Ενδοφαινότυποι &...

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    1

    1.

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    100

    Emil Kraepelin,

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    (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10)

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    3.

    3.1

    William Bateson 1902. 1909 ,

    Wilhelm Johanssen.

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    (Gottesman & Gould, 2003).

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    (polymerase chain reaction-PCR)

    DNA,

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    (Province et al., 2001).

    (Gottesman,2001).

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    al., 2002).

    (Cloninger CR, 2002).

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    Douglas Falconer 1965

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    (

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    , . 30

    , Gottesman & Shields (1973)

    . Braff & Gottesman et al. (2007),

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    MEDLINE 2000 2002 62

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    2000).

    1972.

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    (fMRI), MRI,

    (SPECT),

    (PET).

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    3.3

    Gene hunting in schizophrenia becomes a risky business. 1

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    (Braff et al., 2007).

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    a priori

    1 Endophenotyping Schizophrenia, D.Braff et al., Am J Psychiatry 164:5, May 2007

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    (high risk groups).

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    (Weinberger DR et al, 2001; Goldman-Rakic

    PS, 1999; Levy & Goldman-Rakic, 2000).

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    (Gasperoni TL. et al., 2003),

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    twins), .

    1q41,

    (Egan MF et al., 2001; Ekelund J.

    et al., 2000; Hovatta I. et al., 1999; St Clair D. et al, 1990).

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    11

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    . , 1q41

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    http://www.camcog.com/science/cantab-tests-all.asp

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    12

    (Conklin B.S. et al., 2000) 52

    , 56

    73 ( ). Digit

    Span, Weschler (WAIS),

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    , Back word Digit Span ,

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    Forward Digit Span.

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    (Zilles

    D. et al., 2010; Joyce E.M. et al., 2005).

    (Cullen A.E. et al., 2010)

    9-12 . 28

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    Keefe R.E. et al. (2006),

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    et al., 2007) .

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    Weschler Memory Scale,

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    (Whyte M.C. et al., 2003;

    Lencz T. et al., 2006). Lencz T et al.(2006), 38

    ( =16.5 )

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    Jahshan C et al. (2010),

    (=48),

    (==20),

    (=29)

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    et al., 2009)

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    2.204 25.5 .

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    15

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    (IQ)

    , (Woodberry, Giuliano & Seidman,

    2008), (Mesholam Gately

    R.I. & Giuliano A., et al., 2009), (Heinrichs &

    Zakzanis, 1998). 2

    0.54, 0.91

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    2. (Mean effect size) IQ

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    (MRI) (f MRI).

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    Weschler, . ,

    Weschler

    .. Digit Span task, .

    , Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    (E.A. Berg, 1948; Nyhus & Barcelo, 2009) -

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    WCST

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