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ΑΣΚΗΣΕΙΣ ΒΙΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΓΕΝΙΚΗΣ

### Transcript of ΑΣΚΗΣΕΙΣ ΟΙΚΟΛΟΓΙΑ

PAGE 37

1.

. . ( , 2 1 3 ) .

1. , 5 , 3 , 3 3 .

( , 2 1 3 )

= 5 x 3 x 3 x 2 = 90

= 5

2. 4 420 7. 5 , 3 .

, 7 .

. = 7 x 5 x x 3 420 = 105 x = 4 .

.

.

1. :

. : , , .

. , -

,

.

. .

:( (

,

(( (

( ((

,

(( ( (

,

:(

,

((

,

:( ((

,

(( ( (

( (( (

,

(( ( ( (

,

. ( ). . .

2.

. . 10% . ( ) , . . . 10% , ( 1) (, ) 90% .

1

10% . . 10% , 10% 10%. 1000 ( ) 90%. ( ) 10% 100 . 100 90% , . 10% 100 , 10 , . 10% . , .

( ) : 10% , . 90% , 10% . , , 90% , 10% 10% , . 10. . 10 . 10 10.

: 90% ( ). 90% , . , ( ) . . ( ) , 10% ( ). , . (, ).

. .. 60% 40% . :

0,6 0,4 . .

( ) 10 , 6 4 40 . 46. : , , ().

. 1. 300 KJ 5 KJ % : 300 KJ 5 KJ 100

=

.. 500 KJ 2 KJ

500 KJ 2 KJ

100

2. ( 1.000 kg ( 200 kg)

1.000 kg 200 kg 100

( 1.000 kg ( 5 kg)

1.000 kg 5 kg 100

3. 500 kg 1 kg , 300 kg 199 kg

500 kg 1 kg 100

500 kg 300 kg 100

500 kg 199 kg 100 1. -

.

1.((

2.( (

3.((

4.((

. 3. , . . 1. (1 ) . 2. 4 .2. :, , , () . , .

( (((

3. . , ;

. , . . . ., . ( . ). .

4. , , .

)

) kg

) KJ ;) (KJ) 1Kg ;)(( (

) () 10% . ( 10). 10% ,

= kg. 10%

= kg. kg.) KJ ( ) 10% KJ. 10% . =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 = =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 =KJ . 10. : KJ KJ.

) 1kg :

: kg KJ 1 kg KJ = = KJ/kg

.

5. 40 . , , 400 g 20 g.

)

) ;) ;) KJ , 1 kg 21.000 KJ;) , .

)((

) 40 400 g =16000 g 16 kg. 160 kg ( 10) 1600 kg.

) .

1 20 g

160 kg 160.000 g = = 8.000 ) 1600 kg, 160 kg 16 Kg.

1 kg 21.000 KJ 16 Kg KJ = = 336.000 KJ 3.360.000 KJ 33.600.000 KJ. )

6. 3 . KJ, KJ KJ. , . , . 90% , . 90% . 10% . , , 10% 90% .

: KJ . 10%

= KJ. 90%

=KJ. : KJ. 10% . . 10% . = =

=KJ. 90% , 90% . =

=KJ. : KJ. 90% . 90% . = =

=KJ. 10% . KJ7. : (( ( ( . 5.000 tn, :) , 2,5kg,

) , 40KJ/kg .

) 5.000 tn 10% , 10. 500 tn, 50 tn, 5tn 0,5 tn 500 kg. 1 2,5 kg 500 kg. . 1 2,5 kg 500 kg = = 200 .

) 40 KJ . 10. 40 KJ/kg. 500 kg. 1 kg 40 KJ 500 kg KJ=50040=20.000 KJ. 20.000 KJ . 10 200.000.000 KJ.

8. :

30.000 kg 45 kg 200.000 kg 300 kg 3.000 kg)

)

) , . ) , , ... . 10% . , ... , , , . ( ( ( ( )

) :

: 200.000 kg 30.000 kg 100

=

=10%

=10%

=15%

() 200.000 kg 45 kg 100

=

9. 5 . 5 11.111 KJ.

10% . . . 10% . 10% . = = 10. 10. 100 ( 10, 100), 1.000 10.000. 11.111 KJ. +10+100+1.000+10.000=11.111 11.111=11.111 =1KJ. 10.000 KJ 1000 KJ 100 KJ 10 KJ 1 KJ11. kg. 5 ;

kg kg ( 10% ) . kg kg ( 10) kg , kg

12. 3 , 1.000 kg. 30%, ; ( 8.000 kg)

3 . 4 . ( ) 1.000 kg, 10.000 kg ( 10), 100.000 kg 1.000.000 kg.

30%, 70%, 1.000.000 =700.000 kg 70.000 kg 7.000 kg. . , 8.000 kg. 7.000 kg 8.000 kg . , , 2 , 3.

13. : (((, . :)

) .

) . 90% . , 90% (, ) 10% , .

90% . = =

= KJ. KJ ( 10).

) KJ. 90% 10% .

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 = KJ

14. 4 . 9.999 KJ, . (4 ) 10 ( 9). 10 90%, 9 . 9. 10 ( 10% ). 10 ( 10), 100. 100 10%, 10 90%, 90 . 90. 10 10. 900 9.000.

+9+90+900+9.000=9.999 =1 KJ. 9.000 KJ 900 KJ 90 KJ

9 KJ

:

=

4 5=9 =10

3 4=90 =100

2 3=900 =1.000

1 2=9000 =10.000

15. :

0,1 g

100 g

g

15 g

) .) . ;) .

) .

) . , , . 1 0,1 g , ,

= g.

100 g . 100

= g.

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 = g, 15= g. . . , ... , .

) (((

.

) : g g 100

=

16. :

15.000 kg. . . , 5.000 kg.

5.000 kg . 90% 10%, 500 kg . 5.000 kg 10%, 500 kg . 500 kg 250 kg. 5.000 kg 10%, 500 kg, 250 kg. 500 kg , 250 kg 250 kg , 1.000 kg. 10% , 100 kg . 250 kg. 10% , 25 kg. 100 kg , 250 kg 25 kg 375 kg. , 10% 37,5 kg. 17. 20.000 60% 40% . , ) ) ; 60% 40% , 60% 40% . 0,6 0,4. .

60% 40% 46.

, 20.000 . 46 60% 40% .

) , 46.

46 90% 10% ( ).

20.000

4,6 =

) .

46 , 90% 10%, 4,6. , , 4,6, 90% 10% ( ). 20.000

0,46

=

, 10 . 10% . 10 10 .

2.

.

/ / (.. kg/ / g/km2/6 )

/ / (.. kcal/m2/ Kj/km2/6 ) 1 = 1.000 m21 km2 = 1.000.000 m2 () . . , () . 1% () . 1% () . =

( ) () () .

=

. , . :

= . + + .

. .. 10 kg 5 kg 5 kg ( 1). 5 kg. 20 kg . 20 kg -10 kg, . 20 + (-10) = 10 kg ( 2). 10% ( ) 1 ( ) 2. 10% . 10% ( ..) 90% (, ). , . . , , 10% , ( ). . 10% , ... ( 10% ). () , . ( ) ( ...)

() . =

.

10% = 10% = 10%

:

1% ( ) . . , ( ) . 10% ( ). . ... . 1. () KJ/m2/. :) () 30% .

) 2% .

) = . . 30% . :

= - = - =

= = KJ/m2/.

) 1% 1% . =

( ). , , 2% . =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ( ), =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 = = KJ/m2/.2. KJ/m2/. (), 20% . . = 10% . = .

KJ/m2/ =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ( 1%). = = KJ/m2/.

= . 20% , . = - = - = = KJ/m2/

= 10% =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 = KJ/m2/.3. , (( , KJ/m2/, KJ/m2/ KJ/m2/. KJ/m2/ 400 KJ/m2/.

) ().

) () ;

) ;) ( 1%, 1%). KJ/m2/ KJ/m2/. KJ/m2/ KJ/m2/

100

= = 0,93%

) = = = KJ/m2/.

) ( ), . .

4.

) .

) ;) , ;( KJ )

) 56.000 KJ. 800.000 KJ.

800.000 KJ 56.000 KJ

100 =

) 800.000 KJ , 280.000 KJ () 464.000 KJ 56.000 KJ .

) 800.000 KJ . = ( ) ( ...), = 800.000 464.000 = 336.000 KJ = = 336.000 280.000 = 56.000 KJ .

800.000 KJ. , ( ). .5. 1.500 g/m2. 3 1.800 g/m2. 3 .

= + +

, ( ) . ( , ) / .

= = 1.800 1.500 = 300 g/m2 :

- 6. 800 g/m2. 1.000 g/m2, 300 g/m2. .

= + + .

,

= 1.000 800 = 200 g/m2 = 200 + 300 = 500 g/m2

3 . , .

3 500 g/m2 12 = = g/m2/7. 6 700 g/m2, 90 g/m2 500 g/m2. . 6 700 g/m2. . 700 g/m2. 1000 g/m2, 300 g/m2. = = 300 1000 = -700 g/m2. 500 g/m2. , 90 g/m2. . 10% ( 90% , . , . 10% 90 g/m2 ( 10), 900 g/m2. = + + = 900 + (-700) + 500 = 900 700 + 500 = 700 g/m2/. , 1.400 g/m2/

8. 1/1/2003 1.500 g/m2. 1/6/2003 1.000 g/m2. 1000 g/m2, 9,5 g/m2, 250 g/m2. . = + + : = 1.000 1.500 = -500 g/m2

: -

. : 1000 g/m2.

: 9,5 g/m2.

- ( 10), 95 g/m2. 95 g/m2,

90% 9,5 g/m2. 95 g/m2 , 950 g/m2. :

: 1000 + 950 = 1950 g/m2 : 250 g/m2 = 1950 500 + 250 = 1700 g/m2/

9. 20 750 g/m2. 12 450 g/m2. , 250 kg. , . ( ) g/m2, kg. . 1 1.000 g 250 kg 250.000 g. 250.000 g . , 20 , 1 m2. . 750 . 750 . 20 20.000 m2.

1 m2 750 g 20.000 m2 = =15.000.000 g 12

1 m2 450 g 20.000 m2

= = 9.000.000 g 12 .

= = 9.000.000 15.000.000 = -6.000.000

: 250.000 g. ( 10), 2.500.000 g, , 25.000.000 g. 25.000.000 g (, , )

= +

= 25.000.000 6.000.000 = 19.000.000 g 20 (20.000 m2). m2 : 20.000 m2 19.000.000 g 1 m2 = = 950 g/m2/10. 0,5 km ( g/m2), 3 , 15.000 kg 1000 kg.

. , , . . .

15.000 kg. 150.000 kg. 1.000 kg. 10.000 kg 100.000 kg. 250.000 kg ( 250.000 kg).

250.000 kg 3 0,5 . 12 ( ) 1.000.000 kg.

.

1 km2 1.000.000 m2 0,5 km2 m2 = = 500.000 m2 500.000 m2 1.000.000 kg

1 m2 kg

= kg/m2/11. m2, 1.200 g/m2/ 1.300 kg/m2/.( ) 1.200 g/m2/ (m2)

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 g/m2/ kg/m2/. kg/m2/.

kg/m2/ 90% 10%, kg/m2/, ( 10). kg/m2/, 90% 10%, kg/m2/ . kg/m2/ 10% , kg/m2/. kg/m2/ 1.200 kg/m2/ 1.300 kg/m2/ . 4 ( 1 3 ). 12. m2 KJ/m2/. 1% , 40% 0,3 kg/m2/. , 500 kg/. (1kg = 21.000 KJ)( ) KJ/m2/, 1 m2 KJ/.

1 m2 KJ/ m2 KJ/

= KJ/ 1% , = KJ/

40% , .

- =

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

KJ/

kg/m2/ kg/ . 21.000 KJ 1 kg KJ kg = kg/ 0,3 kg/m2/.

1 m2 0,3 kg/

m2 kg/

= kg/

,

- = kg/

. 10% ( 10) , kg/. kg/ 10%, kg/. 10%, kg/ kg/, 4.500 kg/. 450 kg/ . 6 (1 5 ). 13. , , 500 kg , : 250 kg 250 kg . 5 kg/m2/, ;

5 kg/m2/ . . .

250 kg. 2.500 kg. 250 kg. 2.500 kg 25.000 kg. 275.000 kg . .

1 m2 5 kg/

m2 275.000 kg/

= m214. 50% 50% . . , .

: . 50% 50% 0,5 0,5 . .

55 . 55.: . ( 10). 10.

: . 10 100 . 100.

. 10% . 10% 10% 10%, 1% . . 10 10 . , , 100 10. 16. (KJ/m2/) :

:) .

) .

) .

) .

) . ) =

KJ/m2/ : KJ/m2/ KJ/m2/

100

=

) = = ( ) =

- 35.000 = 65.000 KJ/m2/

= = +

65.000 = + 15.000

= 65.000 15.000 = 50.000 KJ/m2/

) = = = 15.000 5.000 = 10.000 KJ/m2/ = = 10.000 7.500 = 2.500 KJ/m2/

) = = = 4.000 1.000 = 3.000 KJ/m2/

= = 1.000 250 = 750 KJ/m2/

) = + + + () = 50.000 + 5.000 + 3.500 + 3.000 = 61.500 KJ/m2/ 1. : , . :) ) ()

)

:1) (, , ..)

2)

3)

4)

. , , 10% . 3 1000 kg 1 kg, :

1000 Kg1 kg1/1000

100 kg1 kg1/100

10 kg1 kg1/10

1 kg1 kg1/1

, , .

= /

, . : .

1 mg g 1 g kg 1 mg kg 1. 1/1.000 (1/1.000 g/kg), 10.000 tn. , , .) , ;

) 1 kg ;

) : 1 kg 1/1.000 g

10.000.000 kg g = g .

) 100.000 kg (10%). : = / = 10.000 g / 100.000 kg =1/10 g/kg 0,1 g/kg2. , , . : (((, . 30 kg 600.000 kg. g g ;

600.000 kg 600 kg (10%). , 30 kg. 600.000 kg 600.000.000 g 30 kg 30.000 g.

30.000 g 600.000 g

g 1 g = g /g 3. :

g g/kg

B

g g/kg

10

100

1000

. , , .

4. 4 kg. 1 mg/kg , . 1 mg/kg . . . kg, kg. 1 kg 1 mg

kg X mg

= mg5. m2 1,4 kg/ m2. 10 kg , 70% . ;

: = / .

: 1,4 kg/m2 m2 1 m2 1,4 kg m2 kg = kg . kg. : 10 kg 70%. kg. . 7 kg.

= / = kg /kg

()

()

()

()

( )

( )

1 , 2 3 90% 4 10%

1

2

3

4

,6

6

,4

4

40

1

8000

40

33.600.000

3.360.000

336.000

16

160

1600

45 kg

300 kg

3.000 kg

30.000 kg

200.000 kg

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 g

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 g

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 g

EMBED Equation.DSMT4 g

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

0,6

6

0,4

4

40

46

4,6

46

4,6

0,46

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

99%

= EMBED Equation.DSMT4

= EMBED Equation.DSMT4

280.000 KJ ( )

56.000 KJ

( )

800.000 KJ

( )

464.000 KJ

( )

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

15.000

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

EMBED Equation.DSMT4

50

5

0,5

5

0,5

950 g/m2

95 g/m2

9,5 g/m2

35.000

5.000

()

3.500

()

250

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