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Το νέο βιβλίο μαθητή για το μάθημα Εφαρμογές Πληροφορικής της Α' Τάξης ΓΕΛ και ΕΠΑΛ

Transcript of Α τάξη λυκείου εφαρμογές πληροφορικής βιβλίο μαθητή

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  • 1: -

    1: (Hardware) 2: (Software) 3: 4:

  • 1

    - 8

    (Hardware)

    1.1 1.2 ()1.3 1.4

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  • 9 (Hardware) 1

    1.1.

    1.2. Blue Gene/P Argonne National Lab - 250.000 .

    1.3.

    1.1

    . -. ( ), , - . , . - , - .

    - , . :

    (supercomputers) -

    (mainframes) ,

    (personal computers - PC) (laptops, netbooks, ultrabooks)

    (smartphones) (tablets)

    (.. SMART -) ( , ).

    , , , - , - .

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    1945 -- - .

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    ( ) .

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    (webcamera) (scanner)

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    1.4.

    1.1.

    1.2. -

  • 11 (Hardware) 1

    - -

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    (Motherboard)

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    (cpu socket) .

    ( 1.9).

    (chipset) ,

    Flash ROM, - BIOS ( /)

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    1. ; ; - :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer http://folding.stanford.edu/home/

    2. UEFI , - BIOS. BIOS; :

    http://windows.microsoft.com/el-gr/windows-8/what-uefi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface

    1.5.

    - -

    - - .

    - BIOS -

    .

  • 1

    - 12

    1.6.

    1.8. (wafer) -

    1.7. -

    1.2 ()

    (Central Processing Unit CPU) - -.

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    (Arithmetic and Logic Unit ALU), - (, , , -) (, , , ).

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    Architecture - ISA), (word size).

  • 13 (Hardware) 1

    - , . - . 2 4 GHz.

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    , CISC RISC. CISC , -. , RISC , . , o - .

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    (pipeline)

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    - 14

    , - ,

    . -; :http://www.cpubenchmark.net/

    (opcode), , , .

    (execute) . , - .

    - (store writeback).

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    , . - . , . , . , , - , .

    - (benchmarks), - .

    1.3.

    - 1. (overclocking) -

    , . ; : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overclocking

    2. -, - : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvluuAIiA50 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9SWNLZvA8g

  • 15 (Hardware) 1

    1.3

    - , - .

    -. , - . -, byte . - byte .

    - . (cells), .

    byte ( 8 bit) 16, 32 64 bit. byte, - .

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    1.4.

  • 1

    - 16 1.1. DRAM

    chip

    (ns)

    (ns)

    (ns)

    1980 64Kbit DRAM 180 150 250

    1983 256Kbit DRAM 150 120 220

    1986 1Mbit DRAM 120 100 190

    1989 4Mbit DRAM 100 80 165

    1992 16Mbit DRAM 80 60 120

    1996 64Mbit SDRAM 70 50 110

    1998 128Mbit SDRAM 70 50 100

    2000 256Mbit DDR1 65 45 90

    2002 512Mbit DDR1 60 40 80

    2004 1Gbit DDR2 55 35 70

    2006 2Gbit DDR2 50 30 60

    2010 4Gbit DDR3 36 28 37

    2012 8Gbit DDR3 30 24 31

    . - 2 4 GB - .

    - (Random Access Memory RAM) , , - (Dynamic Random-Access Memory DRAM), . :

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    (bandwidth), - . - MB/s.

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    0 1.

    1 byte = 8 bit1 KB = 210 byte = 1024 byte1 MB = 220 byte = 1024 KB1 GB = 230 byte = 1024 MB1 TB = 240 byte = 1024 GB

    -

    1. DRAM SRAM; : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_random-access_memory

    2. . - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_hierarchy

    1.9. DDR

  • 17 (Hardware) 1

    1.4

    2700 .. 2300 .. , - . -. , Pascal (1642), (1837) - (1890).

    - . - . - (Colossus), - (vacuum tubes), . ENIAC, - .

    - (transistor) - . - (integrated circuit) chip. , . - , . - . , - (Small-Scale Integration - SSI), (MSI) 70 (LSI).