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1. . . 2. , . 2 10 . 3. - - - 4. 60% 52,08% 58,64% 12.04% 5. 38% . 12% . 2004 , 80%, 90 . 6. : (, , , ) - : 7. 8. o o o o o stress o o o - o 9. o o o 10. : o o o o o o o o o - 11. 12. 13. 1. Miller A, Engst C, Tate R, Yassi A. Evaluation of the effectiveness of portable ceiling lifts in a new long term care facility. Applied Ergonomics 2005 May, 37:377-385 2. Wasiak R, Verma S, Pransky G, Webster B.Risk factors for recurrent episodes of care and work disability: case of low back pain. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2004;46(1):68-76 3. Yassi A, Ostry A, Walsh G, deBoer HM.A collaborative evidence-based approach to making healthcare a healthier place to work. Hosp. Q, 2002; 5:70-78. 4. OSHA 2003/NIOSH www.cdc.gov/niosh/review/public: 2003. 5. , 2003. . , 42(3), 299-307, 2003 . 6. .( ) www.elinyae.gr 7. Bitsios At, Gioftsidou As, Malliou P, Beneka A. Musculoskeletal disorders and burden on nursing staff. Interscientific Health Care (2013) Vol5, Issue 4, 168-175 8. Owen B. Preventing injuries using an ergonomic approach. AORN JOURNAL.2000; 72(6):1031-1036. 9. . . . . 2001, 4:97-105. 10. Ando S. Ono Y. Shimaoka M. Hiruta S. Hattori Y. Horri F. & Takeutsi Y. (2000). Associations of self estimated workloads with musculoskeletal symptoms among hospital nurses. Occupational Environmental Medicine;57:211-220. 11. Engvist IL. (2006).Evaluation of an intervention comprising a No Lifting Policy in Australian hospitals. Applied Ergonomics;37(2):141-8. 12. Eriksen W. Bruusgaard D. & Knardahl S. (2004). Work factors as predictors of intense or disabling low back pain; a prospective study of nurses aides. Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 61:398-404. 13. Smith RD & Leggat AP (2004a). Musculoskeletal disorders among rural Australian nursing students. Aust J RURAL Health; 12:241-245. 14. Phil Barber, Nurse Week Jan, 2003 15. . . , 1997, 36(1). 16. David P. The economic cost of lower back pain. Available at: http//suite101.com /healthandwell-ness. Accessed: February 10, 2004. 17. Owen B Preventing injuries using an ergonomic approach.AORN 18. . . . . , 2006. 19. - .Epithergkyprou.htm 20. Owen B.D. Magnitude of the problem. In: Charney W, Hudson A.Back injuries among health care workers, causes, solutions and impacts. Lewins Publishers, Boca Raton, 1999. 21. Wilson GB. Safer handling practice for nurses: a review of the literaturge. Br. J. Nurs.2001; 10(2):108-14. 22. Yip, Vera Yin Bing. "New low back pain in nurses: work activities, work stress and sedentary lifestyle." Journal of advanced nursing 46.4 (2004): 430-440. 23. Ozguler A. Leclerc A. Landre MF. Pietri-Taleb F. & Niedhammer I. (2000). Individual and occupational determinants of low back pain according to various definitions of low back pain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 54:215-220. 24. Hignett S, Vrumpton E. Compeency-based training for patient handling. Appl.Ergon.2007;38(1):7-17. 25. Smith J. Prevention and management of back pain in nurses. Nursing Times 2004; 100:41,28-29. 26. American Nurses Association Handle With Care Campaign. Safe patient handling and movement. http://osha.europa.eu. 27. Smedley J. & Cooper C. (1997). Prospective cohort study of predictors on incident low back pain in nurses. British Medical Journal;314(7089): 1225-1228. 28. OSHA Guidelines for Nursing Homes-Ergonomics for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal disorders, 2003. http://osha.europa.eu / ... 14.