β Glucan chemistry
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1. -GLUCAN (MICROBIAL SOURCE) 2. INTRODUCTION -Glucans are polysacchrides of D-glucose monomers linked by -glycosidic bonds diverse group of molecules that can vary with respect to : Molecular mass Linkage Solubility They are derived from the cell wall of : Bakers yeast Source fungi bacteria Mushrooms Composed of chains of 20-30 glucose units with side chains. These products contain no yeast cells, are completely safe and have no toxic side effects . 3. Glucan Source Type Solubilit y Zymosan Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Particula Crude b-1,3, -1,6 te branched (mannan, chit and proteins present Macrogard Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Particula te b-1,3, b1,6 branched (10:1) CSBG Candida albicans Fungus Soluble b-1,3, Long b-1,6 branches Plant fungus Soluble b-1-3, b1,6 Branched (2 Scleroglucan Schrotium rolfsii Structure Grifolan Grifola frondosa Musshroom Soluble b-1-3, b1,6 Branched (2 Sonifilan Schizophyllum commune Mushroom Soluble b-1-3, b1,6 Branched (2 4. BAKERS YEAST GLUCAN 5. Yeast beta-glucan is manufactured according to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) using appropriate food grade reagents and ingredients . The Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the production of yeast beta-glucan is standard food-grade Baker's yeast, which is grown at Biothera's production plant under controlled conditions . 6. Bakers yeast Fermentation ( In a stainless steel fermentation vessel ) Autolysis of the fermenation mixture Separation of the yeast extract from the cell wall Thermal process Centrifugal separation 7. Total Solid Contents of the cell wall : 10 12 % of the original mass Caustic treatment of the cell wall isolate Acid treatment Yeast wall slury The manosylated cell wall proteins get stripped off and the cellular lipids gets solubilised. Depolymerizati on and deacetylation of chitin to form free glucosamine hydrochloride. 8. Flash sterilization and PH adjustment A sterile solution ( PH 5-6) pure beta-l,3/1,6-glucan (6-12 % of the original solids) Spray dried Sieved through a mesh sifter Packaged 9. Overview : Common name : Yeast Glucan Chemical name : (1-3),(1,6)--D-glucan Commercial name : BetaRight (70 %)or WGP (75 %) Stability : Very stable under normal conditions upto 5 years Recognised as GRAS by U.S.FDA Intended for use in a number of food products, including cookies, meal replacement beverages, breakfast, granola and protein nutritional bars, soy milk, probiotic, beverages, yogurt, and yogurt beverages, fruit beverages, drinks, juices, and smoothies, soft candy, and soups at a level of 200 mg per serving. 10. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES No mutagenicity or genotoxicity. No reproductive or developmental toxicity. The administration of a single oral dose of 2g/Kg body weight was well tolerated. Not digested in the body. It is unlikely that the consumption of yeast beta-glucans would impair mineral bioavailability. Approved by US FDA for food products including salad dressing, frozen desserts, sour cream and cheese spread analogs, and flavored snack dips. (200mg/servng). Zymosan marketed as BetaRight (containing at least 70% beta-glucan) or WGP(containing at least 75%) 11. APPLICATIONS IN FOOD INDUSTRY Milk and milk products Soy milk, Probiotic beverages Youghurt, Meal replacement beverage. Processed Others Fruit Beverages ( Drinks ,Juices ,Smoothies) Cookies , Soups Meat and meat products. Nutritional bars Chocolate confectns. 12. B-Glucan in Food products!!