Η Συμμαχία Φυσικού Αερίου Ρωσία-Ισραήλ-Κύπρου
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- 1. , , . . , Leviathan Tamar, , . Foreign Affairs, Trouble in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea-The Coming Dash for Gas, 2013. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139069/yuri-m-zhukov/trouble-in- the-eastern-mediterranean-sea
- 2. . . Financial Times, Russia tightens links to Bashar al-Assad with Syria energy deal, 2013, . : 2 3 The state-controlled Russian group Soyuzneftegaz and the Syrian regime this week signed a deal that allows for the exploration and drilling, development and production of oil and gas in a 2,190 sq km area off Syrias coast, the first-such deal for the country. It might be years before the deal is implemented, analysts said. But the concession, which is to span 25 years, further solidifies Moscows ties to Damascus ahead of a highly anticipated January conference in Switzerland in which the future of Syria may be negotiated. . 7 With much of Syrias other oil reserves in the largely Sunni Muslim east and northeast of the country and currently under the control of rebel factions, the deal dangles the prospect of a potential source of revenue for President Bashar al-Assads Allawite co-religionists, which dominate the regime. It also gives Russia a stake in the scramble for Mediterranean energy reserves that already includes Israel, Lebanon, Turkey and Cyprus and other countries. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/9e8040e0-6e3f-11e3-8dff-00144feabdc0.html , , . , . , --,
- 3. . . -- Gazprom CNBC, How Vladimir Putin and Russia Hope to Win Big in Syria, 2013. : 8 9 What Russia lost through the anti-Al-Assad alliance was the possibility to control the natural gas market across Europe and the means to shape events on the continent. In July 2011, Iran, Iraq, and Syria agreed to build a gas pipeline from the South Pars gas field in Iran to Lebanon and across the Mediterranean to Europe. The pipeline that would have been managed by Gazprom would have carried 110 million cubic meters of gas. About a quarter of the gas would be consumed by the transit countries, leaving seventy or so million cubic meters to be sold to Europe. Violence in Iraq and the Syrian civil war has ended any hope that the pipeline will be built, but not all hope is lost. http://www.cnbc.com/id/100496808#
- 4. . Leviathan Tamar, , , --. . ? . , , Noble Energy. . , . , East ed, , , --, , Ceyhan, Baku-Ceyhan. , , .
- 5. , , Gazprom , Tamar, Sputnik News, Gazprom Signs 20-Year LNG Purchase Deal with Israel, 2013. : 1 A subsidiary of Russian energy giant Gazprom has signed a 20-year deal with Levant LNG Marketing Corp. to exclusively purchase liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Israels Tamar offshore gas field in the Mediterranean, Gazprom said on Tuesday. http://sputniknews.com/business/20130226/179690676.html , , , , . , 3.5 ,
- 6. Commentator, Russias new Middle East energy game. : 6 7 Discovered in 2009, the Tamar and Dalit offshore fields hold around nine trillion cubic feet (tcf) of gas. Due to come online in 2017, the Tamar LNG Project is expected to produce a cool three million metric tons of LNG annually. A multi-billion dollar floating LNG terminal is to be built near Cyprus to handle the conversion to LNG. And that will also bring into play gas piped from the islands own Aphrodite field another seven tcf. That Moscow is in this for the long haul with its Israeli-Cypriot partners is plain enough. Moscow has already advanced a $3.5 billion loan and attempted to gain more leverage over Cyprus' economic and energy assets during the recent bitter negotiations in the banking crisis. http://www.thecommentator.com/article/3048/russia_s_new_middle_east_energy_ga me . . ? . ? , . South Stream, Turkish Stream, South Stream, .
- 7. , , , . , site Gazprom. : Gazprom http://www.gazpromexport.ru/en/statistics/ , . . , , Gazprom , .
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- 10. , ?. http://tinyurl.com/m4jmtwm -- , -- . Al Monitor, site , Military presence increases in eastern Mediterranean, 2014, 2014 --, . 8 9 Between Oct. 20 and Oct. 23, the Russian, Israeli and Greek Cypriot navies conducted a joint naval exercise covering air defense, underwater attacks and anti- submarine operations and developed joint operational procedures. The Russian anti- submarine vessel Kulakov, the flagship of Russia's Mediterranean fleet, and Novorcherkassk, a landing vessel of Russia's Black Sea fleet, participated in these exercises, during which live rockets were fired. NATO and Turkey were quick to respond. The low-profile "Blue Whale" exercise by a small Turkish naval element and a US logistics ship will be repeated with much larger participation Nov. 6-14. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/11/turkey-eastern-mediterranean-cyprus-nato- russia.html?utm_source=Al-Monitor+Newsletter+%5BEnglish%5D&utm_campaign=bc594f27b2- November_6_2014&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_28264b27a0-bc594f27b2-102393785 , . . ,
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