Φυσική...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    21-Jan-2017
  • Category

    Education

  • view

    177
  • download

    15

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Φυσική...

  • B

  • i

  • ii

    2000 . . . , . . () . . .

    . . . .

    , 2008

  • ~ ~

    -

    / /

    iii

  • :

    , .

    , .

    , .

    , .

    ,

    , .

    :

    .

    :

    , , , , , :

    :

    John Bardeen, William Shockley

    Walter Brattain, 1947.

    .

    iv

    , . . (),. , . , . , . , . , . . , . . (), . , . , . ,. , . , . . . . . . . , .. . , . . , .. . .. ... , COSMOTE, ... General. Electric

  • 11 -

    1.11.1

    ............................................................................................................................. 3

    .............................................................................. 3

    ....................................................................................... 5

    .......................................................................................... 8

    Brown ....................................................................................................................... 9

    .................................................................................................... 10

    ........................................................................... 10

    ....................................... 12

    ..................... 15

    ................................................................................................................... 17

    .................................................................................................................... 17

    ............................................................................................................................ 20

    - ....................................................................................................... 22

    1.21.2

    ............................................................................................................................. 25

    ............................................................................. 25

    ............................................................................................................. 26

    ~ ......................................................................................... 27

    1 .................................................................................................. 28

    - ...................................................... 28

    .............................................................................................................. 30

    ................................................................................................................ 30

    .............................................................................................................. 31

    ........................................................................................................... 32

    ................................................................................................................ 32

    ............................................................................ 34

    v

  • ... 36

    Poisson ..................... 39

    ................................................................................................................ 41

    ................................................................................................................ 42

    2 .................................................................................................. 42

    Carnot ............................................................................................................ 44

    .............................................................................................................................. 47

    ............................................................................................................ 50

    ..................................................................................... 53

    - ......................................................................................................... 58

    ................................................................................................................... 60

    .................................................................................................................... 61

    ............................................................................................................................. 62

    - ....................................................................................................... 65

    22

    2.12.1

    ............................................................................................................................. 73

    .................................................................................................. 75

    Gauss () .................................................................................................. 77

    ................................................................. 81

    - .......................................................................... 87

    .......................................................... 91

    ............................................................................................................. 97

    ...................................................... 99

    .................................................................................................. 101

    ............................... 102

    ........................................................................................ 106

    - .............................................................................................................. 108

    ........................................................... 109

    .......................................................................................... 110

    vi

  • ................................................................................................... 111

    ..................................................................................................... 113

    ................................................................................................................... 115

    ....................................................................................................................... 122

    / ................................................................................... 123

    ................................................................................................................... 124

    .................................................................................................................... 126

    ............................................................................................................................ 129

    - ....................................................................................................... 131

    2.22.2

    ............................................................................................................................. 137

    ................................................................................. 137

    Biot Savart ................................................................................................... 138

    Biot Savart .......................................................................... 140

    ......................... 143

    ......................................... 144

    .................................. 145

    ........................................................................................................... 146

    ........................................................................................................ 147

    ......................................................................................................................... 148

    Laplace - .......................................................................................... 150

    ....................................................... 154

    ................................................................................................. 155

    Ampere .......................................................................... 157

    ............................................................................................ 159

    Hall ................................................................................. 160

    ................................................................................................................... 162

    .................................................................................................................... 163

    ............................................................................................................................ 165

    - ....................................................................................................... 167

    vii

  • 2.32.3

    ............................................................................................................................. 171

    - ( Faraday) ......................................... 171