τα κειμενα της_καινης_διαθηκης

of 111/111
F.F. Bruce Καθηγητής Πανεπιστημίου ΤΑ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΑ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΙΝΗΣ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗΣ Είναι άραγε αξιόπιστα; σελ. 1 από 111
  • date post

    14-Apr-2017
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    309
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of τα κειμενα της_καινης_διαθηκης

F.F. Bruce

;

2000

. 3

. 4

1. ;

. 5

2.

. 6

. 6

;

. 7

;

. 8

3.

. 11

4.

. 15

. 15

. 24

5.

. 31

6.

. 37

7.

. 39

8.

. 45

9.

. 48

. 48

. 50

10.

. 56

. 61

. 69

.

.

, ; , .

, , - , , .

, . , , .

( ), 1943, . , , , , , , . . ( ) , , (...).

. , : , , , .

( ), , , , , .

F.F.B.

1956

. , , , .

. , , .

F.F.B.

1981

1

;

; ; , , . , , . , , , .

. , , , .

, , .

, . , .

(1( ((, . , , , , , , .

: , . (( , , , ... .

, , , , , .

, , , , . , , , . , . Lecky, .

, , , , .(4( , . , . , , , ; , , , . , , , . ((2

:

1. ;

, 27 , , , .

, , . , , , - . . , , , , . ( , ). ((, .

, , , , , .

, , , , .

, 21 . , (( ((.

, , , , . 70 .. . , , , . , , , . ((. , , ((.

, . , , , , . (69 96 ..) , , . .

, 27 , , , , , .

2. ;

, 30 .. 3/1, , , 15 . 14 .. , , , 15 27 .. ((. ((. 30., , , , , . , , , , ((.

, , 100 .., . (( : 85-90 , 65 , 80-85 , 90-100 ((. : 64 65 ., 70, 70. , 70 . .

, , , , . , . .

, .

(60-62 ..) ((. , , , , , -. 60 ((.

. . , 2 . ( 1 2, ) .(( , , , : .

, . , , : 48((, 1 2 50, 1 2 54 - 56, 57, , , 60 .

, , , 65, ((. 63 65 , , .

, , . , : , ;

3. ;

, , , .. ((.

, . , , Lightfoot, Tischendorf, Tregelles .. , , , , , .

, .

, , . , , ((. , ipso facto, . , . , , , , , , , . , .

5000 , . 350 .. , , , 100.000 1933, . , , , Bezae Cambridge, 5 6 , .

. .. ( 58 50 ..) *, 9 10 , 900 . 142 (59 .. 17 ..) . , , III IV, , 4 . (100 .. .) . , , . , . ( , , ) . (460 400 . .) , 900 .. , . (488 428 .. .). , , , , 1300 .

! 4 , , , 100 200 . Chester Beatty, 1931, , . , , . , , .

150 .. H.I.Bell T.C.Skeat Fragments of an Unknown Gospel and other Early Christian Papyri (1935). , . , The Times Literary Supplement, 1935, . , , , .* . . .: = / =

18/31 33,37 ., John Rylands Manchester 130 .., , , 90 100 .., ( , 1917). , , ((.

, Rylands, . Bodmer II, Bodmer 1956. 200 .. , ( ), . (( . , , 90 160 .., . , 100 .. , , , , , 96 . . , , , 1 , , , , 1 .

, , , , 115 .., , , , 1 2 , , , , 1 2 , , , 2 , , , , 1 . , , , , , , 1 2 , , , , 2 , 1 2 , , 1 1 . , , , . The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford Society of Historical Theology, 1905.

, . , , , (( , , . (( , , , . , , , , . , , . , , , . , , . . , Sir Frederic Kenyon, :

, , , . , , . ((3

, . , , , ; ; , , ;

, , , , .

, . , , . - . , , - , , ;

VI - ,* :

, . , , . (.. 2 , 2 3 , , ) , , , . , , 110 .. , . , .

* . . : 39 , , .

, , , 140. - , , . - , , . , , : () , , () ( ). , , .

, , , , 1740 L.A. Muratori. , , .

, , , (, , 1 2 ) ((, , ((, ((. (. ), .

, , , , .

, . . , . , , , , . 115 .. , , , , , , .

170 .., , , , , . ((. , , . , , , , 1933 Dura-Europos, .

, , . , , , .

, , 180 .., , , :

, , , , , . , , , , ((.

, . - . , 24/51 , 1/2. , , , , ((.

, , , , , , .

, , , Harnack, , , .

Corpus Paulinum, , ((. , . . , . , ( , , , ).

.

(185-254 ..) , , , 1 , 1 . , 2 , 2 3 , , , .

(265-340 .. .) , , , 2 , 2 3 , , . (( , 367 .. 27 . , , . , . 508 , 2 , 2 3 , , .

.

, . , . , , , . , , , 150 .., , , (. 1/67). , , , , , . , , , , , ,

. , 140 .., , , . , .

, ( ) , , , , , .

. , . , , , , .

393 .. 397 .., , , .

, . , M.R.James Apocryphal New Testament (1924), ((, . (( , , , . , - , , . , . , .

(347-420 ..) , , ( ) . , , . ( ) . , ((, , , . , , , . , , (( , Sir William Ramsay , . , , , , , , , .

4

. . (( . . , , ., , . 130 140 .., ( ), , :

, , .

, , , . , , . , , , , , , . , . , , . (( , . , , , , , , . , (Source Criticism), . , , , , , , , , . , , , .

, , . , , . , , .

. , , , . , , , , ((. . , 606 661 , 350 , , . , : 1068 , 500 . 1149 350 . , 31 .

, 250 , . , , , . 300 , 550 .

. . . , , , . , , Alford Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels. , . , , , (Form Criticism) .

, , , . 1918 , , - . , , , (oral theory), Alfrod Westcott. , .

, . . , , . , , , , , .

. . . , , , , , . , . , , . . . , . (duplicate) . (.. 22/2 . 19/16 .) , , , .

, , , . , , , .. . , . . . , , , , .

, , , . , , , , . (( , , . . , , . , , . (Markan hypothesis), (( , , Carl Lachmann 1835, , , , , , , , . , . , , , (literary criticism), , . , . Theodor von Zahn , , . (( Zahn Don John Chapman, , (1937) Dom B.C. Butler, The originality os St. Matthews Gospel (1951), .

. , ( , , ), . Sir Hawkins Horae Synopticae ( , 1909).

, , , . (/39), , , :

( ) , , . . , , , , . , , ( ) . , , .

. , , , , . , . (( , . (( , . , , . , , , , .

C.H. Turner Marcan Usage (Journal of Theological Studies) 1924 1925, , . : , 1/29, . (( . . ( 14/51 .) . (. 12/12) .

, , . , , . , , ( ), , . . .

, , 60, , . . . , . . , Q .(( , Q - , . Q, . , , , , . , , . ((:

(. ) .

, . . , . , , . (( Q , . , . , , , , , , . () () () () . (( , . , , Q . , , , , . , , , .

, , , . , . , , . C.F. Burney, The Poetry of our Lord (1925). . , . , , . , . , . , , . C.F. Burney The Poetry of our Lord (1925). . , . , , . , .

, , , . , , , , . , Q, , Q , , .

, Q, . , . 50 .. , .

, 70 .. , , , , . . (( () (. 5-7), () (. 10/5 - 42), () (13/3 - 52), () (. 18) () (. 24 25). . (. 1 2) , (. 26 28).

. Torah ( ). , . , . , , , 11/1 : ( 2/15).

, , ( 10/21 . 11/25 27), , . , , , (. 5/3 ., 6/20 .). ( 1/1) , , , - , , , , . , . , , . L.

. , , ( 11/19 .). , ( 2/11 .). : , ; (( 13/1). , . , , ( . 6). , , 35 .. ( 1/18); Dodd, ((. .

, , (. 24/27). . , , . . , , , , . , , (. 21/8 .) (( (( , , .

, , . , , , , , , . , , , , , , ( 23/51).

, , , , 60 .. ( 4/19, 24). . , , , , , , , . Q + L, - ((, . , , , , . , , , , .

. , . , , , . , , , , , , .

, , . . ; , , , , , . , .

-, , , . : . , : , ( 15/39). - . , , , , , , , , Ernest Renan, .

. , , , , , ; , . , , : ( 28/19).

60 .. . . . : . , , , , , , . , , . , , 1 , . 7, : , , .

, . , , . ( ), , . , . , ( 2/22). , , , .

, , , , , , , , , . , , .

2.

Argument to the Gospel of John((, : . , . , , , .

, , . , , . . .

. , , , . : , ( 21/24). , , . , , , . ( 13/23), ( 19/26) (( , , , ( 20/2). ;

14/17((, , , , , . , , , , . , , ( 14/33). , , . , 13/24, 20/2 21/20. , 21. 44 .. ( 12/2) ((, . .

, ( ). , , . . . , (14/22). , , , , .

, . , : , , . , ((. . , , A.T. Olmstead, , , 11, ((, 20, ((.

. , , , , , , , . . , , 70 ..

. . (2/6) (19/40). , , , 5/1, ((. , , , ((. (8/17). , , , (7/49) Hillel: ((. . (11/49,51, 18/13) .

, , , , , Abrahams, : , , , ((. Abrahams, , ((.

, , . , ! . , 115 .. . , , , , Lightfoot, Westcott , , . (130 .. .) 1/9 . (150 .. .) 3 . , (170 .. .), . , , .

, , . , (Gaul), , , , , , ((.

. , , , , ((. ((. , ((, , , ,( 156 .., 86 ). , , , , , . . :

, . : . , , , .

. , : ( 21/24).

, , , :

, , , , ((. , . , , . .

, ((. , , (130-140 .. .) , . . . Lightfoot , , , ((. . Times 13 1936, Dr. Cross : , , , , , .

, , , , , , . , . , ((. , . , , . , , . . . ( , , ). , , . . , , . , ( ), .

.

, . . , C.F. Burney, Aramaic Origin of the Fourth Gospel (1922), C.R. Driver Burney ipsissima verba* ((. , , .

, , . ; . , . , , - - ( 4/3).*...:

, , , . Bedford .

. , , .

, . . (. 7/1) . , ( 11/3-6). ( 14/12-16), : ( 23/37, 13/34). , , , , .

. , , . , , . , 5 7, 7/2((. , , . , , (1/37 .) .

, , , , .. , . 3/25 , , , . . , .

, ( ) 29 .., , , ( 10/22), ( 10/40), 30 .. ( 12/1) ((.

, , , , . , , (6/39). ( 6/4) ( 17 29 ..). , , , . , , . ( ), , . , , , ( 18/28, 19/14). ((.

, , , . . , , . , , , , . , .

. , . , , . , . . , , ((. , , , , . . . 9/37. , , (. 10/40, 9/48), 12/44, 13/20. 11/27 10/22: , , , - , .

, , . . . , . , , ... , , .

, , , , .

. ; , , , . , ( 20/31), : , , ( 1/1). . , , , , . . (4/6), (11/35), (19/28). , . , (1/14) , -, (19/30-35).

, . , , , , . , ( 8/27 .). , , , ( ), , . , , , . , ((, , , - , ( 10/24).

, , . , , , .

, ((.

, 30 .. , , , . . . . , , . , , , , , . , , , , , . , . , . , . ((.

; , , , , , . , . Christian Industrial League, Skidrow, , . , , ((. , William Temple, , :

. ... ... , . , . , ((.

, , , , . , , , , , , , : .

5

, . , , , , , .

, . , , , , . . , , . , - , , . , . - . , , . , . , , , .

. , a priori. , , .. Olmstead, , ( . 11 ), . : , , ((. , , . . , , , .

, . . , , .

- , . , . . , , .. , , , , , . , , -, , , , . , , , (( , . , , . , , , .

, , , , , . , . , , , , : , ( 28/13). . . George Moore The Brook Kerith*. , . , . , , , , . ( , ). , , (*(.

* ...:

, , . , . , 16/8. ( ). , : () . () , . () , .

, , . , . : (. ), , , (. ), ( 1 . 15/5-7). , , . : !.

, , , . . , , , . , . . . , . , , . , , , ( Arnold Lunn) ((. , .

, . , . , . (. ). , . , . . , , . , . , , (. 3/10).

, . , . . , , . , . . , , . , , , , .

, , , , , , , . , . , , , , , .

, , , . . , , .

, -, , , - , , . , . , , , . , , , , ((. , . , , ((.

, . , , . , . , . , , , , .

, (. 2), , . , , , , : ! ! , ; , , , : (11), : , , ( 20/30). . , , , .

. , . , , . ((. . , . , , . . ( 6/5), . , : , , (. 1/14).

, , , 35/5 .; . , ! , . , . , ( 2/10 .). , .

, . . , , , . , , , .

. , 5000 ( 14/15 ., 6/35 .), 4000 ( 15/32 ., 8/1 .). , , . . , , . , , , . , , , . , , , , , .

, . , , . , , , . . , . . , . , . . . ( 8/19-21), :

, ; , . ; , . , ;

, , , , ( 8/22 .) , , , , , . , , ; , , ;

, , , . ( 17/24 .). . , , , . , , , . * . , . 70 .. , . , , , , , . , : ; ; . .

, , , . ( , ). , , , , . , .*...: Life-Setting, Sitz des Lebens

, . ((. ((, , , , .

( 11/12 ..), . , , . , , , , , . , . , , , . , . , , , taqsh . taqsh . . , taqsh, . , , taqsh , , . , ((.

. , , , , , , , . , , .

, . ( 11/22). . . , , . , , . , , , . , , , , , , . , , ( 20/31) ((.

6

, , , ( 60-62 ..). , 60 .., , 48 60 ..

( ) , , . , (. 21/39), , , . , ((, , . , , ((. - , .

, , , , ((, , , . , , , , ((. ( . 1/13) , , , , , .

, , , , , . . George, Lord Lyttelton, , , ((.

, , . , . , , , . - ((, (104(, (105( ((, ((, , ((, ((, ((, , , , , , , ((. , , , , .

((, , , ((, , ((. , , ((, , ((. , .. ((, ((, , .

, . , (. 12/1 15/7), , , . , , , . , , , . (2 10/1), , ( 11/29). , (. 15/3). ( 8/34), , , (. 15/1). ( 22/27) ( 13/4 .), , , , , : ( 13/14).

, , , . , , (( - , , , , ((.

7

, , , , . ((, , ((. . , . , , 60 ., .

, , , , , , - , . , :

, , , , , ( 1/1-41 . ).

, , , . , , . , (( , 60 .., . , , , , ( 313 ..).

, . . , . ( , ) (( . , , ((. , , ((.

, , , , ((, , , . . , , , , , . , , , , . , , , , , . , , , . , , .

. , . , , , . , , , Oriel, Balliol, Exeter, , Magdalen ... , , . , , , , , (Legatus pro praetore).

, , , 22 .., , , . , , 47 ., ( 13/7), , , Sir William Ramsay, ((. , , . , ( 18/12), , . , , , , 51 .. 27 .. 15 .., 44 .. . , , , , , , ( 20/2), , , , - .

, 19/38. , , . , . , ; , , , , , (54 ..) ((. , , , . Helius Celer, *, ((.

, . , ( 19/31), . Duncan , , . , , , .

, ( 19/35). , , , , . ( , , , ). , , , , .

, , , , 25.000 . , . 103-104 .., , , , C. Vibius Salutaris, , , , , . *...: Junius Silanus

, (19/24), . , , , , . , . , , , ( 16/12,20 ., 35 .). , , , , : , ((.

, ( 17/6,9), , , .

, , ( 17/19,22), . , , .., , . , , (( , ( , , , , , , , ).

( 28/7), , .

, , , ( 28/16), Mommsen princes peregrinorum, , , , ( 27/1).

, , (. 14/9, 6/14). , , , , . , (.. 3/1,19).

2/2 , , , ( , 4 ..), , 6 .. ((, 5/35, . , , , , 2/1 ., ) ) ) ) .

) (37-34 ..), ((, , ((. ( , ) . , ((.

) , , 104 .., C. Vibius Maximus, : , , , , , ((.

) , 11 8 .., .

) 6 .., . Homanadensian, , 12 6 .. . Sir William Ramsay ((. , , . Ramsay . , , ((. , , , 2/2: , ((.

, 3/1, ( ), (27-28 ..), , 34 .. , , , , , . - , 14 .. ( ) 29 .. ( ((. , Eduard Meyer, , , ((.

. , ( 24/27). , ( 59 ..), , , . , , , ( , , . 18), , 59 .., . .

, , . . , , , , - ((. , , , . , 300-400 ((. , , , , . , , . , ( 19/19).

, , , ((. , , , . . ((. , , The Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul, 1848 (4 . 1880) James Smith Jordanhill, , . , , , , , , , , .

, ( 28/1-10), Harnack ( 28/9 .) , , ((.

, . , , . , ( ) , . .

Sir William Ramsay, , , . Ramsay . , , Tuebingen, , .. , , , .

Ramsay , , , . , ((. , . :

. , . , . , . , ((.

Ramsay . , , Ramsay , , . , Ramsay, Dr. Henry J. Cadbury . , , Dr. Cadbury, , , Lowell 1953 Book of Acts in History, , . Dr. Cadbury Ramsay.

, . . , , . . , , . . , , , , , , , . , , , , ((.

8

, , , . . , .

, , ((. , , , , ((. , ((. , , , , . 1871 C.S. Clermont-Ganneau, , :

. ((.

(2/14) , .

. , 5/2, - , Bezetha , .. 1888, , , . , . , , ((. , , Bordeux (333 ..) . , Bethesh dathain, . .

, , 70 .. 135 .. , , , . , , , . , , 327 .. , . ((.

1945, E.L. Sukenik, , , , . , ((.

, , 56-57 .., : , (. 16/23). , 1929, T.L. Shear ERASTUS PRO: AED: S: P: STRAVIT ( , , ). .., .

. : . , , , , , ( 18/4-7). , , 1 (10/25).

. , , , , , , (. 14/12). , , ( Jupiter Mercury) . , 626 . , Baucis, , .

, 1910, Sir William Calder 250 .. , , , , ((. , 1926, W.H. Buckler, , ( ) ((.

, ( ). , , .

, , ((. , , . ( ) , .

. . , Richard Rothe, 1863, ((, . , , , , . , - , , , , . , , . ((.

, B.P. Grenfell A.S. Hunt , , , . - . . , 140 .., , . , : . , . , .

1946 ( ) , 114 , . , . :

: ((. : , , ((.

, , . .

, . , Nag-Hammadi, , ( , ), , . .., - . , , , , . , , , -, , .

, . , 1947, , 200 (130 .. 7 .. .) . , , . . , . , , . ((.

9

1.

70 .. , , , , . . , . , , , . , , , , , Yohanan. , , , , , . . , , . , 135 .., , , . 200 . , , 170 217. , .

, . . , , , 300 .. . , , 500 ..

, , . ((.

, , , , , ((. , . , , .

, . . Ha-Taluy ( ) . , Ben-Pantera ( ), , ( ) , , . ((. .

.. , , . , , . , . , , Awen-gillayon Awon-gillayon, ((. , , , (. 15/5, 21/20). 70 .., , , , . , , 70 .., , .

2.

, . 37 .. . , 63 .., . , 66 .., Jotapata . , , . , , . , , , , 69 .. , , , , . , , , , , .

, , . . , . , 170 .. 73 .., , , , . , , , , . , , - ( ) , , . , ,* . , , , , , , , .

: , , , , , , , , , . , .

* ...:

( 5/37), , (11/8) (XVIII/1). , , , , (. /5,1) 44 .., (6 ..) , 30 33. , ( ). (4 ..) ((, ( ) , .

(. 11/28) . , , , , , , ((.

, (12/19-23) (. /8,2) , , . :

, , . , ((. , , . , . . . , , , , , ! , .

. , , , ((, . ... ... , , .

, . , , . , , , , , . .

, , Eduard Meyer: , . , , ((.

, , , , . (XVIII/5,2) , , , , , . : , . , , ((. , , , . ( ), , , , . , , , , , . , Machaerus*, , . , , , .

: (1/4), , . , , . . , , ( 93 ..) - . *...:

, , . . (230 .., ) (326 .., ) ((.

, (/9,1) , (61 ..) :

, , , , . , , . , , , , , , , , , .

, ((. , ( ), , 170 .. ((. , , , . , Testimonium Flavianum, (XVIII/3,3). , :

, , . . , . . , , . , : , , .

, , ((. , , ((. . - . , , , . , . , ((. , .

, , , . , , . , , . , , . , , .

Testimonium Flavianum ((. , Dr. H.St. John Thackeray ( ) (( .

, , ((, , ((. , , .

. Trackeray, , , ( ), (). Robert Eisler, , : , . :

, , . . , . . , , , , . , , , , : , , , .

*. Testimonium , , ( ) . . , , .

, , , : () () , () , () , , () , () () ((.

* Eisler, , , . Testimonium Flavianum, , Dr. Eisler The Messiah Jesus and John the Baptist (1931). , , , , , .

, Trackeray ( . Loeb, Josephus, III, . 648 .). , /9,3 /9,4 :

, . , . . . , , , , .

, , , , . , , . , , . , . , , .

. , . . . , . , , , , . , , , : . , , , , , , . , , . . , , . , , . . , . . , . , , .

Eisler . Testimonium Flavianum .

, (. 3/1), . , , , , .

, ( V/5,4), . , Eisler J.W. Jack, , Historic Christ (1933).

10

. .

, , 52 .. , ((. , (. XVIII/6,4) .

, , , 221 .., , , , : , , . ( , , , ) ((.

: () , , , - () , ((.

. . , - . , , 73 .., , . , , . , , . , :

; . ; . ; , . : . . . , . . . . . .

, , . , , .

. , , , , ( , ) ((. (( 2/1, , , . , , , , .

, , , . , . , .

, , , . 150 .., , , *, , , , , . , , , , , . , . , ((. : ((.

*...:

, , , , ( ) 197 .., : , , , . , . ((.

, , , , . , , 170 , .

, , , , , , , , . , , . , ((. , , (20 ..), (( . ( (3/1), ). , , , . Toledoth Yeshu, , ((.

, , , , , , .

, , , , ( ). M.R. James, Apocryphal New Testament, . 94 ., , , .

, 52 54 . , (54-68 ..), , 64 .., . :

, , , , , , . , , . , , , , , , ((.

, , . , , , Messiah (). , . , , . . Julius Agricolla, 80 84 .. , , , , , . , . , : , . , ! ((.

, 120 .. , . (XVI/2) :

.

, (XV/4) :

, (Chrestus) .

Chrestus. , , Chrestus ( ), , . , , 17/1 . ( 50 ..), , , , , . . .

, , (XVIII/2) (assiduae sterilitates), 11/28. .

112 .. Plinius Secundus ( ), , , , . , :

, , , (sacramentum) , , , , , . , , , ((.

, , , , , . -, , , . , . - ((.

. , . . , , , , , , , ((

(( . 9/2, 19/9, 22/4, 24/14,22.

(( . 5/20. (( 1/15.

(( W.E.H. Lecky, History of European Morals, II (1869), . 88.(( , !

(( . . 29 .

(( , 1 2 , , , , , 1 2 .

(( , 1 2 , .

(( () ().

(( . .

(( , , . 14 .., - . (2/13 .) , 28 .., 2/20, 20-19 .. 46 27-28 ..

(( 2/13, 6/4, 11/55, .

(( . 9,10.

(( . . .: .

(( B.H. Streeter The Four Gospels (1924) V.Taylor The Gospels (1945). A. Harnack, The Date of the Acts and the Synoptic Gospels (1911), C.E. Raven, Jesus and the Gospel of Love (1931) . 128 ., J.A.T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament (1976).

(( 28/30. . F.F.Bruce. The Book of Acts, (1954), . 21 .

(( . C.S..C.Williams, A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (1957), . 13 .

(( . D. Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles, 1957, . 11 .

(( (, . 15). .

(( . , 11/22,25.

(( Tuebingen, Tuebingen, F.C. Baur, , . . , , , , , , : , , ! . 1874 Supernatural Religion ( ) (Walter R. Cassels), Lightfoot Contemporary Review, 1874-77, Essays on Supernatural Religion, (1889). Cassels Lightfoot , .

(( . A.N.Sherwin White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament (1963), . 189, .

(( C.H. Roberts, An Unpublished Fragment of the Fourth Gospel (1935).

(( Bodmer 200 .., . , . , , .

(( F.L. (.) Cross The Long Codex (1955), . 81 .

(( , , . .

, Redating the New Testament, J.A.T. Robinson (1976), 70 .., , . ( 68 69). , 65 .. , - (70 ..). , , Dr. Robinson , , , , , Dr. Robinson.

(( The Bible and Archaeology (1940), sel. 288 ep.

(( . .

(( .(( , , . , , * . , M.R. James, Apocryphal N.T., . 505 .

* . . : .

(( . 16, .26

(( /11,8

(( F.F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (Tyndale Press, 1951), . 66 .

(( ( 115 .,) . 2 3/15 . ( 2 , , ).

(( , * .

*...: .

(( , , J.B.Lightfoot (Macmillan 1891), Loeb Classical Library, Kirsopp Lake (Heinemann, 1912-13). , .

(( : The Books, and the Parchmens (1963). . 95 ., The Spreading Flame (1958), . 221 ., Tradition Old and New (1970), . 129 .

(( The Apocryphal New Testament M.R. James, . 1 .

(( M.R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, . 270 . W.M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire (1893), . 31 ., 375 .

(( 2,

(( , . , iii/39

(( J.J. Griesbach, 1774

((De Consensu Evangelistarum 1.4

(( , . , .

((Introduction to the New Testament (1909), II/. 601

(( C.H. Dodd the Framework of the Gospel Narrative, Expository Times xiii (1931-32), . 396 .

((.. 2/114 ., 3/12 ., 4/10 ., 5/30 ., 10/36 ., 13/16 . 1 . 15/3 .

((C.H. Turner, The Gospel According to St. Mark, New Commentary on Holy Scripture (S.P.C.K. 1928), , . 48. . 54 , * : 1/21,29, 5/1,38, 6/53,54, 8/22, 9/14,30,33, 10/32,46, 11/1, 12,15,20,27, 14/18,22,26,32

*...: 1/29 1/30

(( Q , , . Julius Wellhausen Q Quelle, . J. Armitage Robinson, ( Peter=, ) , Q,

(( , . . /39

(( 24/19

(( . T.W. Manson, The Sayings of Jesus (1949), . 15-26

((. K.Stendahl, The School of St. Matthew (1968)

((. . 7 The Apostolic Preaching and its Developments (1936), . 26

((. A. Harnack, Luke the Physician (1907), 153 .

((. ., /31,39

((. B.H. Streeter, The Four Gospels (1924), . 199 ., V. Taylor, Behind The Third Gospel (1926), The Passion Narrative of St. Luke (1972)

((...:

(( ( 19/26). 27/56 15/4 19/25 , , . , , , , , , , , .

((. 26/20, 22/14

(( , . A.S. Peake: . , , , .

((D.L. Sayers, The Man Born to be King (1943), . 33. . 28 . . . Unpopular Opinions (1946), . 25 .

((Jesus in the Light of History (1942), . 206

(( . 248.

(( J.R. Harris, Side-lights on New Testament Research (1908), . 52, .

(( A.E. Guilding . The Fourth Gospel and Jewish Worship (1959)

((Pirqe Aboth /6

((. Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and Gospels, I (1917), . 12

(( Cambridge Biblical Essays, . H.B. Swete (1909), . 181

(( , , . , , . (200 .. .), . , , .

(( . /1

((. /9,

(( , . . V/20

(( , , .

(( Dr. Robert Eisler, Enigma of the Fourth Gospel (1938), , , ,

((J.B. Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion, (1889), . 214

(( , S.P. Tregelles, (New Testament Historic Evidence [1851], . 47). . F.F. Bruce, Men and Movements in the Primitive Church (1979), . 133-136

(( Original Language of the Fourth Gospel, Jewish Guardian 5 12 1933

((. G. Ogg, The Chronology of the Public Ministry of Jesus (1940),

((. M. Goquel, Life of Jesus (1933), . 400

(( Annie Jaubert The Date of the Last Supper (1965), , , , , . .

((. C.F. Burney, The Poetry of our Lord (1925)

((. C.E. raven, Jesus and the Gospel of Love (1931), . 216 VII VIII Dr. Raven , .

((Robert Browning, A Death in the Desert(( C.H. Dodd The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel (1953), , .

((A.M. Chirgwin, The Bible in World Evangelism (1954), . 113

((Readings in St. Johns Gospel (1940), . 16,32

((Jesus in the Light of History, . 206. . 49

(( , , A.R. Short M.D., B.Sc., F.R.C.S, Modern Discovery and the Bible (I.V.F., 1943), . 89 ., The Bible and Modern Medicine(1953), . 109 . , , , , . , (8/28), (5/1) , (8/26). C.H. Huxley Essays upon some Controverted Questions (1892), , , . , 40 - ( ). , . , , , , . , .

(*( The Spreading Flame, . 59 .

(( A. Lunn, The Third Day (1945), . 89

((, 1/38, 11,48

((.. , , 133 .. (. . . IV/3)

((. 2/23-25, 6/26

(( musht, , . , . , (L.O. Weatherhead, It Happened in Palestine [1963], . 36). , .

((, , , .

((. W.M Christie, Palestine Calling (1939), . 118 .

(( , Alan Richardson, : The Miracle Stories of the Gospels (1941), . D.D. Cairns, The Faith that Rebels (1929)

(( 22/3,

(( . 1/13 .

(( 6/9

(( 7/58, 8/1 ., 9/1 ., 22/4, 26/9 ., . 15/9

(( Observations on the Conversion of St. Paul, Dr. Samuel Johnson : , , , . , , . , . (1747) Observations on the Conversion of St. Paul, (Lives of the poets : Lyttelton)

((.. 1/15 .

((. 4/4

((. 9/5

((. 1/3

((. 4/4

((1 . 11/23 .

(( 2/8, 1 . 1/23, . 3/13, 6/14

((1 . 2/15

((1 . 15/4 .

((. 1/17 .

((. 2/9

((. 1/19, 2/9

((1 9/5

(( 1/30

((1 . 7/10 .

((1 9/14, 1 . 5/18, . 10/7

((1 . 15/11

(( C.H. Dodd, History and the Gospel (1938), . 63 . A.M. Hunter, Paul and his Predecessors (1961), J.G. Machen, The Origin of Pauls Religion (1921, 1947), S. Kim, The Origin of Pauls Gospel (1981). Paul and Jesus (1974) Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit (1974), . 95-112

(( 4/14

((- . , . . /4

(( , , . - .

(( 2/1, 3/1, . 11/28 18/2

(( 25/11 . 25/21

(( 1/5, 2/1 .

(( 3/1 .

((The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament (1915), .150. . F.F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit (1977), . 161

((, XIII/1, , 1 . LIXI/6

((. G.S. Duncan, St. Pauls Ephesian Ministry (1929), . 102 ..

((De Lege Agraria, 34

((. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller (14 . 1920), . 245 ., The Bearing of Recent Discovery, , . 101 .

((, XVIII/1,1

((XVI/9,3

((XVII/2,4

((, VI/41

((. A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East(1927), . 220 .

((The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament (1915), . 122 .

(( . R. Syme, Galatia and Pamphylia under Augustus, Klio XXVII (1934), . 122 .

(( . N.Turner, Grammatical Insights into the New Testament (1965), . 23 . , ( , IV/19), ( 8-6 ..)

(( Ramsay, The Bearing of Recent Discovery ., . 297 .

((Ursprung und Anfaenge des Christentums I (1921), . 49

(( 11/19 .

(( 17/21. . /38,5. , 10

(( 16/10-17, 20/5-21/18, 27/1-28/16

((H.J. Holtzmann, Handcommentar zum N.T. (1889), . 421

(( The Bearing of Recent Discovery ., . 81 .((The Luke the Physician, . 177-179

(( Bearing, . 222. Auckland : , . (E.M. Blaiklock, The Acts of the Apostles [Tyndale Press 1959], . 89)

((. I.H. Marshall, Luke: Historian and Theologian (1970)

(( 21/27 .

((, V/5,2

(( , VI/2,4

(( , , , . Rockfeller

((. J. Jeremias, The Rediscovery of Bethesda (1966)

(( . K.M. Kenyon, Jerusalem: Excavating 3000 Years of History (1967), . 146 .

(( . J.P. Kane, . Palestine Exploration Quarterly CIII (1971), . 103 .

(( Classical Review, xxiv (1910), . 79 ., xxviii (1924), . 29, . 1. Expositor, 1910, . 1 ., 148 .

(( Discovery, vii (1926), . 262 .

(( . 17 .

(( H. Cremer Biblico Theologica Lexicon of New Testament Greek.(( , . A.D. Nock: , , . , . . (Journal of Biblical Literature LII [1933], . 138). E.K. Simpson, Words Worth Weighing in the Greek New Testament (Tyndale Press 1944). , , .

((. 8/51

(( ( ...) (180 .. ) ( )

((. K. Stendahl (.), The Scrolls and the New Testament (1957). F.F. Bruce, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Early Christianity, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library XLIX (1966-67), . 69 .. G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective (1977)

(( J. Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth (1929),. 18 . , M. Goguel, Life of Jesus (1933), . 70 .

((. 5/17

(( Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth, 23 . .

(( , Shabbath, 116 ,

(( . XVII/10,4

(( ./2,5

(( , 1

(( , , , . , , , . (. XVII/6,7)

((Ursprung and Anfaenge des Christentums III (1923), . 167 .

(( ,

((, 1/47, . . /11

(( , 1/47, 11/13. . /17, , . . /23

(( , . . /23

((. . /11. /5

(( 1/47, . /17

((. T. Reinach, Josephe sur Jesus, Revue des Etudes juives XXXV (1897) . 13, J. Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth, . 55 . Klausner , . .

(( . F.C. Burkitt, The Gospel History and its Transmission (1906), . 325

(( Josephus, The Man and the Historian (1929), . 125 .

(( . C.C. Richards, Journal of Theological Studies, XLII (1941), . 70 .

(( . R.J.H. Shutt, Classical Quarterly, XXXI (1937), . 176

((. F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament (1974), . 32-65

(( C. Mueller, Fragmenta Historicum Graecorum III/517., F. Jacoby, Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, II, B(, 1929), . 256

(( (/12) ,

(( . M. Goguel, Life of Jesus, . 63

(( , , ( XIII/32), 57 .., Pomponia Graecina, Aulus Plautius, , . , , , , , 95 .. (, XV/1. , LXVII/14). , . Pomponia Flavia Domitilla . . F.F. Bruce, The Spreading Flame, . 137 ., 162 .

((, . 1/34, . IV/9,19

((. /35

(( . /48

(( . V/2

((, . . /9

(( XVII/2,2

(( . Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth, . 47 .((, XV/44

(( , , , 70 .., Sulpicius Severus (. /30,6)

((, /96. , (. , /8) (. , , 7, .)

(( - H.G. Wood, Did Christ Really Live? (1938). A.D. Howell Smith, Jesus not a Myth (1942)

(( . F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament (1974), .19-31

1

Bruce F.F., First Century Faith (I.V.P., 1977)

Davies W.D., Invitation to the New Testament

(Darton, Longman & Todd, 1967)

Guthrie, D., New Testament Introduction

(Tyndale Press, 1970)

Martin, R.P., New Testament Foundations,

2 vols. (Paternoster Press, 1975 1978)

Moule, C.F.D., The Birth of the New Testament

& C. Black, 1981)

Moule, C.F.D., The Phenomenon of the New Testament

(S.C.M.Press, 1967) 2

Bruce F.F., The Books and the Parchments

( Pickering & Inglis, 1963)

Kenyon, F.G., Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts

(Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1958)

Metzger, B.M., The Text of the New Testament

(O.U.P., 1968)

Robinson, J.A.T., Reading the New Testament

(SCM Press, 1976)

Sherwin White, A.N., Roman Society and Roman Law

in the New Testament (O.U.P., 1963 3

Cross, F.L., The Jung Codex (Mowbray, 1955)

James, M.R. (ed.), The Apostyphal New Testament

(O.U.P., 1924)

Souter, A., The Text and Canon of the New Testament

(Duckworth, 1954)

Wilson, McL. (ed.) New Testament Apoctypha. 2 vols,

(Lutterworth Press, 1963, 1965) 4

Dodd, C.H., History and the Gospel

(Nisbet, 1938)

Dodd, C.H., The Founder of Christianity

(Collins, 1971)

Higgins, A.J.B., The Reliability of the Gospels

(Independent Press, 1952)

Higgins, A.J.B., The Historicity of the Fourth Gospel

(Lutterworth Press, 1960)

Hunter, A.M., The Work and Words of Jesus

(S.C.M. Press, 1950)

Lon Dufour, X., The Gospels and the Jesus of History

(Fontana, 1970)

Manson, T.W., The Beginning of the Gospel

(O.U.P., 1950)

Manson, T.W., The Servant - Messiah

(O.U.P., 1953)

Martin, R.P., Mark: Evangelist and Theologian

(Patermoster, 1972)

Smalley, S.S., John: Evangelist and Interpreter

(Paternoster, 1978)

Taylor, V., The Life and Ministry of Jesus

(Macmillan, 1954) 5

Lawton, J.S., Miracles and Revelation

(Lutterworth Press, 1959)

Lewis, A., The Miracle Stories of Gospels

(S.C.M. Press, 1941)

Wallace, R.S., The Gospel Miracles

(Oliver & Boyd, 1960) 6

Bruce, F.F., The Epistle of Paull to the Romans

(Tyndale Press, 1963)

Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit

(Paternoster Press, 1977)

Dibelius, M., Paul (Longmans, 1953)

Ellis, E.E., Paul and his Recent Interpreters

(Eerdmans, 1961)

Hunter, A.M., Interpreting Pauls Gospel

(S.C.M. Press, 1954)

Hunter, A.M., Paul and his Predecessors

(S.C.M. Press, 1961)

Kim, S., The Origin of Pauls Gospel

(Mohr Tbingen, 1981)

Machen, J.G., The Origin of Pauls Religion

(Eerdmans, 1947)

Munck, J., Paul and the Salvation of Mankind

(S.C.M. Press, 1959) 7

Barret, C.K., Luke the Historian in Recent Study

(Epworth Press, 1961)

Cadbury, H.J., The Book of Acts in History

(A. & C. Black, 1955)

Marshall, I.H., Luke: Historian and Theologian

(Paternoster Press, 1970)

Marshall, I.H., The Acts of the Apostles

(IVP, 1980)

Ramsay, W.M., St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen 14

(Hodder & Stoutghton, 1920)

Ramsay, W.M., The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the

Trustworthiness of the New Testament

(Hodder & Stoutghton, 1915)

Smith, J., The Voyage and Shipwreck of The St. Paul

(Longmans, 1880) 8

Black, M., The Scrolls and Christian Origins

(Nelson, 1961)

Blaiklock, E.M., The Century of the New Testament

(I.V.P., 1962)

Bruce, F.F., New Testament History

(Oliphants, 1970)

Bruce, F.F., Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls

(Paternoster Press, 1966)

Deissmann, C.A., Light from the Ancient East 4

(Hodder & Stoutghton, 1927)

Mowry, L., The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Early Church

(University of Chicago Press, 1962)

Rowley, H.H., The Dead Sea Scrolls and The New

Testament (S.P.C.K., 1957)

Thompson, J.A., The Bible and Archaelogy

(Eerdmans, 1981)

van Unnik, W.C., Newly Discovered Gnostic Writings

(S.C.M. Press, 1958)

Yamauchi, E.M., The Archaelogy of New Testament Cities

In Westerns Asia Minor (Pickering and Inglis, 1980) 9

Grant, F.C., Ancient Judaism and The New Testament

(Oliver & Boyd, 1960)

Klausner, J., Jesus of Nazareth

(Allen & Unwin, 1929)

Monterfiore, H.W., Josephus and the New Testament

(Mowbray, 1962)

Vermes, G., Jesus the Jew

(Collins, 1973)

Williamson, G.A., Josephus: The Jewish War

(Penguin Classics, 1959) 10

Barrett, C.K., The New Testament Background

(S.P.C.K., 1957)

Bruce, F.F., Jesus and Christians Origins Outside the

New Testament (Hodder & Stoutghton, 1974)

Grant, F.C., Roman Hellenism and the New Testament

(Oliver & Boyd, 1962)

Theron, D.J., Evidence of Tradition (Bowes & Bowes, 1957). 44 72