Πειραματική διερεύνηση της διηλεκτρικής συμπεριφοράς...

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ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΥΨΗΛΩΝ ΤΑΣΕΩΝ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ: Πειραματική διερεύνηση της διηλεκτρικής συμπεριφοράς διακένων ατμοσφαιρικού αέρα ακίδας-ακίδας και ακίδας-πλάκας υπό εξωτερικές κρουστικές υψηλές τάσεις Καραφύλλας Αθανάσιος Επιβλέπων καθηγητής: Παντελής Ν. Μικρόπουλος Θεσσαλονίκη 2016

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  • :

    - -

    : .

    2016

  • 2016

  • 2016

    -

    -

    .

    - -

    .

    :

    .

    ...

    .

    U50,

    t50, ,

    .

    -.

    -.

    - ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 2016

    ,

    2015,

    .

    ,

    ..., .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 2016

    1: ............................................................................................. 1

    1.1 ............................................................................................ 4

    1.2 ........................................................................................ 4

    1.2.1 - ........................................................................................... 4

    1.2.2 - .......................................................................................... 5

    2: .................................................. 6

    2.1 ........................................................................... 6

    2.2 Marx .......................................................................................... 7

    2.3 .................................................................................. 12

    2.4 ............................................................................................................... 13

    2.5 ................................................................................................................ 13

    2.6 .................................................................................................... 14

    3: ........................................................................ 16

    3.1 ............................................................................................................. 16

    3.2 ................................................................. 16

    3.3 ............................................................................................ 17

    3.4 - ............................................................................ 18

    3.5 - (U-t) .................................................................................... 18

    4: - (R-R) ............ 19

    4.1 52 cm ................... 19

    4.2 27 cm ................... 21

    4.3 - (U-t) - ........................................ 23

    4.4

    - .................................................................................................................... 26

    4.5 - (U-t) -

    ................................................................................................................................. 28

    4.6 -

    .......................................................................................................................... 29

    4.7 - -

    (U-t) ..................................................................................................................................... 31

    5: - (R-P) ........... 33

    5.1 - ............................ 33

    5.2 - (U-t) - ................................... 34

  • 2016

    5.3

    - ................................................................................................................... 35

    5.4 - (U-t) -

    ................................................................................................................................ 36

    5.5 -

    .......................................................................................................................... 36

    5.6 - -

    (U-t) ..................................................................................................................................... 38

    6: ........................................... 41

    6.1 - ............................................................................. 41

    6.2 ............................................................................... 44

    6.3 (Gap factor) ............................................................................. 49

    7: ................................................................................... 53

    8: .................................................................. 55

  • 2015

    1

    1:

    1.1

    IEC 60060-1:2010 [1], (impulse)

    ,

    .

    ,

    (lightning impulse voltages, LI)

    (switching impulse voltages, SI).

    20 s

    20 s [2].

    UP, 1 2. ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    1=1.67*,

    30 % 90 % ( , . 1.1).

    , ( 1, . 1.1)

    0.3*1 30%

    ( , . 1.1) 2

    50 % .

    ,

    .

    5 % .

    :

    (kV), 1/2(s)

    (Standard LI) 1.2/50 s .

  • 2016

    2

    ( )

    30 %

    , 20 % 3 % [2].

    1.1: (LI), [2]

    Up, P 2 (. 1.2).

    ,

    50% .

    90 %,

    90 % .

    :

    (kV), /2(s)

    (Standard SI) 250/2500 s.

    ( )

    20 %

    , 60 % 3 % [2].

  • 2016

    3

    1.2: (SI), [2]

    .

    :

    () = ( )

    . < , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    1.3: , Up: , Tcr: , a2>>a1 [2]

  • 2016

    4

    1.2

    . ,

    ,

    ,

    [4].

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    -, -, - -.

    ,

    - -.

    1.2.1 -

    -

    , -. -

    ,

    1.4.

    ,

    ..,

    .

    [4]. 1.4: - [4]

  • 2016

    5

    1.2.2 -

    -

    , -

    .

    ,

    . -

    ,

    (gap factor). 1.5

    -,

    [4].

    1.5: -, [4]

  • 2016

    6

  • 2016

    7

    2:

    2.1

    ...

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    . 6.5 m , 12 m

    7 m . 10

    .

    2.1: ... [2]

  • 2016

    8

    (6 m),

    , 3.25 m.

    HVAC 650 kV (rms), HVDC 900 kV,

    LI 1 MV SI 1.4 MV.

    10-

    1 MV, 7kJ Ferranti,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    2.2 Marx [2]

    Marx

    .

    1.3/53 s

    850 kV SI 885 kV LI.

    Marx

    100 kV. Marx

    .

    n , CSi,

    V0.

    CB. CSi

    RLi, RDi REi,

    .

  • 2016

    9

    2.2: Marx

    220V / 50 kVA. ,

    Cockcroft-Walton, V0 .

    .

    V0 Cockcroft-Walton RL1

    CS1 . ,

    CS RL

    V0,

    .

    RE (

    ).

  • 2016

    10

    2.3: Marx [3]

    CS

    .

    .

    ,

    ( ) ,

    (

    ) .

    . ,

    ,

    .

    Trigatron.

    .

    ( ).

  • 2016

    11

    .

    .

    .

    2.4: Marx .. [3]

    Marx Trigatron

    . Marx

    .

  • 2016

    12

    Marx

    : Trigatron

    , G1, V0 CS1

    V0 CS2

    CS2 2*V0 (

    CS1 o CS2 CS2

    RL ). ,

    G2 V0

    CS2 2V0

    V0 CS3,

    3V0.

    10*V0

    .

    = 10 0 , n

    = 0.928 = 0.944

    [5].

    CB

    RD

    RDf. CB

    .

    CB

    RD RDf

    RE,

    2.5: CB

    RDf [3]

  • 2016

    13

    2.3

    ,

    .

    , [5]:

    Marx,

    DC

    ,

    ,

    AC

    Marx,

    Trigatron,

    2.6: [3]

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 2016

    14

    2.4

    , TDS3064B

    Tektronix ( 600MHz, 5 GS/s). ,

    , CB

    Marx (200pF) 0.296F [5].

    2.7: Tektronix TDS3064B

    2.5

    . , :

    - -.

    1.3/53 s, .

    , , 15 cm 60 cm.

    -,

    . 52 cm , 27 cm.

    :

  • 2016

    15

    1.1

    - (cm)

    52 cm 27 cm

    15 15 30 30

    20 20 35 35

    25 25 45 45

    30 30 50 50

    35 35 55 -

    40 40 60 -

    - (cm)

    20 20

    40 30

    60 40

    2.6

    .

    -

    -.

    -,

    Marx,

    RDf, 52 cm.

    . 52

    27 cm, .

    ,

    2

    .

    .

    -,

  • 2016

    16

    .

    .

    .

    71.5 cm.

    2.8 -

  • 2016

    17

    3:

    3.1

    .

    U50

    50 % [2],

    50 % 50 % .

    tb,

    [2].

    Ub

    tb. tb

    Ub.

    3.2

    , o

    , ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    P (mmHg) .

    P

    ( ) T (oC) :

    =

    760

    293

    273 +

    .

    .

    . Marx

    .

  • 2016

    18

    Trigatron,

    , ,

    .

    .

    Excel.

    , , 60 s

    ,

    .

    .

    . , , ,

    .

    (, ...) .

    3.3

    IEC 60060-1:2010 [1]. , n

    Ui, mi .

    di i- ,

    () = /.

    - (U-t) , 20

    20 (

    ,

    ).

    10 ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 2016

    19

    3.4

    .

    ,

    [2].

    - ,

    ,

    .

    U50

    , z, U50-U16, U16

    16%.

    U50 z

    [2].

    3.5 - (U-t)

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    . - (U-t)

    .

    [6].

    3.1 - (U-t) [6]

  • 2016

    20

  • 2016

    21

    4: - (R-R)

    4.1 52 cm

    ,

    ,

    , - .

    4.1: R-R, 15 cm, LI(+) 4.2: R-R, 15 cm, LI(-)

    4.3: R-R, 20 cm, LI(+) 4.4: R-R, 20 cm, LI(-)

    4.5: R-R, 25 cm, LI(+) 4.6: R-R, 25 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    22

    4.7: R-R, 30 cm, LI(+) 4.8: R-R, 30 cm, LI(-)

    4.9: R-R, 35 cm, LI(+) 4.10: R-R, 35 cm, LI(-)

    4.11: R-R, 40 cm LI(+) 4.12: R-R, 40 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    23

    4.2 27 cm

    4.13: R-R, 30 cm, LI(+) 4.14: R-R, 30 cm, LI(-)

    4.15: R-R, 35 cm, LI(+) 4.16: R-R, 35 cm, LI(-)

    4.17: R-R, 45 cm, LI(+) 4.18: R-R, 45 cm, LI(-)

    4.19: R-R, 50 cm, LI(+) 4.20: R-R, 50 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    24

    4.21: R-R, 55 cm, LI(+) 4.22: R-R, 60 cm, LI(+)

    4.1 4.2 ,

    U50 (%)

    -

    .

    4.1: - 52 cm

    P (mmHg) T (oC) H (gm-3) U50 (kV) (%)

    15 cm 765 14.7 9.730 1.025 126.8 4.71

    771 14.7 9.415 1.033 134.9 1.55

    20 cm 767 14.2 10.31 1.029 155.4 3.33

    760 14.2 10.91 1.020 182.7 2.86

    25 cm 775 15.5 10.90 1.035 198.2 6.79

    771 16.0 10.65 1.029 209.2 6.27

    30 cm 763 14.7 11.56 1.022 219.2 4.51

    767 15.5 11.52 1.025 257.0 4.56

    35 cm 765 15.7 12.31 1.021 237.3 4.88

    754 16.0 12.50 1.005 295.4 4.78

    40 cm 757 15.5 10.92 1.011 260.7 3.77

    757 16.2 11.10 1.009 337.2 3.44

  • 2016

    25

    4.2: - 27 cm

    P (mmHg) T (oC) H (gm-3) U50 (kV) (%)

    30 cm 768 17.5 12.67 1.019 218.7 6.12

    764 18.0 13.04 1.012 250.0 5.25

    35 cm 768 17.5 12.67 1.019 236.4 5.37

    764 18.0 13.04 1.012 293.6 4.95

    45 cm 763 18.0 13.37 1.011 274.0 3.65

    760 15.7 10.15 1.015 366.5 4.03

    50 cm 763 15.2 10.09 1.020 287.8 3.29

    760 15.5 10.90 1.015 523.2 3.98

    55 cm 756 15.5 11.21 1.010 317.6 3.32

    60 cm 756 15.5 11.21 1.010 338.6 1.85

    4.3 - (U-t) -

    ,

    - (U-t),

    , -

    . 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40

    cm 52 cm, 45 50 cm

    27 cm.

    4.23: R-R, 15 cm, LI(+) 4.24: R-R, 15 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    26

    4.25: R-R, 20 cm, LI(+) 4.26: R-R, 20 cm, LI(-)

    4.27: R-R, 25 cm, LI(+) 4.28: R-R, 25 cm, LI(-)

    4.29: R-R, 30 cm, LI(+) 4.30: R-R, 30 cm, LI(-)

    4.31: R-R, 35 cm, LI(+) 4.32: R-R, 35 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    27

    4.33: R-R, 40 cm, LI(+) 4.34: R-R, 40 cm, LI(-)

    4.35: R-R, 45 cm, LI(+) 4.36: R-R, 45 cm, LI(-)

    4.37: R-R, 50 cm, LI(+) 4.38: R-R, 50 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    28

    4.4

    -

    -,

    .

    U50

    ,

    .

    4.39: R-R, 15 cm

    52 cm 4.40: R-R, 20 cm

    52 cm

    4.41: R-R, 25 cm

    52 cm 4.42: R-R, 40 cm

    52 cm

  • 2016

    29

    4.43: R-R, 30 cm

    52 cm 4.44: R-R, 30 cm

    27 cm

    4.45: R-R, 35 cm

    52 cm 4.46: R-R, 35 cm

    27 cm

    4.47: R-R, 45 cm

    27 cm 4.48: R-R, 50 cm

    27 cm

    ,

    4.43 4.46

    . , 30 35 cm,

    .

  • 2016

    30

    4.5 - (U-t)

    -

    ,

    (U-t)

    .

    - (U-t).

    ,

    ,

    ,

    (U-t) .

    4.49: R-R, 15 cm

    52 cm 4.50: R-R, 20 cm

    52 cm

    4.51: R-R, 25 cm

    52 cm 4.52: R-R, 30 cm

    52 cm

  • 2016

    31

    4.53: R-R, 35 cm

    52 cm 4.54: R-R, 40 cm

    52 cm

    4.55: R-R, 45 cm

    27 cm 4.56: R-R, 50 cm

    27 cm

    4.6 -

    - ,

    ,

    .

    , ,

    , U50.

  • 2016

    32

    4.57: -, LI(+)

    4.58: -, LI(-)

  • 2016

    33

    4.7 - -

    (U-t)

    , - (U-t)

    - ,

    , ,

    - (U-t). 15, 20, 25,

    30, 35, 40 cm 52 cm, 45 50 cm

    27 cm.

    4.59: (U-t) -, LI(+)

  • 2016

    34

    4.60: (U-t) -, LI(-)

  • 2016

    35

    5: -

    5.1 - (R-P)

    ,

    ,

    , -

    .

    5.1: R-P, 20 cm, LI(+) 5.2: R-P, 20 cm, LI(-)

    5.3: R-P, 40 cm, LI(+) 5.4: R-P, 40 cm, LI(-)

    5.5: R-P, 60 cm, LI(+) 5.6: R-P, 30 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    36

    5.1 ,

    U50 (%)

    -

    .

    5.1: -

    P (mmHg) T (oC) H (gm-3) U50 (kV) (%)

    20 cm 765 22.7 17.50 0.994 132.1 4.96

    763 22.2 16.96 0.996 258.5 3.79

    40 cm 765 21.5 15.83 1.002 217.0 4.55

    757 16.2 15.27 1.009 462.6 3.00

    60 cm 765 22.0 16.85 1.000 305.2 2.54

    30 cm 763 22.2 16.96 0.996 258.5 3.79

    5.2 - (U-t) -

    ,

    - (U-t),

    , -

    .

    5.7: R-P, 20 cm, LI(+) 5.8: R-P, 20 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    37

    5.9: R-P, 40 cm, LI(+) 5.10: R-P, 40 cm, LI(-)

    5.11: R-P, 60 cm, LI(+) 5.12: R-P, 30 cm, LI(-)

    5.3

    -

    U50

    ,

    .

    -, - U50

    U50 .

    5.13: R-P, 20 cm 5.14: R-P,40 cm

  • 2016

    38

    5.4 - (U-t)

    -

    ,

    (U-t)

    .

    - (U-t). ,

    -,

    ,

    (U-t) .

    5.15: R-P,20 cm 5.16: R-P,40 cm

    5.5 -

    - ,

    ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    U50 .

  • 2016

    39

    5.17: -, LI(+)

    5.18: -, LI(-)

  • 2016

    40

    5.6 - -

    (U-t)

    , - (U-t)

    - ,

    , ,

    - (U-t).

    5.19: - (U-t) -, LI(+)

  • 2016

    41

    5.20: - (U-t) -, LI(-)

  • 2016

    42

  • 2016

    43

    6:

    6.1 -

    ,

    - 52 cm, -

    27 cm -.

    ,

    U50, 50 %.

    , Uth

    Ust.

    2,5 % ,

    97,5 % [2].

    -

    U50, Uth Ust .

    .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    - -

    27 cm.

    6.1.1 - - (R-R)

    52 cm

    6.1: - ,

    R-R, LI(+) 6.2: - ,

    R-R,LI(-)

  • 2016

    44

    6.3: - ,U50, , R-R

    6.1.2 - -

    27 cm

    6.4: - ,

    R-R, LI(+) 6.5: - ,

    R-R,LI(-)

  • 2016

    45

    6.6: - ,U50, , R-R

    6.1.3 - -

    6.7: - ,

    R-P, LI(+) 6.8: - ,

    R-P,LI(-)

  • 2016

    46

    6.9: - ,U50, , R-P

    6.2

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    , m, :

    =50

    U50 kV, 50 % l

    m. [4]

    ,

    .

    . ,

    - - 27

    cm - 52 cm .

  • 2016

    47

    6.2.1 - (R-R)

    52 cm

    6.10: , R-R

  • 2016

    48

    6.2.2 - (R-R)

    27 cm

    6.11: , R-R

  • 2016

    49

    6.2.3 - (R-P)

    6.12: , R-P

  • 2016

    50

    6.2.4

    - (R-R)

    6.13: , R-R, 27 & 52 cm, LI(+)

    6.14: , R-R, 27 & 52 cm, LI(-)

  • 2016

    51

    6.3 (Gap factor)

    To -

    . , -

    (k). U50

    , U50

    -, .

    : =50

    50,

    .

    U50

    -.

    , 50 %

    , k,

    U50,R-P,

    - [4].

    - - ,

    27 52

    cm, .

    ,

    .

  • 2016

    52

    6.15: R-R, 27 cm, LI (+)

    6.16: R-R, 27 cm,LI (-)

  • 2016

    53

    6.17: R-R, 52 cm, LI (+)

    6.18: R-R, 52 cm,LI (-)

  • 2016

    54

  • 2016

    55

    7:

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    - -

    ,

    . ,

    , -

    (U-t) -

    .

    -,

    .

    .

    -

    (U-t). ,

    ,

    ,

    , U50

    . -

    , U-t

    U-t . -

    , ,

    . ,

    , U-t

    U-t.

    -.

    ,

    ,

    U50. -,

    U-t

    .

  • 2016

    56

    , - ,

    - - 27 cm

    - 52 cm.

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    - 52 cm

    .

    ,

    -

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    -,

    , m , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , -

    -

    .

    , -

    -,

    . ,

    . , -

    -

    U50 -

    .

  • 2016

    57

    - . ,

    .

    . , ,

    .

    .

    ( 15 cm )

    .

  • 2016

    58

  • 2016

    59

    8:

    [1] IEC 60060-1: "High-voltage test techniques, Part1: General definitions and

    requirements", 2010.

    [2] . . , "

    ", 1 2, 2008.

    [3] , , "

    ", , , ,

    2015

    [4] , " -

    - 1m", ,

    , , 2014.

    [5] . , . , "

    (UHV) ", ,

    , , 2012.

    [6] Recommendations for high-voltage testing: EEI-NEMA subcommittee report,"

    Electrical Engineering, vol.59, no.10, pp.598-602, Oct. 1940.

  • 2016

    60

    1: 2: 3: 4: - (R-R) 5: - 6: 7: 8: