d , f f -f f d f j c d ). K- e , d b b - , r a j . \Ae c 80 d , e e 5%e 10% a , f c f a b f e c - e e . 78

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    202 MIKE DAVIS

    78. Alejandro Portes & Kelly Hoffman, Latin American Class Structures: Their Composition and Changeduring the Neoliberal Era , Latin American Research Review, . 38, . 1, 2003, . 55.

    79. , .., . 60.80. e Economist, 21 M 1998, . 37. 81. Dennis Rondinelli & John Kasarda, Job Creation Needs in Third World Cities , e Kasarda & Allan

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    \E, Alain Dubresson a c \A, e d e c e e . M c f e e b \E d c T- a a e e d a - a c a a b e 2,5 - . 87 Tc d Christian Rogerson, , (a e Portes d Hoffmann) d b e db , a d : a , a f e b d , d c , r d a -, c d a -, d a a a - . Kg d d c \A-c r d b a - (e e ), c

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 203

    85. O Orlandina de Oliveita d Bryan Roberts a - a a e c j e i r c j a d e c c a c e. ^H a e , j b b j ( Urban Development andSocial Inequality in Latin America , e Gugler, Cities in the Developing World, .., . 290.)

    86. a b e a a : Natural History, \I 1997, . 4. 87. Dubresson, Abidjan , . 263.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 203

  • a f . ^O Rogerson a d N \A, e a a a d d plazas r a d e . 88

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    O d c , , Deborah Bryceson, e b c - c c c . 89 Kg b b c c , c c . E, c c c -, c , a f b f d bc c . 90 ^O \E-, \A d \Aa c - .

    Te e e e e e - d a a b , e c - , a c a j ;

    204 MIKE DAVIS

    88. Rogerson, Globalization or informalization? , .., . 347-51. 89. Bryceson, Disappearing Peasantries , .., . 307-8.90. b e , e Clifford Geertz, c (involution) r

    , g c - (Agricultural involution: Social development and economic change in two Indonesian towns, 1963, . 82). Mb e f , , c j , a f (b f f ), a c c , a e - j .

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 204

  • 6. O MAP KAI TO AION NEYMA

    [Er K:] a e f e a b a a . . . Ae a e e b , f a a - a a . T a b e d a b e . . . e x a f a c ef .

    c Azusa Street e 1906

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    T e c c c d a e 19 . Ob b b q b a c c e c , - e e - e c 1870 d . \Aa c d - f c B d c N \Ac g d c\ d c , a c c - d c f r a e N E. , , c e c e c e d . \A, a - b b b \A, e -, e Ka [ e B] d I T [c N ] b b d b , d d a e c B, c K j c \I.

    E, e 21 . O, b r , e c , a ; hH e , b d f a a a - , c c a e - ; b e e a e a a : e a

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 205

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 205

  • e ; M c a e e ; hH c - d b a e e e , f a a d -, a a a a , d a c ; hH - a e , a Hardt d Negri * , f e e d;

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    O , John Walton c a b a a d b , a r d d d . \E b -b : b j b bc c j . Ka e -, , a d a e d - d e e e -. 91 Ma c c 80, b - c c \Ac c e a c - a , e b c . M O b e , c - : e f b , a c B

    206 MIKE DAVIS

    * B. a a : Michael Hardt & Toni Negri, A, . N K, \A-: Scripta, 2002. (...)

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 207

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    * e e , b e , e e 2004 rc c M ( d B), b b e M T- . \E a c Shivaji (. ), - 17 d M. (...)

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    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 207

  • e d e - c e e hH hE d a N q e 1902a 12% (d e f K). 94 c B, , c c d a c Semana Tragica * , d -b ^A , M A j d T, -d a c , K j M.

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    Te \Ia d \A d \A r . ^O Xer a c c (a e E d B \A) d e r e -e d . , c r c f -

    208 MIKE DAVIS

    94. Hugh McLeod, Piety and Poverty: Working-Class Religion in Berlin, London and New York, 1870-1914,N ^Y 1996, . xxv, 6, 32.

    * a , b b b d f , c K f 25 \I d 2 A 1909, b c a - Maura a c e M. ee e a d c . (...)

    95. Ignacio Ramonet, Le Maroc indcis, Le Monde diplomatique, I 2000, . 12-13. E e r e P: e 65% e e . O - bidonvilles r e d . Td f .

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 208

  • e a e . Mb d a e e Me d c c -, e e A e f b e b a -c a e A (c \A ), e 1906. ^E e e , c e , a d a c b d , e -e , d -, c f a , -, b e b a K d IWW * ,. 96

    , a f b IWW, c c\Ac d c \A a b , b j d , a c j a - e . 97 b b IWW c c d .

    X, , b a e ff c c , e \Ie e M a e A e . 98 c N \Ac dc P e a f -f d f , b c Jean Comaroff a b c - d a c d c f c . 99

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    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 209

    * IWW: Industrial Workers of the World (Bd \E K, d d Wobblies): , b e d e , f - e e 1905 b e d b American Federation of Labour.c 20 q b a . (...)

    96. c , Robert Mapes Anderson - , d , q c (Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism, \O 1979, . 222).

    97. Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited, . 77. 98. R. Andrew Chesnut, Born Again in Brazil: The Pentecostal Boom and the Pathogens of Poverty, New

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    99. David Maxwell, Historicizing Christian Independency: The Southern Africa Pentecostal Movement, c.1908-60, Journal of African History 40, 1990, . 249, d Jean Comaroff, Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance, - 1985, . 186.

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  • d e c c c d c , -e R. Andrew Chesnut d baixadas Mb - a e : d , d , d . 100 \Ae e 1970 d ,b e d d - a , b , a - e e. 101

    M d d/d - e 533 f b e -, a f e e . \A cc e 10% r d ( 40 - ) d e c cc d c . 102 Kg e -, , b a d b . \Aa ic , c M d c , f e c\Ac d d d HA d c -, e e e T K - e e e \A . 103 , Chesnut c B, . . . - (d e M, , e f ). e , e b c d barriadas , Jefrey Gamarra d

    210 MIKE DAVIS

    100. Chesnut, Born Again, . 61. c , Chesnut e A - d a d f . K a f a b e , Assembelianos a e a - d a , Quandrangulares ec . . . a : . 18.

    101. b c , c , c e e b - b e e-Xe c : PeterWagner, e Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, Grand Rapids 1997, . xi.

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    103. B. e e Paul Gifford, Christianity and Politics in Does Liberia, K 1993. \E,Peter Walshe, Prophetic Christianity and the Liberation Movement in South Africa, 1995, d . 110-1.

    08.DAVIS.TEL 4-09-07 11:35 210

  • e d c c . 104 ^O Paul Freston - a c c c c \A. . . O a c r , a e c c. 105

    b e e e \I, f c c dc c , , e c , a e c . M, d e \Ia d , bd ( a, -c a , e e e d a , a a e f -f , ...) r r , d . Te , - Jean Comaroff e a d b b (be d r ), c f c - a e c c , c c c -c d a , a . 106 \Aa \Aa - e d , a e c a c . \E , b c d c , .

    O ANHTH TN APAKOYOEN 211

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