Καταπολέμηση πυρκαγιών υγρών καυσίμων σε δεξαμενές...

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ΑΡΧΗΓΕΙΟ ΠΥΡΟΣΒΕΣΤΙΚΟΥ ΣΩΜΑΤΟΣ ΠΥΡΟΣΒΕΣΤΙΚΗ ΑΚΑΔΗΜΙΑ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΕΠΙΜΟΡΦΩΣΗΣ & ΜΕΤΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗΣ Κηφισιά 15./05./2016 «Καταπολέμηση πυρκαγιών υγρών καυσίμων σε δεξαμενές πλωτής και κωνικής οροφής σε εγκαταστάσεις αποθήκευσης και εμπορίας υγρών καυσίμων.» Επιβλέπων καθηγητής: Πύραρχος Κων/νος Παχίδης Του Επιπυραγού (12719) Παναγιώτη Τιάγκου.του Νεοφύτου Εκπαιδευτική σειρά: 22η 2016
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Η εργασία εκπονήθηκε στα πλαίσια των πτυχιακών διατριβών της Σχολής Επιμόρφωσης & Μετεκπαίδευσης της 22ης σειράς κατά το εκπαιδευτικό έτος 2016.Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η περιγραφή του τρόπου εκδήλωσης πυρκαγιάς υγρών καυσίμων, ανάλογα με το είδος της δεξαμενής αποθήκευσής τους, καθώς και η εκτίμηση των επιπτώσεων κυρίως από άποψη θερμικής ακτινοβολίας, έτσι ώστε να αποκτηθούν οι απαραίτητες γνώσεις με τις οποίες θα εφοδιασθούν οι πυροσβέστες στο δύσκολο έργο της καταπολέμησης τέτοιων πυρκαγιών με τα μέσα που διαθέτει το Πυροσβεστικό Σώμα.

Transcript of Καταπολέμηση πυρκαγιών υγρών καυσίμων σε δεξαμενές...

  • &

    15./05./2016

    .

    : /

    (12719) . : 22

    2016

  • 2

  • 3

    JET OIL

    .

    24-02-1986 13:00 7 .

    . 2

    ,

    .

    2

    2008 .

  • 4

    ................................................................... 6

    ............................................................................................................................ 7

    ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................ 9

    ............................................................................................................................ 10

    1 ....................................................................................................................... 12

    (.) .................................................................................................... 12

    (...) ....................................................... 13

    ... ........................................................................................................ 14

    ................................................................................... 15

    AMIDOIL JET OIL ., .............................. 18

    2 ....................................................................................................................... 20

    .............................................................................................. 21

    ............................................................................................ 22

    ......................................................................... 22

    ........................................................................ 24

    3 ....................................................................................................................... 26

    (TANK FIRE) ....................... 26

    .................................................................................................... 27

    BOILOVER, SLOPOVER FROTHOVER

    . ...................................................................................................................... 31

    Boilover ......................................................................................................................... 31

    Slopover ....................................................................................................................... 32

    Frothover ...................................................................................................................... 33

    4 ....................................................................................................................... 33

    ......................................................................................................... 33

    ............................................................................................. 34

    ......................................................................................... 34

    (Expansion Rate) ......................................................................... 37

    ................................................................... 38

    ............ 39

    ................................................. 39

    ........................................................................................ 42

  • 5

    (Application Rates)-

    ( ) .............................................................................................. 43

    ...................................................................... 44

    - ......................................................................................... 45

    ................................................................................................................. 45

    ......................................................................................................................... 47

    .................................................................................................................... 50

    () ......................................................................................... 51

  • 6

    1 - ........................................................................................... 16

    2 - (Domino) .......................................... 17

    3 - Domino

    ........................................................................................................................ 28

    4 - (TANK

    FIRE)JET OIL ...................................................................................................................... 29

    5- (POOL

    FIRE) ......................................................................................................................... 30

    6 - .................................. 41

    1 - ................................................................................... 34

    2 - . .................................... 35

    3 - ........................................................... 44

    1 - JET OIL

    1986................................................................................................................................. 52

    2 - JET OIL

    1986................................................................................................................................. 53

    3 - JET OIL

    1986................................................................................................................................. 54

    4 - JET OIL

    1986................................................................................................................................. 55

    5 - ........................................................................ 56

    6 - ....................................................................... 56

    7 - ........................................................................ 57

    8 - ........................................................................ 57

    9 - ....................................................................... 58

    10 - ..................................................................... 58

    11 - .................................................. 59

    12 - .............. 59

    13 - (AFFF) & ........ 60

    14 -

    . ...................................................................... 60

    15 -

    ............................................................................................................................ 61

    16 -

    ................................ 61

    17 -

    ........................................................ 62

    18 -

    ........................................................ 62

  • 7

    & 22

    2016.

    , ,

    ,

    .

    1 . (

    ) & ... ( )

    ....

    Jet Oil

    .

    2

    .

    .

    3

    .

    4

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

  • 8

    ()

    2012/18/ Seveso III.

    ,

    .

  • 9

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is a description of liquid fuels fire, depending on the type of the

    storage tank, as well as the effects assessment mainly by thermal radiation view, in order

    to obtain the knowledge with which firemen will be equipped in the difficult task of

    combating such fires with the means available to Fire Corps.

    The first chapter of the study is a introduction to the concepts M.A (Big Accident) &

    B.A.M.E (Major Industrial Accident) on industrial accidents and a description of B.A.M.E

    effects. Finally there is a reference on the accident in the petroleum storage installations

    of JET OIL Company in Kalochori Thessaloniki.

    In the second chapter of the study there is a presentation of tanks for storing liquid

    fuels in plants which the main activity is the storage and distribution of liquid fuels. Finally

    is described the way of creation liquid fuels fires according to the type of the storage tank.

    In the third chapter is presented the assessment of the effects from a fire in liquid

    fuels tank, mainly by thermal radiation terms.

    In the forth chapter there is a presentation of firefighting foam, as main liquid fuel fire

    extinguishing agent and the necessary fire equipment which support the use of the foam.

    Next follows a description of the various foam types, according to the composition of foam

    concentrate and finally the application techniques.

    The study is ending with the conclusions from the bibliographic review on the

    subject of dealing with the liquid fuels fires at floating and cone roof tanks.

    Finally are presented proposals for improvement on the design of prevention and

    suppression of such type fires, concerning not only Fire Corps but the entire mechanism

    of the General Secretariat for Civil Protection.

  • 10

    ,

    ,

    ().

    .

    .

    ,

    1982 82/501/, (Seveso),

    , 1976.

    ( 87/216/ 88/610/)

    1996 96/82/ Seveso II.

    ,

    () 18187/272/1988, 77119/4607/1993, 5697/590/2000.

    2003 2003/105/

    Seveso II.

    12044/613/2007 ( 376/.19.3.2007 2259//27.11.2007).

    2012 2012/18/ Seveso III

    96/82/ Seveso II.

    17058/2016 (

    354/.17.2.2016) 12044/613/2007 (

    376/.19.3.2007 2259//27.11.2007).

    ,

    ..

    Seveso III.

  • 11

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 12

    1

    (.)

    Seveso I 17058/2016 (

    354/.17.2.2016) ,

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    .

    : (,

    ,) ..

    .

    .

    17 ,

    ( VI):

    1

    2, 3, 4 5

    1.

    5 %

    3 1 3 2 I.

    2. :

    )

    )

    24

    ) 24

    )

    ,

  • 13

    ) (

    ): 500

    ) , , ,

    ( ):

    1000.

    3. :

    ) :

    ) 0,5

    ) 10 ,

    )

    :

    ) 10

    ) 1 "

    ) 2 "

    ) 2 "

    ) :

    1 .

    4. :

    ) : 2 000 000 "

    ) : 500 000 .

    5. :

    .

    II. '

    .

    (...)

    ,

  • 14

    , , , /

    .

    : (, 2008)

    1. ( )

    (, , .)

    .

    2.

    , (

    Domino).

    3.

    .

    4.

    (, , , ).

    5. .

    6. : ,

    , ,

    , ..

    ...

    .

    :

    (W/m2).

    (mbar).

    .(mg/m3)

    ,

    ( 30 min) .

    :( 17058/2016 , IX)

  • 15

    IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health)

    30 min

    -

    ( ) IDLH

    - .

    LC50 (Lethal Concentration 50)

    50% ,

    (30 mi).

    LC1 (Lethal Concentration 1)

    1% ,

    (30 min).

    (D),

    (q) (t) D=q4/3*t

    DU (1 DU=1(w/m2)4/3S).

    .

    . ,

    ,

    (, , )

    (Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis Emergency

    Planning for Extremely Hazardous Substances, 1987), (HAZ MAT Response team, Leak

    and Spill Guide, 1984), (North American Emergency Response Guidebook,1996).

    :

  • 16

    (hot area):

    .

    (restricted area):

    .

    (safe area):

    , :

    (lethal zone):

    (injurious zone):

    -

    .

    .

    (unsafe zone):

    .

    .

    (Safe zone): .

    17058/2016 , IX

    :

    1 -

    (DU) (w/m2) (mbar) (mg/m

    3)

    1

    (

    )

    1500 = 241,0/t3/4

    350

    LC50

    II (

    -

    )

    450 = 97,7/t3/4

    140 LC1

    III (

    -

    )

    170 = 47,1/t3/4

    50 IDLH

  • 17

    2 - (Domino)

    : 37,5 kw/m2

    16 (min)

    700 MBAR

    :

    I: .

    II:

    .

    .

    III:

    .

    .

    I, II III

    ( , , )

    ,

    (.. IDLH 30 min)

    .

    .

    40 sec,

    15 kw/m2, 6 kw/m2 3 kw/m2

    1500, 450 170 DU .

    BLEVE

    .

    17058/2016(SEVESO III)

    .

  • 18

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    AMIDOIL JET OIL .,

    .

    . . (, 1994).

    ( 1,2,3,4,)

    JET OIL

    . JET

    OIL .

    24-02-1986, 13:00 7 .

    2 .

    D7.

    JET OIL

    -, .

    .

    , AYER.

    ,

    .

    (Domino effect).

    JET OIL

    .

  • 19

    D10

    62,400 m3 .

    (bunds),

    D1, D2, D3, D4,

    D5, D6, D7, D8, D9,

    D10, D11, D12,

    .

    JET OIL .

    .

    , .

    .

    750

    ,

    .

    3-03-1986

    .

    60

    , 750 , , , ..., , ,

    , ..., ..

    .

    .

    JET OIL

    (tank fire)

    .

  • 20

    ,

    ( )

    .

    .

    2

    172058 ( 354/.17.2.2016, 11 .5019)

    / /

    , (2)

    1, ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    ( Domino) 8,

    ,

    ,

    JET OIL . (

    2004)

    , , , ,

    . (

    34458/846/1990, 846//31-12-90)

    ,

    :

    ()

  • 21

    ( .5)

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    :

    -

    - (

    )

    - (, ...)

    400 m3.

    80cm.

    . 45mm

    .( 6,7,8 ).

    . (

    )

    .

  • 22

    . .

    ( . , ..) ,

    .

    ,

    .

    m3 80.000 m3.

    .( 9).

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .( 10,11).

    .

    .

    ,

    . ( ..... Jet Oil, 2004)

    , ,

    .

  • 23

    ,

    . :

    1 2

    ,

    ( 20-30 min)

    (

    1.5-2 hrs)

    ( 1-2

    ).

    .

    .(

    ,

    -1990)

    (

    )

    45mm

    .( 6).

    ,

    .

    , .( 34458/90 ,31-12-1990)

    .

    .

  • 24

    .

    .

    .

    .( 8).

    . ( ..... Jet Oil, 2004)

    ,

    , .

    .

    , ...

    .

    .

    2 - 9% .

    , ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 25

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    :

    : max 30 min.

    : max 55 min.

    60 min . ,

    (25 cm

    1 ) . 1 3 .

    .

    .

  • 26

    15 m

    15 m. ( 34458/90 ,31-12-1990)

    3

    JET OIL . ( 2004)

    ..

    & . ( 2004).

    (TANK FIRE)

    Jet Oil ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    . ( 4).

    (POOL

    FIRE)

    .

    .

    . ,

    / ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 27

    (

    ) ( ,

    ).

    ,

    .

    .

    , .

    .

    () ,

    ,

    , :

    :

    :

    :

    Domino

    ( 1998) :

  • 28

    3 - Domino

    (Domino)

    15 kW/m2

    (1500 TDU)

    6 kW/m2

    (450 TDU)

    3 kW/m2

    (170 TDU)

    37.5 kW/m2

    (

    )

    50%

    (

    )

    1%

    40 . ,

    (),

    ( ) 37.5kw/m2 1000sec

    , :

    200 m ,

    1000 m .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    Jet Oil

    630003 , 85 10

    :

  • 29

    4 - (TANK FIRE)JET OIL

    (m)

    -

    88

    171

    (domino) -

    (10m). ,

    15 kW/m2

    .

    ( .,

    169/2015).

    . JET OIL 1986

    (

    3,4)

    .. &

    TK-806

    :

    TK-806

    170 m

    TK-806: 60000 m3 / 73.0 m / 16.00 m

    140 m

    170 m

    D5

  • 30

    1.

    2. ,

    Domino :

    5- (POOL FIRE)

    (m)

    (m)

    (m)

    (m)

    90 160 230 -

    .

    , I

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    ( )

    .

    (TANK

    FIRE) (POOL FIRE)

    .

    boilover.

    boilover

    , .

    .

  • 31

    boilover ,

    .

    .

    .

    .( .

    - . 2008).

    BOILOVER, SLOPOVER FROTHOVER

    .

    Boilover

    BOILOVER () ,

    , ,

    .

    , .

    :(

    ,

    1990).

    1. -

    .

    .

    2.

    , 149C,

    , .

    ,

    , ()

  • 32

    .

    .

    (1

    1700 ).

    .

    ,

    .

    3-5 ,

    ,

    boilover,

    85 m.

    . 0.8 m/hr

    (1-4 ft/hr).. ,

    .

    .

    3.

    ,

    . BOILOVER

    .

    .

    .

    :

    .

    Slopover

    SLOPOVER

    .

    , SLOPOVER .

  • 33

    Frothover

    FROTHOVER ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    93C, ,

    100C. ,

    .

    4

    .

    ,

    NFPA-11(standard for Low-Medium and High Expansion foam, edition 2016)

    , ,

    , ,

    . ( 34458/846/1990,

    846//31-12-90).

    NFPA-11( 2016),

  • 34

    ,

    .

    .

    :

    (vapors) .

    .

    .

    .

    1 -

    (foam

    concentrate), .

    ,

  • 35

    34458/31-12-1990

    :

    ,

    ( 3% 6%)

    (eductors),

    .

    ,

    (1% 6%).

    .

    (). .

    2 - .

    .

    40% .

    150-200 psi.

    30 60.

    400-450l/min.

  • 36

    ( )

    ( ).

    .

    14000l/min,

    . ,

    80 500

    7000 .

    /,

    .

    1% 10%.

    ,

    .

    (

    ).

    ,

    .

    .

    :

    20:1.

    ,

    .

    400-450 / .

    200:1

    50:1 .

    .

    400-450 / .

  • 37

    200:1.

    , .

    ,

    .

    200m3/min.( 12)

    (Expansion Rate)

    .

    NFPA-11( 2016),

    , :

    : 20:1.

    5-10

    .

    ( ).

    .( 13)

    : 20:1 200:1.

    50-100

    .

    .

    .( 14)

    : 200:1.

    500-1000

    . ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 38

    .

    .

    :

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    :

    1. (KNOCKDOWN

    SPEED AND FLOW).-

    2. .(HEAT RESISTANCE).-.

    .

    3. (VAPOR SUPPRESSION).-

    .

  • 39

    4. (FUEL RESISTANCE).-

    .

    5. (ALCOHOL RESISTANCE).-

    90% ,

    .

    . 6% 6

    94 . 100

    6 94 .

    3% ,

    3 97 .

    , ,

    . 3%

    6%

    .

    ( )

    .

    34458/31-12-1990 ,

    :

    (PROTEIN FOAM - P -)

    .

    (heat resistance) (knockdown speed).

    ( )

    .

    .

  • 40

    .

    , , . .

    , .

    () (FLUOPROTEIN

    FOAM FP -)

    .

    .

    .

    ( ).

    .

    (AQUEOUS FILM FORMING

    AFFF -) , ,

    .

    .

    .

    , .

    . .

    (ALCOHOL RESISTANT AQUEOUS FILM FORMING AR- AFFF).

    (

    , , ).

    .

    (SYNTHETIC DETERGENT FOAM-

    MID AND HIGH EXPANSION).

    ( ).

    .

  • 41

    .

    .

    6 -

    AFFF AR-AFFF

    ()

    :

    (AQUEOUS FILM FORMING

    AFFF -). 6%.

    (SYNTHETIC DETERGENT FOAM-MID

    AND HIGH EXPANSION).

    .

    ( )

    3% , .

    2

    .

    ,

    .

    .(

    14,15,16)

    .

    . ,

  • 42

    ( )

    .

    2

    . ,

    ( 7000).

    .

    ,

    .

    -

    4000/

    . 70 80

    .

    ,

    ,

    AFFF. O

    AFFF

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    , , , , , , ,

    .

  • 43

    (Application Rates)-

    ( )

    NFPA-11( 2016),

    ,

    4.1

    AFFF 6.5

    15 .

    .

    100 .

    . (, 2015)

    :

    4.1l/min/m2 x 100m2= 410l/min

    ( AFFF 3%)

    :

    0.03x410l/min= 12,3l/min.

    397.7

    15 :

    12.3lx15= 184.5 AFFF 3%

    5965.5 .

    10tn

    400-450l/min

    400-450l/min

    .

    -

    .

  • 44

    ,

    .

    .

    ( 3 16 )

    3 -

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

  • 45

    .

    .(,2015)

    -

    & ,

    .

    , 1982

    ( 82/501//24-6-1982

    SEVESO

    1976.

    2012/18/ Seveso III.

  • 46

    17058/2016 ( 354/.17.2.2016)

    12044/613/2007 ( 376/.19.3.2007

    2259//27.11.2007).

    Seveso ,

    ( ) (

    ),

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    .

    , .

    ,

    .

    Seveso

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    1986

    JETOIL /,

    . Seveso

  • 47

    EE 34558/90

    .

    ( , )

    .

    () (

    2004) JET

    OIL -

    .

    /

    () 2009

    ,

    .

    11 . 172058/2016 (Seveso III)

    /

    () /

    ( ), ,

    . 1299/2003

    ,

    .

    / /

    , (2)

    ,

    ,

    , .

    / ,

  • 48

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    . 2004

    .

    Seveso.

    . 172058/2016 (Seveso III)

    .

    , .

    -

    . 9 .2

    17058/2016,

    ,

    () .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 49

    .

    .

    ( )

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    2 /

    .( 14,15,16,17,18)

    .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 50

    1. 34458/90 ( 846//31-12-90) ,

    , ,

    .

    2. 17058/2016 ( 354/.17.2.2016) ,

    , ,

    2012/18/

    96/82/

    3.

    .

    (NFPA) .

    , 1990- )

    4. HAZ -MAT Response team, Leak and Spill Guide, (1984). Fire Protection

    Publications, Oklahoma State University.

    5. Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis - Emergency Planning for Extremely

    Hazardous Substances, (1987). U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Federal

    Emergency Management Agency, U.S Department of Transportation, December.

    6. , 2008. (),

    .....

    7. ,1994. , , , .

    University Studio Press, .

    8. . , 2015.

    () , , 171/ , 17-23

    (online) Fire rescue news:

    http://www.fire.gr/?p=25438 (2016, .27)

    9.

    () Jet oil . /. / , 2004,

    10.

    () .. &

  • 51

    /. / 2004,

    11. .

    , 2008, .

    12. NFPA-11(standard for Low-Medium and High Expansion foam, edition

    2016),

    13. . , 2015. , ,

    173/ , 18-23 (online) Fire rescue news

    http://www.fire.gr/?p=27213 (2016,.27)

    14.

    ( ) ,1 - 2009, .

    ()

    .

    2

    .

    .

    JET OIL

    .

    .

    JET OIL .

  • 52

    1 - JET OIL 1986

    .

    ( ).

    .

    .

    .

  • 53

    2 - JET OIL 1986

    2

    .

    ( ).

    ..

  • 54

    3 - JET OIL 1986

    3

    (TANK FIRE).

    .

  • 55

    4 - JET OIL 1986

    4

    (POOL FIRE).

    . ,

    ,

    .

  • 56

    5 -

    .

    45mm

    .

    6 -

  • 57

    7 -

    8 -

  • 58

    9 -

    .

    10 -

    ( )

  • 59

    11 -

    .

    12 -

  • 60

    13 - (AFFF) &

    14 - .

  • 61

    15 -

    16 -

  • 62

    17 -

    .

    18 -