[Ευγένιος_Μπαλάσης]_Οικισμοί Του Κάμπου Θεσσαλονίκης...

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Ευγένιος_Μπαλάσης]_Οικισμοί του κάμπου Θεσσαλονίκης ως το 1940

Transcript of [Ευγένιος_Μπαλάσης]_Οικισμοί Του Κάμπου Θεσσαλονίκης...

  • 1900-1940

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  • 1900-1940

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    Abstract

    The process of urbanization for Thessaloniki is intensified, starting from the middle of the 19th c., along with the modernization of production, of social relationships, and of the city itself. The phenomenon continues at the beginning of the 20th c., but through violent acts: the arrival of refuges from war zones and the population exchange among the new ethnic states. During the same time period, the network of settlements in the western Peri-urban Thessaloniki Zone and the western part of the Wider Thessaloniki Area is taking the shape it has today, as a result of the social transformations, the production policies exercised, the new infrastructure, and also the natural characteristics of the land, all of which had a formative effect on the location and the size of the settlements.

    The study of these settlement transformations is based on the viewpoint of the interdependent relationship between the peri-urban farmland and the metropolitan center, taking into account the historical setting, the political circumstances and the social milieu together with the rural policies. The main sources are Th. Glaveris' historical account "The Plain of Thessaloniki", K. Moscov's research on the socioeconomic structuring of Thessaloniki, and K. Vergopoulos' examination of rural policies in the inter-war period.

    The year 1909 is chosen as a milestone for the study of these transformations. In the beginning, the basic characteristics of the individual settlements are presented, from the late 19th c. until 1909. The second part of the study, from 1909 to 1940, covers the periods of population exchanges, with the Treaties of Neuilly and Lausanne, the rural reform and the great technical works in the plain of Thessaloniki. Maps and diagrams are drawn for both time periods, based on the available cartographic material of the time.

    These are then followed by the comparative study of the population changes as shown in the official registers and by a commentary on the findings, both on the level of settlements, as well as on the level of the wider zones of research. An attempt to group the settlements according to their characteristics, their development and their role in the settlement network during the inter-war period is discussed. The study concludes with identifying certain crucial issues concerning the development of the peri-urban rural space handed down to postwar Greece and associated with the formation of the rural space, the urbanization of the immediate peri-urban areas and the spatial transformations both of the natural environment of the plain and of the urban perimeter.

  • 1900-1940

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    1 ........................................................................................................................ 8 1.1 ..................................................................................... 8 1.2 ..................................................... 9

    1.2.1 ................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.2 ................................................................................................ 10 1.2.3 pi ........................................................................... 11 1.2.4 ............................................................................................ 13

    2 19 ................................................... 18 2.1 .............................................................. 18

    2.1.1 ............................................................................................ 19 2.1.2 pi ...................................................................... 20 2.1.3 pi 20 . .. 21

    2.2 .................................................. 23 2.2.1 pi pi pi.......... 24 2.2.2 19 . ............... 28 2.2.3 pi pi............................................................................ 29

    2.3 ........................................................ 30 2.3.1 .................................................................... 31 2.3.2 .............................................................. 32 2.3.3 pi pi ....................................................................... 34

    2.4 1909 ................................................... 36 2.4.1 pi ................................................... 39 2.4.2 .................................................................................. 45

    3 20 . 1940 .......................................... 55 3.1 ..................................................................................................... 55

    3.1.1 ............................................................................................ 57 3.1.2 ................................................................. 58 3.1.3 pi pi ... 60

    3.2 ...................... 62 3.2.1 ............................................ 66 3.2.2 pi pi ................................................................... 68

    3.3 .................................................................... 69 3.3.1 pi pi................................................................ 70 3.3.2 ...................................................................... 72 3.3.3 pi pi .................................. 75

    3.4 1909 1940 .................................... 77 3.4.1 pi ............................................. 80 3.4.2 ................................... 87 3.4.3 ................................. 93

    4 ........................................................................................................ 106 4.1 .................................................................. 106 4.2 ................................................................................................... 113 4.3 .......................... 118

    5 ............................................................................................ 121

  • 1900-1940

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    pi146. pi pi pi pi , 1928 pi pi . , pi 1940 pi , . . pi , , pi pi pi pi pi pi .

    , , , pi, pi pipi.

    pi pi pi - pi pi, . pi

    1928 pi 3.1 pi (. .27).

    146 pi 1928 pi pi pi

    pi pi pi 2.001-5.000 . pi pi pi pi 1961 pi, pi 1951. . . (1992).

  • . 27 pipi .. , . 1:200.000 1927. pi .

  • 3.4.1 pi

    (), (pi ) , pi 20 . pi . pi

    pipi . 1925 , pi , 25 pi pi . pi pi pi

    pi 147. pi pi pi , pi pi pipi ,

    pi pi . pi pi pi, pi

    . pi - () pi pi pi 850 pi, pi pi

    pi pi, pi pi,

    pi. 1928 pi, , pi

    . () pi

    14.031 . pi, pi

    1940 pi 21.031 .

    pi (pi pi) pi pi , pi . 1914 pi 148 pi, pi pi pi

    pi (. pi) pi pi 100 pipi. pi , pi, pi pi , pi pi pi Hebrard pi 1919 pi pi . pi 1920 pi pi pi 149.

    147 M., pi A. (1956), .52, :

    pi pi , . 148

    . (1998), 256. 149

    . (1998), 257, pi . 1920 pi pi 128 . pi pi pi , pi

    . 28 pipi pi .

    (. .. 2008, . 051.)

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 81

    pi 515 , , , , ,

    pi pi pi. pi 1919, pi , pi pi (), 1931 pi pi pi. pi pi pi. 1928 pi 1.310 . 494 ., pi 1940 pi 4.046 .

    pi (pi, pi pi) pi pi pi

    pi pi . , pi 1914. , pi pi 142 pi pi . . pi pi

    pi pi . pi150. 1920 pi 128 . pi pi 1928 591 . 1940 pi 798 .

    pipi pi pi pipi 1917, pi pipi pi pi .

    1919 pi pi pi pi pi . pi151

    . 1920 pi pi , pi , pi pi.

    pi 850 pi, pi pi, . , pi pi 4-7 . pi pi pi pi pipi

    pi pi pi 1929. pi pi pi pi pi

    pi pi pi. pi 1928 pi 2.435 ., () 1.000 . 300 . pi 1930 pi pi pi

    pi 1920 3.085 .!!!. pi (pi) pi (pi). 150

    M., pi A. (1956), .77 pi. 151

    . (1998), 258. pi pi pipi 4 pi pi, pi pi pipi pi pi.

    pi, pi

    pi pi

    pi pi, pi pi pi pi pi

    pi. pi pipi

    pi.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 82

    pi pi (, , pi ..)152. 1940 pipi 8.876 pi pipi pi, , pipi ().

    pi 1914 pi pi pi, pi pi pi, , pipi,

    .. 1920 pipi 153 pi pi pi , pi 1936, pi pi .

    pi pi pi pi pi. 1926 pipi 114 pi pi . , 25 154. pi, pi pi pi pipi pi pi

    pi. pipi 460 155, pi

    pi pi pi pi pi .

    pi 1928 . 496 ., . pi 400 ., . 300 . pi 1934 pi pi 1940 2.571 .

    () 1912 pi . pi pipi 50 . 1926 pi 156

    pipi pi pi 266

    152 1930 pipi .

    ., 1998, 258 pi pi pi pipi pi pi

    pi pi . pi

    pi pi pi , pi pi

    , pi pi pi pi

    , pi

    pi . 153

    1930 pi pi pi 1954 pipi pi pi pi. 154

    M., pi A. (1956), 70 pi.. pipi pi pi pi pi pi

    , pi . 155

    M., pi A. (1956), 5 pi. 156

    Arrigoni, pipi , , pi pi

    pi pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 83

    pi , pi pi pi pi . pi 1920 pi pi pi 3.083 . . pi,

    . pi, pipi, . pi pi pi pi

    . pi, , pi , . .

    1928 1.171 ., pi 1934 . , . pi . , pi pi pipi .

    . 157. 1940 pi 1.475 .

    pi , 64 pi , 1924 pi pi pi . 1928 pi 50 pi pi pi . pi 465 pi pi pi . pi, ,

    pi pipi. 1925 . pi pi pi pi' , pi,

    , .

    157 1955 pi pi

    guzel kokulu ( ).

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 84

    . 29 pipi pi 1930 (;) pi pi. pi pi .

    , (), . () . .

    () pi pi pi pi. pi 560 pipi, pi pi 40 ( ) pi pi pi . pi pi pi pi pi ,

    , . pi ' pi pi .

    pi

    , pi pi pi - . . pi pi , pi

    pi, pi pi, -pi,

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 85

    . pi 1918 pi .

    pipi pi 1920 .

    1926 , pi pipi pi

    pi pipi, pi ,

    pi 158. 1934 ,

    159. , pi

    pi . pi pi

    pi pi . pi

    pipi, pi

    . pi pi (pi , ) pi ( , pi pi, pi ---). 1920 3.085 . 1.520 . pi 1928. pi , 1940 pi 977 , pi.

    pi pi 3.1 pi pi160 , pi

    pi 1929. pi pi . pi pi pi

    1940 pi pi 3.2 .

    158 pi pi pi pi

    , pi pi pi. 159

    1952 , pi , pi pipi pi

    . 160

    pi 1920, 1928 1940, pi pi pi .

    . 30 - 1924.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 86

    3.1 pi

    pi

    1920 1928 1940

    pipi 634 pi 2.435

    1.000

    pipi

    300

    8.876

    1.520 977 - . .

    -

    . 401 577 . 1.171 1.475

    . 496 . 300 . pi

    400 2.571

    pi 1.310

    pi

    3.083

    494 4.046

    pi . pi 128 591 798

    pi pi () 9.750 13.025

    - () 451 708 () 3.580

    pi- () 250

    7.298

    3.211 25.083 40.351

    3.004 3.079 3.987

    170.000 236.524 191.847

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 87

    3.4.2

    () 20 pipi 60 , pi pi pi pi pi

    pi . 1918 , , , pi, pi pi

    (). pi 1920 694 . 1922 389 pi , pi 1.457 . pipi (185 ), pi pi , pipi pi pi , pi .

    pi pi pi . pi

    pi 1.400 pi, pi pi . pi , pi pi

    161. pi . pi pipi pi , pi

    pi pi . pi 1933, pi pi

    20 pi. 1928 162 1.820 ., pi 1940 pi 3.692 .

    () , pi pi , pi . pi 1905 1920 pi pi 156 . 277 . pi 163 . 1918 pi , pi pi pipi 1926 pi pi. pipi pi pi pi , .

    1926 , pi 3-4 , 87 pi pi 98 pi , pi

    161 . (1998), 279. 1930 pi

    , pi pi pipi

    pi. pi pi , pi

    . 162

    pi pi pi. 163

    1912 1/3 , pi pi (.) pi pi. pi pi pi

    pi pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 88

    562 . pi 1928 pi 524 . pi , , pi pi, , . , ,

    pi pi - pi. 1928 606, pi 1940 779 .

    164 (pi - pi) pi, pi , pi pi

    pi (1919). pi pi 1920 pi 413 .

    1918 pi , pi pi pipi 1926 pi, .

    285 pi 41 , pi 1.489 . pi pi pipi 1.200 . pi 1927, pi pi pi pi.

    300 pi pi pi, pi, pi pi .

    1928 pi 1.800 , pi 1940 pi 2.070 , pi pi , pi

    200 .

    () pi pi , pi pi pi. pi , pi 1916 pi , pi . pi pi 25 pi , pi pi pi , pi 1920 238 . pi pi pi pi pi , pi . 1924 pi 913 pi. 1919 pi , pi pi pipi 1924 pi . pi pi , pi, pi pi pi , pi . 1931

    164 pi 1952 ,

    pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 89

    pi pi pi.

    pi 1928 1.005 ., 1940 1.373 .

    pi (pi, , , , pi, , -) pi, pi pi 1906, pi 1905. pi 1920 , pi 26 . 71 . pi pi 19 . pi, pi 165.

    pi pi 1927-1928 pi. pi pi pi

    pi . pi pi 1920 pi 50 . pi pi. pi 1928 .

    ( - ) , pi pi,

    . 77 pi pi, pipi 3.000 ., pi pi pi , pi

    . pi (1918) ,

    , , -pi, pi. 1920 pi 884 . pipi pi pi 1920 1926 pipi pi -pi, pi .

    4 pi , pi pi

    1931166. 1928 919 pi pi pi, , pi pi pi - . 1940 1.138 .

    165 . (1998), 270. pi pi pi

    pi . 166

    .pi.

    . 31 pi .

    pi

    . ( 1998, .270)

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 90

    167 (pi) pi, pi , pi pi pi

    pi , pi. pi 1920 pi 740 , pi ,

    pi 3 . pi pi . 1928 907 , pi 1940 pi 1.114 .

    ( pi) 1912 -pi pipi 40 20 . pi 1920 246 . pi 153 pi , pi 131 pi pi 22 pi pi . pi pi pi -pi, , pi 435 . 1918 pi , pi pi pipi 1926 pi , - ( ) pi, pi' pi pi . pi , pi , pi

    , pi pi . 1936 pi pi 168.

    pi,

    , pi 21.000 ., pi pi. pi , pi . pi pi

    , pi pi pi pi , .

    pi pi , pi pi pi , pi pi pi 1930 40 pipi pi pi pi 169.

    pi .

    167 . pi pi 1902-1904,

    pi

    20 , pi pi pi . 1953, pi , pi pi pi

    pi pi pi . 168

    pi pi pi

    , 1951 pi , 1953 1955, pi pi . 169

    . (1998), 269.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 91

    1928 781 ., pi 1940 pi pi , pi

    1.129 .

    pi 3.2 pi pi170 . pi pi . pi

    . . pi pi 1940, pi 3.2 .

    3.2 pi

    pi

    1920 1928 1940

    694 1.820 2.979

    277 606 779

    pi

    (pi) 413 1.800 2.270

    238 1.005 1.373

    pi () 0 0 0

    () 0 0 0

    () 0 0 0

    () 71 0 0

    pi () 26 0 0

    884 919 1.138

    pi 740 907 1.114

    ( ) () 50 0 0

    -

    pi 345 781 1.129

    3.738 7.838 10.782

    3.004 3.079 3.987

    170.000 236.524 191.847

    170 pi 1920, 1928 1940, pi pi

    pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 92

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 93

    3.4.3

    ( - ) pi 1914 pi,

    pi pi . 1918 pi pi 1920 166 . pi . 1928, , pi pi 1926. . 1.881 pi pi . , pi pi pi , pi pi pi pi . 1925 pi pi pi . 26.000 ., pi pi . , pi pi pi 3.000 pi pi . pi , pi pi pi. pi

    pi, pi pi pi. 1935 pi .

    pi pi pi. 1928 pi pi 2.158 ., 1940 pi 2.865 .

    ( ) pi pi 171 pi

    , pi pi pi 1920. 1923 993 pi pi 172. pi

    2 pipi 96 pi , pi pi . pi pi

    pi. pi pi pi pi, pi pi pi pi

    pi . 1938 pi pi pi, ( pi).

    171 ., 1998, 295. ,

    172 ., 1998, 295, pipi

    pi 1906 pi , .

    pi pi

    .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 94

    1918 pi pi pi pi pipi 1927 . 1928 805 . 1940 pi 661 .

    - () 1914 - pi pi pi pi pi . 1918 pi pi pi 1920 20 . 1923 173 1927 pi , 32 pi pi . . 1928 pi 27 pi , pi 174.

    () - 1914 pi . 1918 pi, pi pi pipi 1926 175 (. ). pi 1920 350

    1.700 pi pi 1924 1926 pi pi . pi

    , pi pi pi pi pi pi pi. pi 12.000 . pi . 1927 pi pi pi pi pi . pi pi pi .

    , , . pi pi pi pi

    pi pi , pi . pi 1928 . pi pi 3 pi , 1925, pi , pi 176. pi ,

    pi pi pipi pi pi. pi pi pi ,

    173 ., 1998, . 296 pi

    pi pi .

    , pi pi .

    pi pi pi pi

    pi pi , pi pi

    pi 20 . 174

    ., 1998, . 297. 175

    pi pi pi. pi

    , pi pi pi

    , ., 1998, 302. 176

    ., 1998, . 303 pi.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 95

    pi pi , , .

    1928 1.821 . 1940 pi 1.944 .

    (pi ) pi pi pi pi . , pi pi 1920, pi. pi, pi pi pi, pi pi pi .

    . pi 1918 , , -, ,

    , . 1920 pi pi 321 pi pi pi pi .

    pi () (). 1926 pi 1.507 pi pi , pi pi pi . 1928 527 . 935. 1940 pi 399 1.099 . . pi , pi pi pi pi. pi pi pi pi pi .

    pi pi pi pi pi . pi pi 3 , pi pi pi pi, 1925 pi pi pi . pi

    pi , pi . .

    1938, 51 () pi 177.

    () pi pi

    pi . pi pi pi . 1918 pi pi, 1920 pi 76 . 1922 944 pi pi , pi 1928 pi 1.532 .

    177 pi () pi

    pi pi pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 96

    pi pi . pi pi pi pi pi.

    1930, pipi pi pi. pi pi,

    pi . pi pi . pi pi , pi .

    pi pi pi pi pi , pi pi pi .

    1940 pi pi 1.483 , pi , pi pi.

    () 1905 76 pi 26 pi 1920. pi 1918 pi pi pipi 1926 . . pi 1928 . pi

    pi pi pi 178, pi pi pi pi

    , pi pi pi

    .

    . 32 pi . (. .. 2008, . 12).

    178 ., 1998, 223.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 97

    pi pi pi pi179 pi pi

    pi . pi pi , pi pi (1919) 300 pi pi . . 1920 1.120 ., () 268 . (pi) 571 . pi pi 1928 pi 3.423 . pi 374. 1918 pi pi pi 1920 , , pi pipi 1928. 1920-29 pi pi 1946 pi .

    pi pi. pi

    pi pi pi pi, pi 1935 . pi pi pi , pi

    pi pi

    pi180. pi pi pi

    , . pipi

    pi pi pi pi. pi

    pi (pi). 1935 pi , pi 1938 1941 . pi

    1940, pi 5.377 ., pi pi pi.

    179 , (), (). pi

    pi pi pi

    pi pi pi pi. ., 1998, 316 180

    ., , 1979, . 97.

    . 33 pi: pi .

    .

    : pi pi.

    ( 1998, . 241 318)

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 98

    () 1914 pi pi pi pi pi ,

    pi . pi 1918 (), 1920 pi 188 .

    1924 pi pi (pi) . pi pi pi pi. pi pi . . pi

    1928 pi , pi pi 1926 pi . 1928 . , pipi pi pi pi pi . pi 1928 1.191. pi pi pi pi, pi pi pi 1925 pipi , .

    1927 pi 922 . pi pi pi pi ( , pi, , , ). pi pi pi pi , 181. pi pi pi pi

    Foundation 1925-1935. pi pi pi pi pi.

    pi , pi pi pi, pi . 1940 . 1.867 .

    () , pi pi, pi pi

    pi pi. 1918 pi 1920 297 ., pipi pi pi pi .

    1923 pi , pi pi pi pi pi

    . 1928 284, pi.

    . pi pi pi pi,

    181 ., 1998, 312. pi 1926 pi

    pi pi (pi pi).

    . 34 pi

    pi

    (). ( 1998, .122)

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 99

    pi , pi pi .

    pi (1940) 287 . pi pi .

    () pipi pi

    pi pi, pi pi 182. pi pi

    pi , pi . pi 1920 222 . pi . . pi 1923, , , pi pi . pi pi

    pi pi pi183. 1928 244 . . pi . . 1930 () pi 1940 556 . () pi pi 1920 pi 179 . pi () pi pi . pi pi

    45 pi, pi . 1928 pi 279 . 1930 , , pi , pi pi

    pi .

    () pi 1912 pi184. pi () 1920 190 . 1926 pi pi pi , pi , pi pi

    . , pi pi pi 4.100 . pi 5.600 . pi pi .

    pi pi ( 17 ) 1928 239. 1940 pi 423 .

    182 pi 1914 . .

    (). 183

    pi pi

    pi . 184

    ., 1998, 311.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 100

    () 175 (pi 1905), pi , 10 pi pi . 1920, . pi 49 . pi pi pi 1920. 1928 , pi ( ), pi .

    () pi 1927, pi pi185.

    1918 pi , , , , , pi . 1920 pipi , , , pi 1935 pi . pi 1920 241 . 1922, 657 pi pi . , pi 1928 pi 562 . pi 1928 800 . pi pi , . . pi ( , , pi, ) . pi pi pi pi.

    pi pi pi. 1934 pi pi pi pi,

    , , , , pi. pi, pi pi

    pi pi pi . 1940 pi 1.441 .

    () pi pi 1912. pi .

    pi pi , pi 186.

    1918 pi 1920 217 . 45 pi pi . . 1928 187 242 . pi pi

    185 pi pipi pi pi

    . pi , pi , pi

    . ., 1998, 309 186

    ., 1998, 307 187

    pi pi. pi

    pi pi .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 101

    pi , pi

    pi 1926. 1934 pi pi pi . pi ,

    pi pi pi . pi .

    , , pi, . pi pipi pi pi pi pi .

    . 1940 pi 469 .

    () pi pipi 1918 pi . pi , pi,

    pi pi pi pi 1923. pi 1914 2 pi pi . . pi 1920 957 . pi pi . . 1926188 1928 1.570 ., pi pi pi pi . pi

    (, pi, , , ) (, , pi). pi pi pi 1919 . pi pi 1930, pi pi ( ) . 1940 pi pi 2.175 .

    pi pi pi . 189 pi pi .

    . pi pi, pi 1914 , pi pi . pi

    pi pi pi .

    188

    pi . . pi

    .

    ., 1998, 290. 189

    . - pi . (1955), . 215. pi . (1998), . 293 pi. , pi . , , pi

    pi pi pi, .

    pi pi pi pi pi (pi).

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 102

    1918 . , pi pi 1920, 484 . pi pi pi pi pi, pi pi pi pi pi. pi 1.214 . (, pi, ) (pi, , ). 1928 pi . 1.348 1940 pi 1.912 .

    () pi , pi pi

    pi. pi pi pi pi, pi 690 . 1905 1920 1.064 . 1918 , pi pi , pi pipi 1935 . 1920 1.064 . , pi pi pi. pi , , pi, . pi, pi

    pi , pi pi pi pi pi pi .

    pi pi pi . pi pipi pi . pi

    pi pi pi pi 1925-35. .

    pi 4 pi pi pi.

    1928 pi 1.149 . pi 1940 1.422 . pi , 1955.

    () pipi pi, pi pi, pi pi pi pi

    pi 20 . 1917 pi pi pi , pi pi pi 190.

    () pi , 21 pi .

    190 . (1998), 287. pi pipi pi pi

    .

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 103

    1918 , pi pi pi 1920 3.004 . pi . pi pi 20 ., pi pi . pi pi pi pi pi .

    pi 191 (pi) . pi pi , pi

    . pi pipi . pi pi pi

    , pi 192. 1924 pi pi pi pipi

    pi ... pi pi pi .193 pi ,

    pi, pi , pi . pi 1912 pi

    194, 1919 . pi pi , pi, pi, ,

    .. 1925 pi pi pi , pi .

    1926, pi pi pi , pi pi pi

    195.

    1928 3.079 pi 1940 3.987 .

    pi 3.3 pi pi pi . pi pi . pi pi

    3.2 . pi 1940. pi pi .

    191 pi pi pi

    1922. 192

    . (1998), 285. 193

    . (1998), 286. pi . pi ...

    . 194

    pi , , , pi pi

    1925 - pi . 195

    . (1998), 284. pi pi . . . . 35 pi. pi pi 1929 pi 1955 pi pi 1979.

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 104

    3.3 pi

    pi

    1920 1928 1940

    217 242 469 957 1.570 2.175 . 484 1.348 1.912 . 166 2.153 2.865 0 805 661 76 1.532 1.483 350 1.821 1.944

    () () 26 0 0 pi

    () 321 527 399

    .

    0 935 1.099

    -

    () () 20 27 0

    () 1.120

    () 268 3.423

    (pi)

    571 374

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    1.064 1.149 1.422 . 188 1.191 1.867 241 800 1.441 297 284 287 222 244 556 () () 179 279 0 , 190 239 423

    () () 49 0 0

    10.010 22.022 28.367

    170.000 236.524 191.847

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 105

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 106

    4 pi 4.1

    pi pi pi pi pi pi 20 . , pi pi

    pi - pi pi.

    pi 1905 1920 pi. pi pi 19 . , pi pi pi pi

    pi pi pi. pi pi pi pi .

    1920 1928 pi pi pi pi. pi pi pi pi pi

    , pipi pi, pi . pi pi 1928-1940 pi pipi pi pi pi pi, pi .

    pi pi pi 1922-24, pi pi, pi pi pi ( pi ), . 4.1 pi pi pi pi . ,

    pi pi , pi pi .

    pi pi pi pipi pi pi pi pi. ,

    pi pi.

    4.1 pi

    1905 1920 1928 1940

    . 248 3.211 25.083 40.648

    . 2.643 3.738 7.838 10.782

    . 8.913 10.010 22.022 28.367

    . / 135.000 170.321 241.344 191.847

  • pi pi pi pi , pi pi pi

    pi . pi pi pi pi pi , pi pi pi pi ,

    pi , , pi. , pi pi pi pi pi. 1905 pi pi pi pi pi . pi pi pi :

    ( )

    1940 , . pi , pi pi, . , . pi ( pi pi ). pi , pi pi pi.

    4.2 pi pi pi 1905-1940. pi pi pi

    pi, pi (), (), () (pi). pi pi , pi .

  • pi pi ,

    () pi pi (. pi). pi pi pi pi pi

    pi 250 . 1905 3.200 . 1920. 1928, pi pi pi pi, pipi , pi pi pi 20.000 pi pi 681%. pi pi pi pi 1928-1940 pi pi

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    4.2

    pi pi

    1905 1920 1928 1940 1905-1920

    1920-1928

    1928-1940

    1905-1940

    135.000 170.321 241.344 191.847 26,2% 41,7% -20,5% 42,1% 0 4.369 8.876 103,2% -

    . 222 1.921 1.554 -19,1% 600%

    0 1.171 1.475 26,0% 0 1.196 2.571 115,0%

    0

    3.083

    1.804 4.046

    1288,7% 239,3%

    124,3%

    26 128 591 798 392,3% 361,7% 35,0% 2969%

    0 0 9.750 13.025 33,6% 0 0 451 708 57,0% 0 0 3.830 7.595 98,3%

    . 248 3.211 25.083 40.648 1195% 681% 62% 16290%

    pi 1928 1940, pi pipi pi

    pi pi pi pi pi pi pi. . (-19%), . (-20%), pi 1940 pi , pi pi 35.000 . pi

  • 1900-1940

    . pi 111

    pi 10.000 1931196. pi pi pi pi, pi pi pi 1905-1940 (16.290%), pipi pi pi .

    pi pi , pi pi pi pi . pi pi

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    1920 pi pi . pi , pi pi 4.3 pi .

    4.3

    pi pi

    1905 1920 1928 1940

    1905-1920

    1920-1928

    1928-1940

    1905-1940

    913 1.719 5.231 7.401 88,3% 204,3% 41,5% 711%

    1.484 1.674 1.826 2.252 12,8% 9,1% 23,3% 52%

    246 345 781 1.129 40,2% 126,4% 44,6% 359%

    .

    2.643 3.738 7.838 10.782 41% 110% 38% 308%

    , . , pi

    pi ,

    196 pi pi 1931,

    pipi

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  • 1900-1940

    . p