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Globe at Night 2016 2016

Globe at Night 2017 2017 & ...

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Cities at Nightwebsite

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9Why should any of us be concerned hat there is too much light at night and poor outdoor lighting design. Well there are 4 very good reasons for trying to reduce light pollution and the first one is the waste of energy is causes.9

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11Animals:It has been shown through scientific studies that wildlife, including insects, amphibians, birds, fish, and mammals, need both daylight and darkness for normal functioning.

All the artificial light during night hours can result in confusion and a change in natural instincts.

These changes can include a decrease in eating, mating, and/or sleeping. It can also cause the animal to become more vulnerable to predators and wander into other dangerous situations.

Some examples of wildlife that have been affected by light pollution include the following:

Sea turtles in Florida are attracted to bright lights of hotels along the coast. Once their babies hatch, these turtles do not return to the ocean. Instead, they follow the bright city lights and wander into the local streets and freeways. This usually results in death for both the mother and baby turtles. As a result, these turtles have become an endangered species.

Fatal Light Awareness Propgram (F.L.A.P) studies how migrating birds often get misguided by bright city lights, landing in the cities instead of their proper locations. This causes an over-population of birds, which causes an under population of food. Many of these birds die. If starvation does not kill them, often times the city chemicals and cars do. Finally, it is well known that birds fly into bright lights at night, causing them to collide with buildings and fall to their death. It is estimated that millions of birds die this way each year.

Energy Consumption:Over 10 billion dollars is wasted annually lighting the night sky in the U.S. alone.

A 2001 study conducted by P. Cinzano and F. Falchi, and C.D. Elvidge showed that two thirds of the world population lives in light polluted areas, never being able to view a fully dark sky.

Because light pollution uses energy, it also uses coal, natural gas, and petroleum to stay lit, wasting precious natural resources and turning them into air pollution.

Human health:The circadian rhythm can be greatly affected by the amount of quality sleep a person receives each night. Artificial light allows people to be more active during night hours, which can cause disruptions.

The circadian rhythm, when thrown off by the effects of light during nights hours, can cause health risks, restless sleep, problems with reproduction and even cancer.

Scientists suggest using proper efficient lighting and/or blocking out artificial light during sleep. They also say that using red lights on electronic devices like alarm clocks may prove to be helpful.

Many people have experienced bright lights shining through their bedroom window at night. To combat this, many people must put up heavy curtains in order to sleep.

Research done by Dr. David Blask has shown that light at night reduces melatonin production in the human body. Melatonin is responsible for blocking the reproduction of cancer cells in the female body. Without it, women are at much higher risk for breast cancer.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a branch of the World Health Organization, considers night shift work a probable carcinogen. This is because people who work the night shift are subjected to artificial night lighting.

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Skeldon, A. C., Phillips, A. J. K., & Dijk, D. - J. (2017). The effects of self-selected light-dark cycles and social constraints on human sleep and circadian timing: a modeling approach. Sci Rep, 7, 45158.

Keshet-Sitton, A., Or-Chen, K., Huber, E., & Haim, A. (2016). Illuminating a Risk for Breast Cancer: A Preliminary Ecological Study on the Association Between Streetlight and Breast Cancer. Integr Cancer Ther,

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http://www.astro.noa.gr/gr/globeatnight/

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