ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ

of 60 /60
58 ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΠΣΔΜ-Η

Embed Size (px)

description

ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΛΛΗΝΙΟΥ ΣΥΛΛΟΓΟΥ ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΟΥΧΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ - ΤΕΥΧΟΣ #451

Transcript of ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ

  • 58 -

  • 58 -

  • - 1

  • 2 -

    4 ....-

    6 &

    7

    8 X K M

    16

    24

    44 -

    T:1T

    KIKO ENTYOY 011127IIOKTHIA:

    ANEHNIO YOO IMATOYXNMHXANOON - HEKTPOON

    APITONIKOY18&OPIOYMET11636AHNA.:2109212741-2-4,fax:2109217928

    e-mail:[email protected],http://www.psdmh.gr

    IOIKHTIKO YMBOYIO

    YNTAKTIKHEITPOH:

    ::

    :

    :

    :

    artdirector:

    :

    [email protected]

    MB

    K

    IM

    [email protected]

    wikimedia.orgdreamstime.com

    ETIO

    . - . - . .. -

    20,15343A.:2106008530,2106006917

    fax:2106006981www.provoli3.gr

    T 451, - 2012

    EPIEXOMENA

    - M-H ETIOY

    : 2109212741, fax: 2109579009 e-mail: [email protected] : 2106006917, fax: 2106006981

    M ETIO M H .

    E

    1.()2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.

  • - 3

  • 4 -

    ....- 27 2012 :

    1. ()2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. *9. 10. 11.

    * . , 2., . .

  • - 5

  • 6 -

    26 2012 5:00 .

    ,

    ,

    - : 210 9212741 -

    44

    ..

  • - 7

    &

    ( 5,5 - E )

    16:30 :

    17:00 - 17:20 :

    1 :

    17:20 - 17:40 : . ...17:40 - 18:00 : . . ..18:00 - 18:20 : , . .18:20 - 18:40 : . , ...

    18:40 - 19:00 : -

    19:00 - 19:20 :

    2 :

    19:20 - 19:40 : , . , . ., . /-/ .19:40 - 19:55 : PassivHaus. , . ., . / .19:55 - 20:10 : . ./ .20:10 - 20:25 : . , , . / .20:25 - 21:40 : . , . ., . /-/ .

    21:40 - 22:00 : -

  • 8 -

    1. - , - - - . - , - - - , - - , -, - . - - , 2020, -: ) 20% 1990 - 2009/29/ ) 20% - 2009/28/ ) 20% . , - - 4% -

    2005, 18% . 3851/2010 20% 40 % -, 20 % 10 % . 1 - 9% - 2016 2006/32/, 20% - .

    2. - (digesters) - () -, -,, - (, , -, ..), - ().

    - (CH4) 55-70% - (CO2) 30-45%. -

    X K M

    M.Sc.

    1. (: SvenskBiogas)

  • - 9

    , -, , , 20 25 MJ/m3. - (), - - -. - - (micro gas turbine) 25kW - 100kW . - , , , , -, , - - , ( 1).

    - 22 MJ/Nm3=6,1 kWh/ Nm3 = 19,3 MJ/kg 23 MJ/Nm3= 6,5 kWh/ Nm3= 20,2 MJ/kg, -, - 0,72kg/m3 @200 C, 0,09kg/m3 @200 C, 1,97kg/m3 @200 C, . - , BTA, Valorga, WAASA, DRANCO, Linde, Kompogas, 80 130 m3 -. 40% 6,1 kWh/ Nm3 6,5 kWh/ Nm3 1m3 2,44kWh 2,60kWh . , , - - X (Process Analytical Technologies and Chemometrics-PAT & PAC), - Theory of Sampling-TOS - (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance- R).

    - , - - - / (Syngas), - 22% H2, 44,4% CO, 12,2% CO2. , 2 H2O CH4 CO2 ( 2). AX , - ( - H2S, NH3, H2O), (. CO2 ) . -

    L (89% CH4), H (96% CH4). - , - ( 3).To - , (injection). , - - - (fuel cell) - . ( 4)

    O - : , Pressure Swing Absorption (PSA),

    2. Bio-SNG (-Synthetic Natural Gas) ( ECN)

    3. 1 2 (: Wuppertal institute- PSI)

  • 10 -

    , - (Selexol) -. - -80C. CO2 - CH4 -. 3. . -

    VGW- G31, G32 , DVGW G260, G262 , SS155438 , SVGW- G13 , GAZ de France (decret no 2004-555/15 Jyin 2004), 2.

    4. - ( FAL)

    2.

    1. ,

  • - 11

    Ariexpo S.A.

    :

  • 12 -

    3. , SS 155438

    , , , - - - 2003/55/ 26/6/2003 . , - - , , - - -, - - . - - - .

    - LBG, , -, -800C - -1620C - - .

    5. - - - : : - - : -

    . -: - , . : -, -. . - - . : - - - -. : -

    1 ( ) . - ,

    - - ( 1, 2)

    4. 2010 9.243 . . 4 . 2004, 4,9 2005, 5,35 2006, 6,0 2007,

    7,5 2008, 8,3 2009, 8,7 2010. , 34 , 17 , 15 , 4 , 3 , , ( 2010). .

    2010 92.000 kNm3, 65,3% (60.000 kNm3) , . Swedish standard, SS 155438, STG Technical Group number 85, 1( 3).

  • - 13

  • 14 -

    6. -, -, - (22 /kWh), (35,5 /kWh (31,67 /kWh) . - - - 43,5 MW. 04 2010, - .3851/2010, / - 40,1 MW -

    . - - / - 248 - 2041,4 MW

    7. - - , - . - - - 10 30% 2030-2050, -

    - -. - - . , , 17 - . - .

    8. 1.A, ., , . - : - , 2 , - 2006 2.Baadstorp, L. Standart prices for biogas installations, Denmark, June 2008.

  • - 15

    3.EU, Biofuels in the European Union, A vision for 2030 and Beyond, March 20064.EU, Biomass action plan, December 2005. 5.Gomez, C. Biogas in Germany, Experiences and Policy recommendations, German Biogas Association, December 2008 6.IEA Bioenergy, Biogas upgrading and utilization, Task 24: Energy from biological conversion of organic waste.7.Jonsson, O. Biogas upgrading Technologies, framework and experience. EON gas, October 2008. 8.Klass, U. Economic and technical aspects of

    biogases and their injection, growth potential for biomass/biogas in Germany, May 2008 9.Marcogaz, Injection of Gases from Non-Conventional Sources into Gas Networks, December 200610.Persson, M. Evaluation of upgrading techniques for biogas, Lund University, Sweden, 2003. 11.Swedish Biogas Association. Biogas from manure and waste products- Swedish case studies, Sweden, May 2008.12.Swedish Gas Centre. Adding gas from biomass to the gas grid , Sweden, July 2001.

    13.www.dvgw.de14.www.redubar.eu15.Zafiris, Ch. Biogas in Greece, National state of the Art, Redubar EIE/06/221/S12.442663,May 2007. 16.Zafiris, Ch. List of recommendations for installing Biogas feeding-in and feeding-out pool, Redubar EIE/06/221/S12.442663, July 200917.Z . -: , - , -- 2008.

  • 16 -

    . - , ( ) . -, - , , , . :. + H2O + . - + CO2 + CH4 + NH3 + H2S + , - : - / - ( ) - -

    ( , H2S, NH3, H2O ..). - - . - - (). - , : - - ( 21 - ). ( ) - , - - () -. -

    / / /

  • - 17

    , -. , - ( ) - . .. : 45-55%, 36-50%, 5-10%, 0,1%, (NMOC) 0,01-0,6%,

    0-1,0%, 0,1% 0,5-1,5%. - (9,95kWh/m3 CH4):0,50 X 9,95kWh/m3 = 4,98kWh/m3. - - -, -, , -, , - .H (4) - , -

    - -. , - - - (). - , -. - LandGEM (Landfill Gas Emission Estimation Model) - (US EPA), 3.0.2 http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/products.html#software. - Microsoft Excel.

    1: LandGEM

  • 18 -

    LandGEM ( ) - . : - , . (, - ) - 1% . - - (NMOCs) . - - - , . - . Lo - k - . - -, - . -, -. - (.. - ), , .

    - - -. - HDPE 12201-2, - -

    16/32, 20%, - . , (~2m) - , - - . - .

    2:

    - :

    - , ( 12-20) . - , - .

    - , HDPE. -

  • - 19

    (). - - -. - 10m/s.

    3:

    : /- , - ( - ) - / - . , - - , - .

    4: -

    - , ( -

    ) - , - - . - - . ( - ) 200mbar.

    , , :1. 2./ 3.

    5: /

    6: / container

  • 20 -

    4. / -5. 6. () -

    , - - -

    -. - , - . - -. - / - . / , - . : - 210mbar 30 50% 1.000 1.200C > 0.3s - (turndown ratio) 1 : 5 - - 0,4/20kV, . -

    .

    / : , 1.500rpm, , , 12 16 V - , - : -, -, (drains), , PID, -. - - 42C. () 24V . -. - .

    9:

    7: 8:

  • - 21

    (gas train), PN16, :o o < 5m 99%o oo , o (gas pressure switch) (solenoid) . (overspeed) , , . (AISI 316L) (-) -, - . / - (

    ) - . - / SCADA - / . (-) - /. - - . / - -, - . - - - -

    . -: , - . , . - , - ( ~85-90C) - - ( - ~40-45C). - , - . - - ,

  • 22 -

    - . - - - . - / (~450C), . - SCADA, - / - . - - .

    - 7.000 ( ) 7.500 - ( ). - ( ), 48% - ,

    . 24 , - , - - - - (stand-by). (- ) - / - . , -, - - . - -, . -. ( 100 ) - -

    . - ( - -) (Al, Cu Fe, Ni, Zn, ..) . -, , ( ) . , - , . - - - ., - - (, - , , ..) / , , - .

    10: /

  • - 23

  • 24 -

    1. () - - (, - , ) -. . - - IEC 61400.

    , - :. , - , 20., - - - ... -

    . - - , . -, - , - . - :. , - -.. - .. - - -. - -, ,

    , / , , / , , , ,

  • - 25

    .. - - .. - -, - . - - , . - , . - - . - , . -, , , - , - .2. - 1 - . . 1 - , - - , -, . 1 . - 12 Beaufort

    - , , (), - (NE), (), - (SE), (S), (SW), (W) (NW). - Beaufort (BS) - , ( - - . 2 -

    , 1 - . - 3 Beaufort (BS), knots , m/sec .

    1. - . -.

    1. 2.

  • 26 -

    ( ) , , . 4 ( ), .

    3. Beaufort

    4.

  • - 27

    - (World Meteorological Organization) - 24. 10 , - Beaufort -. - - - - . 10 . - , - - . - . - -, , - 3. - - - , - . Weibull - , - . -

    , - - - . - - - - . - .

    :1. , - , . - - .2. - 10 (1994-2004) - , - , -.

    3. - IEC-61400 -

    , .

    , - - , - . - - 4. 3.

    6. - m/sec ,

    m/sec, 6 - 4.

    5 6. B5 , 1- ,

  • 28 -

    6.

    () 7

    7. . , 667,

  • - 29

  • 30 -

    7.

    , ( ).

    8 , 9 .

    8. .

    9 . .

  • - 31

  • 32 -

    - - - Weibull -, , - Weibull. Weibull : (1)

    p(u) u, , - c . u - :

    ( 2 ) (2) :

    (3)

    p(u), - P(>u). K, c. - . - - - - - , , -, - , 10 - Weibull -

    m/sec 3 -

    10. Weibull. .

    10. 650 .

    , - - Weibull. ( 10 ).

    - Weibull

    -.

    - - - - - - .

    , - - -

    , . -. 5 K, c , 8 - .

  • - 33

    5. c Weibull

    6 , , 7 .

    6 ,

    7.

  • 34 -

    - , - -, - - . - - - , . - - - - - IEC 61400. - - - . - - .

    4. - - - - .

    - :

    () - - , , , , - - - . . - ( 3 - ) - - /-. , -. - . , - , . - , -.

    , - .

    - - , . - - - .

    4.1 , , - . (wind shear) - - . (, ) - , - . - -. - - . - . - - - - , - European Wind Atlas . 11 Google -, 7 - - .

  • - 35

    11. Google -

    - - 1000, 1500 2000m, - - . - - . 8 - 16 16 8 . . - - :

    1 2 h1 h2 .

    z0 -

    European Wind Atlas. - . 2000 m - - . -, - ( ) . - (%)

    - . . CFD WASP . 4 .

    4. -

    , - .

    4.2 - - 2. - 9, 10 11 - , .

    5.

  • 36 -

    6.

    7.

    .

  • - 37

    , . -, - , -. - - .

    : ,p0 - L (L= 6,5 K/1000 m)R - (R= 8,31432 J/mol.K)T0 (=28,9644 g/mole)

    - , , . - :

    5. -: , - 0.5 European Wind Atlas 0.00024 m ( )

    10 m - : 10 m, 50 m, 100 m

    - (...) , 10, 50 100 - - . -

    - . - - (, , -) . 12 - 10, 50 100 , 13 . 12. - 10, 50 100 m

    13. 10, 50 100 m

  • 38 -

    14 15

    14. 10, 50 100 m 15. 10, 50 100 m

    6. - - . . - , - . - , - . - - (fetch), , , , - 16 - . - .

    16. Darbyshire

    - , .

    - - , - (wind conditions). - - . 17 - - - .

    17. -

  • - 39

    - - . - . 18 -, - - - Weibull - .

    18. - 1. 2. 3. Weibull

    - - (.. , ) - - .

    7. , -

    - , - , (.. 50 ), - - , - - . - .

    8. - - . P=1/2 ..3 (10)

    : : : ( ) :

    - :P=1/2 3

    - - :

    ( )

    P = P.T KWh (12) (=720 h = 8640 h ).

    , , . , - 10, 50 100 , .

    20 - -, 21 -. (12) 8 10, 50 100 . - KWh.

  • 40 -

    20.

    21.

    8.

    - (wind classes), - .

    22. 850 KW

    - . 22 - 850 W . , - - , , - .

    / Pg = f(u) (13)

    p(u) :Pp = f(u).p(u).du (14)

    - ( , m) - .

    - - . 23 - / .

    23. / 850 KW - -

  • - 41

    24. - / 850 KW

    24 - - . / . - 9 - 50 - ( - ). - 13 - (capacity factor) - - .

    9. / 850 KW - 50 m

    - - .

    9. - - :. . . (wind gustiness). - - (20, 30, 50 100 ) ,

    , - . - ( , , - ). 16 Berchneider . - . , - -, , -

    -. - - - . (.. - , - ) - , . -. - - - 16 - - . - - - (regression analysis) . ( ) (fetch) -

  • 42 -

    ( , , ), , . ( ) - ( , , - , - , -

    ). - .

    10. 4 - - - Weibull. - - - - . - - . 25 Weibull h 50 - - /,

    . / . - - - .

    25 Weibull - //

    -

    10. - - -. . - - , - , - . -

    - . - - - .

    - - - - - - , , , .

    -

    , - . - , - , - . - , , , - - .

    - .

  • - 43

  • 44 -

    E

    :.

    . . 3-/16907 (... 2458/06-09-2012) - 357 357, , - 13.090,30 .. - - - .

    . . . 115/2012 (... 200/17-10-2012) : () -, , - , () () - - ,

    .. . . 114/2012 (... 199/17-10-2012) - , , - , - - - .

    . . . 113/2012 (... 198/17-10-2012) - - , , - - .

  • - 45

  • 46 -

    . . . 112/2012 (... 197/17-10-2012) - -, .

    ... . . 41020/819(... 2776/15-10-2012) - 30 ( ) - .

    .. . . 48963 (... 2703/05-10-2012) - (....) - . 1958/13-1-2012 , ( 21), , 2 . 7 . 4014/2011 ( 209).

    . . . 60/2012 (... 111/03-05-2012) 2009/71/ 25 2009 - - (L 172/2.7.2009)

    .. . 2.2009/.64736 (... 2455/06-09-2012) - - -.

    . 4083 (... 189/05-10-2012) . 3908/2011 .. 33/2011.

    . .... . 665/5 (... 2731/10-10-2012) VDSL , - VDSL, - Virtual Partial Unbundled Loop (VPU) (EMA) - ( ..)... . 42800 (... 2704/05-10-2012) - .

    .. . 41651/1185 (... 2692/04-10-2012) - .

    . ... . 13/2012 (... 2791/15/10/2012) .. ... . .361.22/116672/1 (... 2788/15-10-2012) - ... . .354.11/115753/1 (... 2738/10-10-2012) , - / / .

    .. . 1211382482012 (... 2810/17-10-2012) - - - 1 55 58 .

    .. . 34018 (... 2462/10-09-2012) (7) ... . 75301 (... 2460/07-09-2012) , .. . /.37/.20487 (... 2444/06-09-2012) - .

    . . . 117/2012 (... 202/19-10-2012), , , , .. . . 98/2012 (... 160/10-08-2012) .. 85/2012 -,

    E

  • - 47

  • 48 -

    . .

    ISBN:9604910639 -

    , - HD384 -. - - - . -

    , - - , - -. - :

    - , - , HD384 , - .

    OLYMPIA ELECTRONICS A.E.

    HOLYMPIAELECTRONICSA.E.SocialMediaH OLYMPIA ELECTRONICS A.E. , Social Media. - - , , . H OLYMPIA ELECTRONICS A.E.

    , - (social media): Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube. -:facebook:http://www.facebook.com/OlympiaElectronicsLinkedIn:http://www.linkedin.com/company/1967613?trk=tyahTwitter:http://twitter.com/olympiaelectronYoutube:http://www.youtube.com/user/OlympiaElectronics - social media, - -

  • - 49

    OLYMPIA ELECTRONICS A.E. . OLYMPIA ELECTRONICS A.E. - - - - . - - 132 , 10% & - - - . 72 . - - .

    SMA Solar Technology AG

    GntherCramerSMA- -2012 , 4 2012 -, - -

    , - Gnther Cramer, Supervisory Board SMA Solar Technology - - - 30 , - . -, Joachim Gauck, - -, 28 . Fritz Brickwedde, - - - (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) - : O - - Cramer - , - , - - .

    , - - , - . Gnther Cramer : - - - -,

    , . , Peter Drews Reiner Wettlaufer, Gnther Cramer , , , SMA - - -, 5.500 . - , 1996 Sunny Boy, SMA - - - . - - , - - -. , - - , SMA - - -, , - 99%. - - . - - -, , Gnther Cramer - - - , - 1,3 - -

    , - , - , Fritz Brickwedde. SMA - Sunny Island, - - - -, , -, - , - , , . -, , . -, - , -, SMA - - , 2011 Cramer, Drews Wettlaufer, - , - - - - -. , - - (Bundes-verband Solarwirtschaft), Gnther Cramer - , - - , . - SMA

  • 50 -

    Gnther Cramer - - - - -. , Gnther Cramer - SMA - . - - SMA Solar Academy, - - , - . - - - SMA, , - , Fritz Brickwedde, - - SMA.

    VIOKAR

    /2013-2014 - 50 . - - - , -, , - - , - - . -, -

    , . - - -, - - - - - - . , online, www.viokar.gr/el/downloads, . - [email protected] Viokar

    ..

    /999,84kWp...... - A.E. & -

    BEMEKE A.B.E.E. - .. , - 999,84kWp. - - .... .. , - 18.230m2 - - - - 620 - . - - - 240Wp, - - - - - ( - ), - - - - .

    DC AC 34 ( -) inverter -, 27,6kW 20kW, string - MPPT - . 68 - MPPT ,

    - . , -, - - -, - ( ) - - 0,4/20KV 1.000KVA. B.O.S. -, , ,

  • - 51

  • 52 -

    - . - - - - - , - . - ... .., - - - . : 210 661 9590www.bienter.gr

    MTU Onsite Energy

    H MTU Onsite Energy - diesel - - (natural gas, biogas), - - MTU, -

    , - . - - MTU, - 100 - MTU Onsite Energy, - 35 , -, - - . // - (sewage gas), (landfill gas), - , - , . MTU Onsite Energy - 192 kWel 2 Wel - (containerized units), - - (, , ). - - .

    MTU

    Onsite Energy: : - , MTU - - , . 50% CO2

    : MTU Onsite Energy - - - , -. - , - - - - - - - . - (remote control) - - - - . : -

    -. - - , - MTU Onsite Energy - , - - - . - MTU Onsite Energy - - .. - -. - - - , - - .

  • - 53

    TECHNIMAT - . & .. 49, . , : 210-6777579 : 6974357154 : 210677506

    email: [email protected] website: www.technimat.gr

    MASTERGROUP ELETTROMECCANICA MAGLIANO:

    -.--. - CEI 14-4,IECEN60076()CEI14-8,IECEN60076().

    MASTERGROUP ELETTROMECCANICA MAGLIANO-ISO9001:2008ISO14001:2004,-.,...

    Certificato Nr. 9101.EL32NORMA UNI EN ISO:9001:2008

    Certificato Nr. 9911.EL33NORMA ISO 14001:2004

    Technimat 30 - - MASTERGROUP ELETTROMECCANICA MAGLIANO.

    O - Technimat.

  • 54 -

    - MTU Onsite Energy Lningen / . Lningen - , 40 -. - - - .

    Reinhard Hermann Gross, - 1800 . - - . - - - - , - , - - .

    - -. 4000 MTU Onsite Energy.

    Gross, - - . - - - . - - - Gross.

    .

    2001. - - , Gross . - 2008 10 , 80KW . - - . - - - - , - . - 10 -

    - . -, 2008 MTU Onsite Energy 400, 350kW , -.

    60 ,

    60 10 - -.

    - . - - - - - . 400 MTU Onsite Energy - , - 12 - MTU Onsite Energy

    4000. - - , 1.166 - kW 1300 kW - -. 2009 2010 - 7500 . , 90% Gross .

    - MTU 4000, Gross, o - Wilfried Forster - Thomas Stadtler, 400 - - -. - - , - 2010 - 400 - - - -. - - - .

  • - 55

    - -. - Loningen - - CO2 1,255 . 3 - MTU Onsite Energy - 400, - . , - -, , , -, , .

    U Onsite Energy - - - ,

    - - , - - : - - . MTU Onsite Energy - Reinhard Gross. O - - . - . - - 64.000 -

    . ( 7 - 24 .)

    GF-Bio-Energie Hasetal Gross Loningen . , - - , , - .

    4000 .

    :

    Ariexpo

    E-mail: [email protected]

    www.ariexpo.gr

    Ariexpo S.A.

    :

    16V4000 1.6 W.

  • 56 -

  • 58 -

  • 58 -