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  • (2006) . 353-364 2006

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    JL\n icon with representation of the Three Hierarchs and bearing the signature of the painter Emmanuel Tzanes, from Rethymnon, has been identified recently in a private collection in Athens. The saints - Basil left, John Chryso-stom in the middle, Gregory the Theologian right - are depicted standing, full-bodied and in strictly frontal pose with their heads at the same level (Fig. 1). The first two bless and hold a closed codex, while St Gregory holds the codex in both hands. Al three wear prelatic vestments: Basil and Gregory have cross-diapered phailonia and John Chryso-stom a sakkos. The haloes are outlined by punched roundels and are decorated inside with rinceaux and rosettes upon a punched ground. The field of the icon is gold and badly worn, the ground is rose-coloured and a painted red band frames the representation. In the upper part of the icon, majuscule inscriptions in red accompany the figures of the

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    hierarchs: A(ITOC) BACIAEIOC, A(riOC) (-NHC) XPY(COCTOMOC) A(riOC) rPHrOPIOC OEOAOIOC. On the ground, between saints Basil and John Chrysostom, the signature of the painter and the date: / / (IEP)EQ(C) TOY / TZAN(E) / , (Hand of Emmanuel Priest Tzanes, 1669) (Fig. 2). There is no information on the precise provenance of the work. According to its owner, her family purchased it in Athens, most probably in the 1940s-1950s. The icon, dimensions 37 x 33.2 X 1.8 cm, is set in a frame that was added later. It is in a poor state of preservation, due to an earlier attempted cleaning by rubbing, which caused irreversible damage to the surface, with removal of the pigment together with the incrustation, leaving the preliminary incised drawing clearly visible in places, or of entire areas of the painting and the priming. This signed icon, which is added to the long list

    .

    7 6 , 104-106.

    Chrysavgi Koutsikou

    AN UNKNOWN ICON OF THE THREE HIERARCHS WITH THE SIGNATURE OF EMMANUEL TZANES

    363

  • of works by Tzanes, is particularly important, since it is to date the only known composition by him of the Three Hierarchs. The iconography reproduces the fifteenth-century type, as encountered in the icon by Nikolaos Ritzos, in Sarajevo, and in icons in the Loverdos Collection in the Byzantine Museum, Athens and in the Zakynthos Museum. Tzanes transcribes accurately the fifteenth-century model, as is apparent from the frontality, the symmetry, the tight gestures of the hands close to the body, the stiff drapery which obviates any suggestion of the body beneath, the cross-diapered phailonia and the sakkos. The iconographie elements he introduces concern individual features and are restricted to the figure of John Chrysostom: the vertical arrangement of the drapery on both sides of the sticharion, the outwards over-fold of the lower edge of the omophorion and the sideways placement of the codex of the central saint. The last two traits are observed in an icon by Jeremiah Palladas of Sts Cyril of Alexandria, Athanasios and John Eleemon, in the Patriarchate of Alexandria. Comparisons with other works by Tzanes indicate that the three saints in the icon display similarities in technique and style with figures painted by him in all periods of his career.

    The firm, careful drawing, which is followed meticulously by the painting, the rendering of the flesh and the hair with dense, parallel white brushstrokes upon the olive brown under layer, the excellent execution and the rich coloration are familiar expressive means of the artist, which he handles with ease in all his oeuvre. Despite the devotion to the models of early Cretan painting and the conservatism in the execution, the representation constitutes a characteristic work of the painter and his period. The spirituality and the hieratic majesty of the original have receded. Dominant are the decorative disposition and the attention to flawless execution. The figures are less slender, with heavier proportions. Tzanes's rich palette has replaced the austerity of the model, in which the excellent quality gold was outstanding. The small work was intended for private devotions and was, as the subject indicates, commissioned by an Orthodox patron. Although this composition is not particularly rich in terms of decoration or innovative in terms of iconography, which fact is perhaps due to the economic abilities of the commissioner, the basic traits of the art of the great seventeenth-century painter are nonetheless apparent.

    364