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  • : 23/6/1989 : 27/3/1990 : 3/4/1990 : 23/6/1995

    : .

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  • 8

    1. . 1 - 1.1. 10 1.2. 12

    2. . 2 - 2.1. 14 2.2. 18 2.2.1. 19 2.2.2. 20 2.2.3. 22

    3. . 3 - - 3.1.1. 24 3.1.2. 25 3.2. 26 3.2.1. 27 3.2.2. 28 3.2.3. 28 3.3.

    29 3.3.1. 29 3.3.2. 31 3.3.3. 33 3.3.4. 34

    4. . 4 -

    39 40 42 48 55 56 57

    1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

    -

    SUMMARY

  • 8

    . , , , , . ' , , .

    . . .

    . . . . -

    , . . - , 251 . . .. 251 .

  • 10

    1. ANATOMIA

    1.1. .

    : , .

    1,6mm. , , - .

    ()

    . .

    , , , . . ' . : 1) 2) . .

    - .

  • 11

    . 1. . : , : , : , : (, glomus bodies), : , : (, Stevens . 1993).

    .

    ' ,

    , - , .

  • 12

    1.2

    , . , -, ( , , ) .

    4 , , Wolf, 4-1 ( 1966).

    6 ,

    .

    2 - 3

    , ,

    , - 2 - 4 .

    , , - 4 (Martin . 1962) ( 1967).

    . 3 , . 4 - , .

    14 16 , . - . , .

  • 13

    17 -

    , , , . - . . 10 .

    .

    6 .

    12 - ( ).

    24 .

    ' . , . .

    . . .

    .

  • 14

    2.

    2.1. .

    .

    .

    .

    - - ( 1932)

    ' . .

    -

    , ( 1965).

    - . (Burger 1956, 1972).

  • 15

    . . Sputinius 44 .. (Burger 1956).

    , ( 1972).

    "" " ",

    . ' , "" , . .

    ' ( 1986).

    . .

    . . 3 .. .

    Tang (618-907 ..).

    (- 1983).

  • 16

    To 1684 Grew , . , .

    1685 Bidloo "Anatomia Humani Corporis".

    To 1686 Malpighi "De externe tactus organo" - .

    1823 Purkinje 9 .

    , 1858 William Herschel. , ,

    ( 1965). '- ( 1932).

    , Faulds ( 1983).

    Faulds , , . (1880), Bertillon ( 1983).

    , ( 1965).

    1892 Francis Galton Purkinje, , , . , .

  • 17

    Galton . . . .

    Francis Galton (1822-1911) ( 1983).

    J.Vucetich Galton. Vucetich "Ikno-phalangome-trie" "" "."

    1898 Sir Edward Henry Herschel Galton, .

    1902 Scotland Yard . Bertillon .

    1902 , .

    Sir Edward Henry .

    , . 1911.

    1914 Gasti ( 1966), 1919 ( 1949, 1963).

    16/1/1916 1946 Sir Edward Henry (F.B.I) ( Hoover -1945 - Classification of fingerprints).

  • 18

    To F.B.I 1908 .

    .

    Wilder Whipple (1897) , , .

    Cummins , Down. (Cummins 1936, 1973).

    2.2.

    . .

    : 1.

    , , . , , .

    2. , ' . , '

    . 3 , .

    3. . 1906 , Galdino Ramos

  • 19

    4.660.337

    17

    1.717.986.918 .

    . 2. . : , : ,

    : , : , : , : ( 1962).

    2.2.1.

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ( ) , .

    -

    -

  • 20

    (, , .).

    . ' .

    . . -

    . .

    . Galton. , (). ( ) , . : 1) , 2) .

    .

    .

    , .

    . . ' . ( , , , , , , ..).

    2.2.2.

    , ( 1989):

  • 21

    . 3. : . : ( 1962).

    ) . ' (plain arch). - (tented arch).

    ) . (65%). ' (radial loop ulnar loop ). (double loop).

    ) (whorl). ' - .

    ) (composite accidental). ' .

  • 22

    .

    .

    .

    , : e, i, , u. u, e i, , (e, i, , u).

    2.2.3,

    , , .

    : 1. . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    . 5. . 6. , . 7. . ,

    , .

    ' 12-16 .

  • 23

    Balthazard .

    13 . 17 13 .

    ' 8-12 . , ( 1947, 1975).

    .

    ( 13).

  • 24

    3. -

    3.1.

    (.. ). ,

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    ( 3 ) ( 1989). ,

    , .

    ' :

    1. .

    2.

    3. -

    CO ( 1989).

    . , , . ,

    , , . -

  • 25

    .

    .

    . '

    , ,

    , -

    .

    .

    . , , -

    (CO) - () .

    3.1.1.

    , :

    . : , "". , , '.

    .

    - .

  • 26

    . : . - . .

    . : .

    . : , .

    . : ( ).

    . : ' , -

    , .

    . : . . .

    . : ( 1989).

    3.2. .

    , - .

    , : 1) 2) .

  • 27

    3.2.1.

    : , ., , . , , . - , -

    .

    .

    , : i)

    , ., .

    ) .

    .

    . - .

    , , . .

    .

  • 28

    3.2.2.

    . ' '

    , .

    ,

    , .

    .

    .

    (, ) .

    -

    - ,

    .

    , ,

    , .

    .

    .

    3.2.3.

    () .

    , , .

  • 29

    ,

    , ,

    30 45 , , - ( 1932).

    3.3.

    .

    , - -

    ,

    : ,

    , -

    .

    3.3.1.

    ( 1989, Morlang 1982):

    1) (Mertz 1977).

    2) (Stimson 1977) , (Levine 1977, Beckstead . 1979).

    3) "child abuse" (Sopher 1977). ,

    -

  • 30

    , .

    .

    , ( 1987).

    .

    (Solheim 1989).

    (Fischman 1987).

    "" . , , , ( 1987).

    (Gustafson 1966).

    (Higginson . 1980), ( 4,6 ) (Haertig . 1985).

    - (de Valck 1990, Redactie 1991).

    (Jones 1988).

  • 31

    , .

    (Hill 1980).

    , , (Cameron . 1974).

    (Jakobsen . 1991).

    - , (Clark 1986).

    '. ,

    (Hill 1980).

    3.3.2.

    . . , .

    , (Owsley 1989). .

    Neiss (Neiss 1964). ' " ."

    , , ,

    , -

  • 32

    , , .

    " " .

    , (Welcott . 1980).

    , .

    - .

    : "", , .

    (Lichtenstein . 1982).

    13.2 , (Singleton 1951, Mulligan . 1988).

    (Murphy . 1980).

    (Mulligan . 1988). ,

    (Sanders . 1972).

    (Lichenstein . 1980).

    (Cullen . 1980).

  • 33

    ( 1987).

    , , (Mulligan . 1988) (Tarlton 1973).

    , .

    3.3.3.

    . DNA-fingerprinting.

    DNA ( ) DNA DNA . DNA ( 1993).

    ' DNA , (Ogata . 1990).

    -

    . Emery McMillan (1954) .

    (Schwinger 1972). . (Helmer 1970, Schwinger 1972).

  • 34

    .

    .

    3.3.4.

    (Agdal 1977).

    ..., (Leapley 1980).

    . "" "". ' . , , (Arcudi . 1989).

    12-16 .

    (Heindl 1927).

    Balthazard 15 .

    ,

    , . . , .

  • 35

    4.

    (- ) . , . ' .

    , .

    , ( 1987).

    " ", .

    Jordan Simon (1969) .

    50%. - .

    . . (1940) , , 2% (), , . ( 1940).

    Canuto Zanelli (1926), ,

  • 36

    , ,

    . .

    Bussato (1950), , . - , .

    Carella (1953), 20 25%. , .

    , , Bussato.

    , Carella . ' NaOH 3-5% .

    - , (Arcuai . 1989, Bussarto 1950, Carella 1967, Glassman . 1984, Hartel . 1990, Haglund 1988, Zugibe . 1986, 1988).

    , .

    .

    '

    .

  • 37

    Carella (1967) NaOH, .

    , 95% NaOH 3-10%. - .

    , .

    , - .

  • 39

    - , , .

    .

    , ' , ( 1989).

    ' , , , , .

    (-) ( 1989).

    ' - - (Arcuai . 1989).

    , ( 1973).

    , , . ( , ,

    ) .

  • 40

    30 , .

    - . , , .

    ] , , , .

    ~ , .

    , (58-62 C) 11/a - 3 min. .

    , .

    ( ) , .

  • 41

    , 30 .

    , NaOH, ( 3% 10%).

    .

    ,

    , .

    (202). 5-15 min.

    , , , .

    , .

    , , .

  • 42

    :

    1) - (.4).

    2) 58 C .

    3) (. 5, 6).

    4) (. 7, 8, 9). 5)

    (NaOH) (202) (. 10, 11).

    , ,

    (. 12, 13).

  • 43

    EIK. 4. .

  • 44

    7

    Eue 5 6. .

  • 45 "

    51 - - . , , V "**

    ,..' "*?. ****v a. =5

    K%f -5*8? ".*>* ' ^ J r -

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    ***-*^#7H

    . 7,8 9. ( ).

  • 46 "

    . 1 av.

    - f"SI' 5 -_ J* * *

    Ma . 10 11. .

  • 4 7 "

    12.

    Esedra 13.

  • 48

    -

    .

    .

    .

    , - .

    , ' , . , , .

    , , .

    , -, ,

    .

    , .

    .

    , ,

  • 49

    (Owsley 1989). .

    (Murphy . 1980) (Lichtenstein . 1982).

    (Lichenstein . 1980).

    ( 1987).

    DNA DNA DNA .

    , -- (' ") . , , .

    , , .

    , , , , ' , .

    , ' .

    , , .

  • 50

    ' , , , , (FBI 1962, Heindl 1927, Endris 1982).

    , ,

    . ,

    , (- 1989).

    .

    , , .

    , , , , .

    , - , .

    , , , .

    Canuto . (1926) , , , ,

    () .

  • 51

    Bussato (1950) .

    Carella (1953) 20 25% .

    , , Bussato.

    Carella (1967) NaOH. ' , .

    , -, .

    .

    ' ,

    .

    . . , .

    ' .

    58 C.

  • 52

    . , ,

    . ( ).

    : 1) - 2) 3) .

    6 -24 ( ). .

    , .

    57 C.

    .

    .

    20 , 20 2450 MHz. . .

    Bernard (Bernard 1974).

    . .

    . 58 C , (Login 1978).

  • 53

    58 - 62 C .

    ,

    (. Va ) .

    (Login 1978, Leong . 1985) (Leong . 1985).

    40-50% . ,

    ( ). (Patterson . 1980).

    (Bernard 1974, Petrere . 1977). , 6 cm

    (Leong . 1986). 50 ml 500 W 25-30

    sec, 58 C. , --

    2 0 V/z -3 min .

    NaOH ,

    .

    , ,

    . 0

    .

  • 54

    .

    ,

    .

  • 55

    ,

    .

    ,

    58 C ,

    NaOH (202), . ,

    ,

    .

  • 56

    SUMMARY

    In this report a laboratory research for the taking of papillary marks in bodies burned to death is described; it is a modified technique with respect to those proposed, in literature, from other authors. This methodology consists of submitting the dermic surface of the digital pulps, previously cleaned with sol-vent, to a process of hydration through solution of sodium hydroxide and H202, that whiten the sample.The above mentioned procedures give turgidity and consistency to the samples, and therfore the making of the digital pulps is possible.

  • 57

    1. , .: , . , 1980. 2. Agdal .: Fingerprints on a dead body:A new aproach. Forensic Sci. 9

    105-107 1977.

    3. .: , . , 1986.

    4. Arcudi G..Ronchi G.U.: II relievo delle impronte papillari nei cadaveri carbonizzati Jura medica, 227-232 1989.

    5. Balfour AJC: His Honour'd bones. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 60 (10,Suppl.) : 24-6,1989.

    6. Barsley RE., Carr RF,Cottone JA, Cumiinale JA.: Identification via dentai remains:Pan American Flight 759, J.Forensic Sci. Jan; 30(1); 128-36 1985.

    7. Bernard GR.: Microwave irradiation as a generator of heat for histological fixation. Stain. Technol. 49:215-223 1974.

    8. Beckstead,J.W.,R.D.Rawson, and W.S.Gilew.Review of bite mark evidence. J.A.D.A. 99:69-74 1979.

    9. Burger M.: Die hand des kranken. J.F. Lehmanns, Verlag Mnchen 1956. 10. Bussarlo S.: Ricerche sperimentali su un nuovo metodo di identificazione

    dattiloscopica dei cadaveri in decomposizione. Zacchia, 28 1950. 11. Canuto G., Zanelli .: L' identificazione dattiloscopica dei cadaveri. Nuova

    tecnica di prelevamento delle impronte. Arch. Antr. Crim., 128, 1926. 12. Carella .: Tecnica di aassunzione dattiloscopica del derma per identifi

    cazione di cadaveri decomposti. Zacchia 28, 156, 1953. 13. Carella .: Ulteriori esperienze sulla tecnica del rilievo del disegno papil

    lare dal derma in cadaveri decomposti. Rass. Arma Carabinieri 4, 1967. 14. .: 1932.

    15. - .: DNA fingerprinting. University studio Press / 1993.

  • 58

    16. - , .: DNA (DNAFingerprinting) . . 1994.

    17. Cameron J.., Sims G..: Forensic Dentistry. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh and London 1974.

    18. Clark DH.: Dental identification problems in the Abu Dhabi air accident. Am-J-Forensic-Med-Pathol. Dec 7(4): 317-21, 1986.

    19. Cullen S.A., Turk E.P.:The value of postmortem examination of passengers in fatal aviation accidents. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 51(9): 1071-1073, 1980.

    20. Cummins.: Dermatoglyphic stigmata in mongolian diocy.Anat. Ree. 64,Suppl., 2 : 1 1 , 1936.

    21. de Valck E.: The dentist as an expert in disasters: dental identification in the disasters with the Zeebrugge ferry Rev-Belge-Med-Dent. 45(1): 11-20, 1990.

    22. Endris R.: Forensische Katastrophenmedizin, Kriminalistik, Verlag 1982. 23. Fatteh AV., Mann GT.: The role of radiology in forensic pathology, Med.

    Sci. Law, 9:27-30, 1969. 24. Fischman SL: Role of the general practitioner in data collection and cross

    matching. Int-Dent-J. Dec;37(4); 201-4, 1987. 25. Gill P, Jeffreys A, Werrett D.: Forensic application of DNA fingerprints. Na

    ture, Dec, 318, 1985.

    26. Glassman D.M., Webb R.S.: Technical report:A method for recovering the palmar and plantar pads of small primate cadaver specimens for der-matoglyphicanalysis. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol 63: 21-22 1984.

    27. Gustafson, G.: Forensic Odontology, New York Elsevier, 1969. 28. Grner .: Identification in forensic medicine. Significance and proof

    value. Z-Rechtsmed. 103(2); 73-83 1989. 29. Higginson, A.G. Hill I.R.:Blood groop determination from teeth. Aviat.

    Space Environ. Med. 51(9): 1026-1029, 1980. 30. Haertig ., Crainic K., Durigon M.: Medicolegal identification by the dental

    system. Presse-Med. Mar. 2 ; 14(9) ; 543-5 1985.

  • 59

    31. Haglund W.D.: A technique to enhance fingrprints of mummified fingers. J. For. Sci. vol.33, No.5, p: 1244-1248, 1988.

    32. Hartel V.,Teige .: Presentation of fingerprints of cadavers after an extended period of time, and also immersed cadavers.Arch. Kriminol. May-Jun;185(56);P 13641 1990.

    33. .: , . 2, , 1962.

    34. Helmer R.: Mglichkeiten und methoden der zellmorphologischen der medizinisch- naturwissen- schaftlichen Kriminalistik, Bd. 9, L'u'beck, schmidt-R'o'mhild 1970.

    35. Heindl, R.: Daktyloskopie, 3 Aufl..Berlin, Leipzig, Walter de Gruyter, 1927. 36. Hill.LR.: Dental Identification in fatal aircraft accidents. Aviat.Space Envi-

    ron.Med. 51(9): 1021-1025, 1980. 37. Jones GF.: A simple overlay system for data comparison in dental identifi-

    cation.J-Forensic-Sci. Jan; 33(1); 254-9 1988. 38. .: , 1949.

    39. : 1965.

    40. .: , , 1977.

    41. .: , , 1989.

    42. : 66,7. 43. Luntz L.L.: History of forensic dentistry. Dent.Clin.North Am. 21 : 13-17,

    1977.

    44. Leapley F.M.: Fingerprint identification and the disaster victim.Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 51(9):1015-1018,1980.

    45. Levine, L.L.: Bite mark evidence.Dent. Clin. North Am. 21 : 145 -158, 1977. 46. Leong AS-Y, Daymon M., Milios J.: Microwave irradiation as a form of fixa

    tion for light and electron microscopy.J.Pathol. 146:313-321 1985. 47. Leong AS-Y, Milios J. : Rapid immunoperoxidase staining of lymphocyte

    antigens using microwave irradiation. J.Pathol 148: 183-187 1986. 48. Login GR.: Microwave fixation versus formalin fixation of surgical and

    autopsy tissue. Am.J.Med.Technol. 44: 435-437, 1978. 49. Lichenstein, J.E.,Madeweli J.E.: Role of radiology in the study and identifi

    cation of casualty victims. Radiologe 22: 352-357, 1982.

  • 60

    50. Lichenstein, J.E.,Madewell J.E., McMeekinRR., Feigin DS,Wolcott J.H.: Role of radiology in aviation accident investigation. Aviat Space Environ Med 51: 1004-1014 1980.

    51. Levine, L.L: Bite mark evidence. Dent.Clin.North.Am. 21: 145-158 1977. 52. .: , .

    , 353, 1975.

    53. McKeehan ..: The restoration of desiccated cadaveric fingers for the purpose of identification. J.Forensic Sci. Soc. Apr;10(2);115 1970.

    54. .: , , . 1987.

    55. Mulligan ME, McCarthy MJ, Wippold FJ, Lichtenstein JE, Wagner GN.: Radiologie evaluation of mass casualty victims: lessons from the Gander, Newfoundland.accident. Radiology; Jul; 168(1)P 229-33 1988.

    56. Murphy W.A., Spruill F.G., Gantner G.E.Radiologic identification of unknown human remains. J.Forensic Sci. Oct; 25(4);727-35; 1980.

    57. Morland, W.M.'.Forensic dentistry. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 53(1) : 27-34,1982.

    58. Mertz, C.A.:Dental identification.Dent.Clin.North Am.21:47-67, 1977. 59. Neiss, A.W.: Rontgenidentifikation, Stuttgart, Georg Thieme,1968. 60. Okajima M.: Dermatoglyphic examination of the dermal surface of bodies

    in advansed postmortem condition.For.Sci.int. Jul; 25(3) 209-218 1984. 61. Ogata M, Mattern R, Ochneider PM, Schacker U, Kaufmann , Rittner C :

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of DNA extracted from postmortem muscle tissuew.Z-Rechtsmed; 103(6);397-406 1990.

    62. Owsley DW, Mann RW.: Positive identification based on radiografie examination of the leg and foot. A case report.J-Am-Podiatr-Med-Assoc. Oct;79(10); 511-3 1989.

    63. .: . . 41, 19-28 -. 1972.

    64. ..: - . 41, 418-427, -. 1972.

    65. : . . , /, 1983.

  • 61

    66. ..: 1985.

    67. Patterson ., Bulard R.: Microwave fixation of cells in tissue culture. Stain Technol. 55:71-75 1980.

    68. Petrere JA.,Schardein JL. Microwave fixation of fetal specimens. Stain. Technol. 52: 113-114 1977.

    69. : , , -, 1963.

    70. Redactie.: Dental identification in ferry disaster outside Zeebrugge. Ned-Tijdschr-Tandheelkd; Apr; 98(4); 135-7 1991.

    71. Richardson L,Kade H.: Readable fingerprintw from mummified or putrified Specimens.J.For.Sci. p: 325-328 1972.

    72. Sanders I, Woesner ME, Ferguson RA et al : A new application of forensic radiology :identification of deceased from a single clavicle. AJR 115: 619-622, 1972.

    73. Solheim T.Stene-Johansen W,Lorentsen M, Sakshaug 0.:The airplane accident in Torghatten on May 6, 1988. Nor-Tannlaegeforen-Tid; Jan;99(2); 40-7, 1989.

    74. Schwinger E.: Geschiechtsbestimmung an Lebenden und Toten durch fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung des Y-K'o'rpeerchens in Zeilkernen verschiedener Gewebe, Bonn 1972.

    75. Singleton AC.: The roentgenologic identification of victims of the Noronic disaster. Am. J. Roentgenol Radium Ther. Nuc. Med. 66: 375-384 1951.

    76. Stevens ., Lowe J.: , . , . 1993. 77. Stimson, P.G.:1 Bite mark evidence. Dent. Clin.North Am.21:137-143 977. 78. Sopher I.M.: The dentist and the battered child syndrome. Dent.Clin.North.

    Am. 21:113-122 1977.

    79. Tariton, S.W.: Identification in aircraft accidents. In: Aerospace Pathology, J.K.Mason and W.J.Reals (Eds), pp.53-63. Chicago: College of American Pathologists Foundation 1973.

    80. Wolcott J.H.,Hanson CA.: Summary of the means used to positively identify the American victims in the Canary Islands crash.Aviat. Space Environ. Med. Sep; 51(9Pt2); 1034-5 1980.

  • 62

    81. .: . . / 1973.

    82. .: . , , 1947. 83. Zugibe F.T., Costello J.T.: A new method for softening mummified fingers.

    J. For. Sci. vol 31, No 21, April pp: 726-731 1986. 84. Zugibe F.T., Costello J.T.: A technique to enhance fingerprinting of

    mummified fingers. J. For. Sci. vol 33, No 5, Sept. pp: 1244-1248 1988.