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  • 1.
    • .
    • &
    • ( )

2.

  • -

3.

  • &

4.

5.

IR 6.

  • ( GHG )
  • 40

7.

8.

  • 100 200 ( )
    • (1.000+ )
    • (10.000+ )
    • (100.000+ )
    • (1 .+ )
    • (1 .+ )

9. Vostok, (>18,000 ) 6 o C CO 2 30% CH 4 50% 10. 18,000 Aguado and Burt, Fig 16-4 11.

12. ( )

26% O 3 8% CH 4 N 2 0 6% 60% 13. Ahrens,13.3 14. 1.200 1.200 15. 150 16. , , 1998 2005 400 . 17. / IPCC K. Trenberth 1500.045 0.012 1000.074 0.018 500.128 0.026 250.177 0.052 12 1850 : 1998,2005,2003,2002,2004,2006, 2001,1997,1995,1999, 1990 ,2000 18. CO 2 4 : 400 . 000 http://epa.gov/climatechange/science/recentac.html 19. 20.

21.

  • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

22.

23.

    • ,
    • ,
    • .

24. Milankovitch

  • :
  • (100,000 )
  • (41,000 yrs)
  • (23,000 yrs)

25.

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26. -Geoengineering 27. 28.