τεχνολογίες διαδικτύου πανεπιστημιο πατρων

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ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ Η/Υ ΚΑΙ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ Τεχνολογίες Διαδικτύου Τεχνολογίες Διαδικτύου Διδάσκων: Γαροφαλάκης Γιάννης, Επίκουρος Καθηγητής Συγγραφείς: Βώρος Άγγελος Γαροφαλάκης Γιάννης, Δεστούνης Παναγιώτης, Κάππος Παναγιώτης, Σακκόπουλος Ευάγγελος, Τζήμας Γιάννης Πάτρα, Σεπτέμβριος 2002 Πινακας Περιεχομενων 1 ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟ 1: TO ΠΑΡΕΛΘΟΝ, ΤΟ ΠΑΡΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΜΕΛΛΟΝ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟΥ. .5 1.1 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΉ - ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΉ ΑΝΑΔΡΟΜΉ....................................5 1.2 ΤΟ ΠΑΡΌΝ – Ο ΠΑΓΚΌΣΜΙΟΣ ΙΣΤΌΣ (WORLD WIDE WEB)...................9 1.3 ΤΟ ΜΈΛΛΟΝ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΎΟΥ......................................13 1.4 ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΊ ΚΑΘΟΡΙΣΜΟΎ ΠΡΟΤΎΠΩΝ (STANDARD BODIES)..................13 1.4.1 Internet Society (ISOC).............................................................................................. 14 1.4.2 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)........................................................................ 14 1.4.3 Άλλοι Οργανισμοί..................................................................................................... 15 1.4.4 Εμπορικές Εταιρίες................................................................................................... 15 2 ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟ 2: AΡΧΙΤΕΚΤΟΝΙΚΗ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟΥ - ΠΡΩΤΟΚΟΛΛΑ..............16 2.1 ΑΡΧΙΤΕΚΤΟΝΙΚΈΣ ΔΙΚΤΎΩΝ........................................16 2.2 ΤΟ ΜΟΝΤΈΛΟ ΑΝΑΦΟΡΆΣ OSI......................................16 2.3 Η ΟΙΚΟΓΈΝΕΙΑ ΠΡΩΤΟΚΌΛΛΩΝ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΎΟΥ (INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE) – TCP/IP 17 2.3.1 Το Πρωτόκολλο Ελέγχου Μετάδοσης (Transmission Control Protocol - TCP).......19 2.3.2 To Πρωτόκολλο Αυτοδύναμου Πακέτου Χρήστη (User Datagram Protocol – UDP) 19 2.3.3 Το Πρωτόκολλο Διαδικτύου (Internet Protocol – IP).............................................. 19 2.3.4 IP Διευθύνσεις (IP Addresses).................................................................................. 19 2.3.5 Subnet Mask.............................................................................................................. 21 2.3.6 Domain Name Service - DNS.................................................................................... 23 2.3.7 Δρομολόγηση σε IP περιβάλλοντα........................................................................... 23 2.4 SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP)...........................24 2.5 POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL (PPP).................................24 2.6 ΠΟΛΛΑΠΛΉ ΑΠΟΣΤΟΛΉ ΚΑΙ ΔΡΟΜΟΛΌΓΗΣΗ (MULTICAST TRANSMISSION AND ROUTING)25 2.7 UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATORS - URLS...............................26 2.8 HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP).............................26

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  • 1. / : , : , , , , , 2002 1 1: TO , ..........3 1.1 - ...................................................................................................3 1.2 (WORLD WIDE WEB)..............................................................7 1.3 ......................................................................................................11 1.4 (STANDARD BODIES)......................................................11 2 2: A - ....................................................................14 2.1 ...........................................................................................................14 2.2 OSI......................................................................................................14 2.3 (INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE) TCP/IP...............15 2.4 SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP)....................................................................................22 2.5 POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL (PPP)................................................................................................22 2.6 (MULTICAST TRANSMISSION AND ROUTING).........23 2.7 UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATORS - URLS.......................................................................................24 2.8 HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP)...................................................................................24 3 3: ........................................................................................................................................26 3.1 .....................................................................................................................................26 3.2 ...................................................................................................................................27 3.3 .....................................................................................................................27 3.4 .......................................................................................................28 3.5 HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP)...................................................................................29 4 4: INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6)....................................................32 4.1 ..................................................................................................................................32 4.2 ................................................................33 4.3 UNICAST ..................................................................................................................34 4.4 MULTICAST ..............................................................................................................35 4.5 ANYCAST .................................................................................................................35 4.6 IPV6........................................................................................................................36 4.7 ...........................................................................................................37 4.8 IPV6 (INTEROPERABILITY).................................................................38 4.9 ................................................................................................................38

2. 5 5: HTML...............................................40 5.1 .......................................................................................................................................40 5.2 HTML V3.2..................................................................................................40 5.3 HTML ......................................................................................................40 5.4 ...............................................................................................................55 6 6: JAVASCRIPT...................................................................................56 6.1 .......................................................................................................................................56 6.2 ..................................................................................................................56 6.3 JAVASCRIPT.....................................................................................................56 6.4 H JAVASCRIPT.................................................................................................57 6.5 ................................................................................................................................58 6.6 ......................................................................................................................................59 6.7 .....................................................................................................................................62 6.8 .................................................................................................................................65 6.9 ................................................................................................................................66 6.10 .............................................................................................................69 7 7: DYNAMIC HTML.................................................................................................70 7.1 ..................................................................................................................70 7.2 ..............................................................................................................71 7.3 STYLE............................................................................................................72 7.4 DHTML..............................................................................................................74 7.5 STYLES.......................................................................................................................78 7.6 STYLES............................................................................................78 7.7 STYLES ..................................................................................................................79 7.8 ....................................................................................................................................80 7.9 ................................................................................................................82 8 PHP HYPERTEXT PRE PROCESSOR.......................................................................................83 8.1 ................................................................................................................83 9 XML (EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE)......................................................85 9.1 XML............................................................................................86 9.2 XML DTD (DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITION).................................................................................86 9.3 XSL (EXTENSIBLE STYLESHEET LANGUAGE)..............................................................87 9.4 DOM (DOCUMENT OBJECT MODEL).............................................................................................89 9.5 SAX (SIMPLE API FOR XML) ......................................................................................................89 9.6 XLINK (XML LINKING).................................................................................................................89 9.7 XPOINTER......................................................................................................................................89 9.8 ...............................................................................................................90 10 (WEB SERVICES).......................................................................91 10.1 .....................................................................................................................91 10.2 SIMPLE OBJECT ACCESS PROTOCOL (SOAP)..............................................................................92 10.3 WEB SERVICES DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (WSDL)....................................................................94 10.4 UNIVERSAL DESRCIPTION, DISCOVERY, AND INTEGRATION (UDDI).........................................94 2 3. 1 1: TO , 1.1 - , (Internet), Sputnik 1957. ... Dwight David Eisenhower MIT James A. Killian, , Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ARPA , Sputnik. , . ARPA , , . ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider. Licklider - (human-computer interaction), . Licklider ARPA . Licklider , -. IPTO (time-sharing). 1961, IPTO , . 1963 MIT IPTO CTSS (Compatible Time-Sharing System). Licklider . 3 4. , time-sharing . CTSS , time-sharing (long-distance time-sharing tasks) ( , ). Licklider IPTO time-sharing. 1966 , Laurence Roberts, . 1962 Paul Baran Rand Corporation, Donald Watts Davies National Physical Laboratory. Davies (packet-switching) . . , , byte. , , , . IPTO , (RAND, University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB), Stanford Research Institute (SRI), University of Utah University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA)) 1968 . 1969 Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), , . . , . 1969 BNN IMP (Interface Message Processor) UCLA, IMPs UCSB, SRI University of Utah. 4 5. H RPA 1969 ARPANET. ARPANET, . , , queries, , . IMPs ARPA . , Network Working Group, IMP. Internet. H NCP (Network Control Protocol), , Telnet FTP . ARPANET 1971 MIT 15 ( 15 ). 1970 ARPANET . Ray Tomlinson 1972, 1973 ( University College of London Royal Radar Establishment ). , ARPANET, , TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) 1982. ARPANET , , . 1980 .. 1978 Usenet 1979. ARPANET , Internet . ARPANET 1983 sites Defence Data Network 1982. Usenet, Tom Truscott Jim Ellis Duke University University of North Carolina, 5 6. ARPANET ( , ). UNIX ( AT&Ts Bell Laboratories 1969) , UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy Protocol), . , , Usenet Groups. Usenet , ARPANET . Usenet UUCP , . 1982 1984 Usenet 1987 NNTP (Network News Tranfer Protocol) Usenet TCP/IP . 1970 ARPANET. 1979 ARPA, National Science Foundation , 1982-83 CSNET. ARPANET TCP/IP. , H BITNET, (o IBM Mainframes). BITNET , TCP/IP . H CSNET BITNET , NSF (National Science Foundation) 1986 (NSFNET) TCP/IP , 5 (super-computing centres), . H NSFNET , 5 (backbone) , . NSF . NSFNET , (MCI Mail 6 7. Compuserve) 1989, dial-up (The World, world.ste.com). 1957 USSR launches Sputnik 1968 First Packet Switching Network 1969 ARPANET Starts 1972 First Public Demo of ARPANET Internet Mail Invented 1979 UseNet Starts 1983 ARPANET Changes Over to TCP/IP ARPANET Splits into ARPANET & MILNET 1984 Internet Exceeds 1.000 Hosts Domain Name Server Introduced 1987 Internet Exceeds 10.000 Hosts 1988 Worm Attacks 6.000 of Internets 60.000 Hosts 1989 Internet Exceeds 100,000 Hosts 1990 ARPANET Dismantled Archie Starts 1986 NSFNET Created 1991 WAIS Started Gopher Started NSF Lifts Commercial Ban 1992 Internet Exceeds 1 million Hosts Web Invented by Tim Berners-Lee Veronica Introduced 1993 MOSAIC Developed by Marc Andreesen InterNIC Founded by NSF 1.1: 1.2 (World Wide Web) 1989 ARPANET ( 1990 2063 1996 93671). 1989 ARPANET 1995 NSFNET , Internet. hosts : 1990 3 hosts 1998 36.739.000. 7 8. , , European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire). World Wide Web: Proposal for a HyperText Project Tim Berners-Lee Robert Cailliau. H World Wide Web (WWW Web) (user interface) UNIX . WWW HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) ( (hypertext) Theodor Holm Nielsen 1965). ( ), , World Wide Web. Berners-Lee Robert Cailliau : A hypertext page has pieces of text which refer to other texts. Such references are highlighted and can be selected with a mouseWhen you select a reference, the browser presents you with the text which is referenced: you have made the browser follow a hypertext link. WWW NeXT 1990. 1991 HTTP CERN. (browser) Microsoft Windows Apple Macintosh, Internet 1993 341,634%. WWW, Internet Internet, 1990. . 30/6/97 1/10/97 31/12/97 31/3/98 30/6/98 domains 1.436 1.998 2.626 3.354 4.505 34,3% 29,4% 213,7% 379 599 683 902 1.217 34,9% 36,2% 221,1% 55 37 55 64 66 3,1% 21,9% 20,0% 1.263 1.773 2.236 2.754 3.641 32,2% 27,4% 188,3% IP 23.614 27.594 30.411 33.358 41.662 24,9% 16,1% 76,4% 25.852 30.399 34.017 37.038 47.525 28,3% 16,4% 83,8% CNAME 4.259 5.275 5.966 7.036 10.266 45,9% 19,7% 141,0% HINFO 8.678 8.982 9.142 9.191 9.336 1,6% 9,4% 7,6% 8 9. NS 4.474 6.060 7.649 10.733 15.390 43,4% 31,2% 244,0% MX 8.188 9.359 10.040 10.745 14.162 31,8% 14,4% 73,0% WWW Servers 809 1.168 1.468 1.832 2.358 28,7% 30,1% 191,5% 671 944 1.218 1.531 2.020 31,9% 30,4% 201,0% 1.2: (OpenWeb: http://www.open.gr) 08/81 213 05/82 235 08/83 562 10/84 1.024 10/85 1.961 02/86 2.308 11/86 5.089 12/87 28.174 07/88 33.000 10/88 56.000 01/89 80.000 07/89 130.000 10/89 159.000 10/90 313.000 01/91 376.000 07/91 535.000 10/91 617.000 01/92 727.000 04/92 890.000 07/92 992.000 10/92 1.136.000 01/93 1.313.000 04/93 1.486.000 07/93 1.776.000 10/93 2.056.000 01/94 2.217.000 07/94 3.212.000 10/94 3.864.000 01/95 4.852.000 07/95 6.642.000 01/96 9.472.000 07/96 12.881.000 01/97 16.146.000 07/97 19.540.000 01/98 29.670.000 07/98 36.739.000 1/99 43,230,000 7/99 56,218,000 9 10. 1.3: ( domain) RIPE (http://www.ripe.net) : : 5 1998 : 6 1998 SOA . AL 10 143 8 135 +1 AM 121 983 159 824 +41 AT 23776 193628 38842 154786 +2452 AZ 52 394 20 374 -16 BA 45 595 46 549 +79 BE 10379 203469 19575 183894 +2998 BG 581 11311 1248 10063 +1695 BY 103 1024 176 848 +91 CH 39362 258935 43919 215016 -1325 CY 618 5164 145 5019 +50 CZ 14585 80846 9717 71129 0 DE 151458 1664677 301737 1362940 +54234 DK 54351 308199 33475 274724 +74291 DZ 6 21 1 20 -31 EE 1920 22272 1382 20890 +827 EG 650 2936 195 2741 +920 ES 11037 270986 11636 259350 +1335 FI 7831 463400 14695 448705 +9975 FO 119 555 21 534 +3 FR 25938 488798 34702 454096 +6943 GB 2 26 0 26 -1 GE 47 718 37 681 +83 GR 5354 44363 3549 40814 +554 HR 1587 12288 2017 10271 +4107 HU 5882 96091 9059 87032 +1695 IE 5934 52725 4684 48041 -775 IL 6808 124160 21697 102463 +6363 IS 1350 23315 789 22526 +806 IT 39387 447151 49427 397724 +39805 LI 644 1646 610 1036 -210 LT 1027 8791 549 8242 +273 LU 1330 7858 1121 6737 +18 LV 839 13269 2183 11086 +1516 MA 221 2106 339 1767 +22 MD 59 631 114 517 +98 10 11. MK 236 1014 105 909 +221 MT 246 1972 257 1715 +260 NL 41170 569007 50043 518964 -14171 NO 20289 325563 15630 309933 +7413 PL 16682 144813 27745 117068 +6615 PT 6667 58104 7727 50377 +532 RO 1534 21856 2011 19845 +252 RU 14363 180824 32610 148214 +14692 SE 28630 421929 25685 396244 +28802 SI 2817 23327 2436 20891 -528 SK 5200 24247 4409 19838 +1195 SM 45 237 2 235 +5 SU 1285 28143 1746 26397 -16011 TN 13 183 103 80 -28 TR 6793 43742 5073 38669 +956 UA 1486 28533 8290 20243 +1598 UK 116240 1573225 224772 1348453 +26575 VA 2 8 0 8 +1 YU 1619 7655 604 7051 +443 678730 8267856 1017122 7250734 +267739 1.4: E 1.3 , . : . CD-ROM . To video audio streaming . (electronic commerce). - . . 1.4 (Standard Bodies) . . 11 12. 1.4.1 Internet Society (ISOC) http://info.isoc.org ISOC . . Internet Architecture Board (IAB): IAB ISOC. , Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Research Task Force. http://www.isi.edu/iab Internet Engineering Task Force and Internet Engineering Steering Group (IETF-IESG): IETF o , IESG. : applications, internet services, network management, operational requirements, routing, security, service applications, transport user services. http://www.ietf.org Internet Research Task Force and Internet Research Steering Group (IRTF- IRSG): To IRTF , , . IRSG. IETF . http://www.irtf.org Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC): InterNIC domain names . http://www.internic.net Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): IANA . http://www.iana.org 1.4.2 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) http://www.w3.org/ To W3C , , HTTP. , Tim Berners-Lee. 1.4.3 . : International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 12 13. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) European Computer Manufacturer Association (ECMA) Institute of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Open Group Open Software Foundation (OSF) X/Open 1.4.4 , , . Microsoft, Netscape Sun Microsystems . Microsoft ActiveX Active Group Open Group. Netscape ECMA JavaScript, EcmaScript. Sun Microsystems Java ISO . 13 14. 2 2: A - 2.1 . , (layers levels), . , , . , . n n . n (layer n protocol). O (peer processes). , . (interface). H . (network architecture). 2.2 OSI OSI (Open System Interconnection ) (ISO International Standards Organization) ( ). OSI 7 : 7. (Application Layer) 6. (Presentation Layer) 5. (Session Layer) 4. (Transport Layer) 3. (Network Layer) 2. (Data Link Layer) 1. (Physical Layer) 2.1: OSI 14 15. (physical layer) bits . (data link layer) . . (network layer) . (routing) . (transport layer) , , . (session layer) (sessions) . , , . , (time-sharing) . (presentation layer) , , . , bits , . (application layer) . , , (directory) , . OSI. 2.3 (Internet Protocol Suite) TCP/IP H TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) 1970 (hosts) ARPANET, PRNET (packet radio) SATNET (packet satellite). . , , TCP/IP . 15 16. TCP/IP OSI : OSI Layering TCP Layering 7. Application Layer Application or process layer 6. Presentation Layer 5. Session Layer 4. Transport Layer Host-to-host transport layer 3. Network Layer Internetwork (IP) 2. Data Link Layer Network Interface 1. Physical Layer Physical Layer 2.2: OSI TCP/IP To (application or process layer) , . (host-to-host transport layer) . Internetwork (datagrams) . (network layer) (IP addressing) Domain Name Service (DNS). (physical layer) , Ethernet. TCP/IP : 2.3: 16 Physical Layer Internet addressing (ICMP, IGMP) IP Physical wiring MBONESNMP UDP TELNETHTTPFPT TCP ConnectionlessConnection- oriented 17. 2.3.1 (Transmission Control Protocol - TCP) TCP bytes. TCP . TCP , 64 Kbytes . , TCP . TCP . 2.3.2 To (User Datagram Protocol UDP) To UDP TCP , , . UDP IP. To UDP TCP . 2.3.3 (Internet Protocol IP) To IP . hosts . , IP , . IP : , 64 Kbytes . , . , . 2.3.4 IP (IP Addresses) IP (32-bit) Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC). IP . IP 0 255 ( 150.140.42.10). , , . IP : A, B C. A , B C . 17 18. IP B C A , Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). IP Internet, IP domain name IANA. internet ( IP address). 32 bits (.. 140.29.22.1). "", (.. 1, 2, 3, 4, ) . internet (classes) : 7 bits 24 bits Class A 0 Netid Hostid 14 bits 16 bits Class B 1 0 Netid Hostid 21 bits 8 bits Class C 1 1 0 Netid Hostid 28 bits Class D 1 1 1 0 Multicast Group id 27 bits Class E 1 1 1 1 0 ( ) : A 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255 C 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255 D 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 E 240.0.0.0 247.255.255.255 internet: unicast ( internet - host), broadcast 18 19. ( ) multicast ( multicast). (Class A), , hostid (24 bits). network (netid) (hosts). (subnets) "" . class B 150.251 . : 16 bits 16 bits netid = 150.251 Hostid : 16 bits 8 bits 8 bits netid = 150.251 Subnetid hostid . subnetid . subnetid hostid. 2.3.5 Subnet Mask (bootstrap time) (IP address). . "" .( (requests)). bits subnet ID host ID. subnet mask. To subnet mask 32-bit "1" network ID subnet ID , "0" host ID. subnet mask Class B . 16 bits 8 bits 8 bits Netid subnetid hostid Subnet Mask: 1111111111111111 11111111 00000000 = 0xffffff00 = 255.255.255.0 16 bits 10 bits 6 bits Netid subnetid hostid 19 20. Subnet Mask: 1111111111111111 1111111111 000000 = 0xffffffc0 = 255.255.255.192 (IP) subnet mask (1) (2) (3) . IP ( , , C, ), network ID subnet ID, subnet mask subnet ID host ID. : 140.252.1.1 (Class B ) subnet mask 255.255.255.0 (8 bits subnet ID 8 bits host ID). IP 140.252.4.5 network IDs (140.252), subnet IDs (1 4). subnet mask. IP 140.252.1.22 network IDs (140.252), subnet IDs (1). T host IDs . IP 192.43.235.6, network IDs . 20 21. End of End of Class B specified Network ID subnet ID | | | | | | 140 252 1 1 Subnet mask: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 = 255.255.255.0 network Ids subnet IDs 140 252 4 5 2.3.6 Domain Name Service - DNS DNS IP . 150.140.141.181 diogenis.ceid.upatras.gr. domain names IP , . DNS . subdomain domain.. 2.3.7 IP H . . , (interior routers) interior gateway protocols (IGPs). , (exterior routers) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). IP . . . . 21 22. IP . . IP , Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 2.4 Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) SLIP PPP. host-to-host, host-to-router, router- to-router, workstation-to-router , , dial-up , 1200 bps 19.2 Kbps, . SLIP (framing) IP , point-to-point . Ethernet token ring. IP Ethernet . IP SLIP ( PPP) . To SLIP IP DECnet IPX Novell. To SLIP (2 bytes) (END character). , . : : hosts. 1: . : . : . 2.5 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) PPP SLIP point-to-point . (network protocol multiplexing), (link configuration), (link-quality testing), (authentication), (header compression), (error detection) (link-option negotiation). PPP : High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) . 22 23. Link Control Protocol (LCP) . LCP . Network Control Protocol (NCP) PPP 2.6 (Multicast Transmission and Routing) multicast transmission . broadcast . multicast backbone (Mbone). O multicast (multicast group). multicast 2 . 1. . : .. , . 2. (Clients) . (bootstrap server) , IP . broadcasting, multicasting ( broadcast messages hosts .) multicast (Class D) : 28 bits 1 1 1 0 Multicast Group ID (, , C) 28-bit . multicast 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255. Multicast group "" multicast . host multicast . hosts . host . multicast (permanent host groups). 224.0.0.1 " " 224.0.0.2 " routers ". 23 24. 2.7 Uniform Resource Locators - URLs URL (network resource). , . . (Web pages) URLs . URLs FTP , Usenet, Gopher . URLs, . (hypertext). To URL : : (scheme) (http, ftp .) format . URLs : ://:@:/ , , domain host IP x.x.x.x, URL / . URL : http://gigas.ceid.upatras.gr/activities/index.html 2.8 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) To HTTP . HTTP, FTP / . HTTP , / URLs / . FTP . MIME formats. To HTTP / /. H HTTP ( - Web browser) HTTP ( proxy gateway ) URL , HTML . , ( 24 25. MIME format) . 80, URL HTTP TCP/IP. H HTTP 1.1 (http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/), . : TCP HTTP 1.0 . . . virtual hosting. 25 26. 3 3: 3.1 3.1.1 Echo Echo . , , . . echo- (ERQ, type code 30) . , (ERP, type code 31), . RFC 862 RFC 1575. 3.1.2 Ping Ping , . Packet INternet Groper. Ping Internet Control Message Protocol echo , echo . Ping . . RFC 1574. 3.1.3 Traceroute Traceroute Ping . . . To Traceroute , , . time-to-live (TTL), hops . . , . traceroute IP, ICMP echo . (RFC 1393) 3.1.4 Whois, Whois++ , domains . whois , 26 27. , , IP . finger , finger whois . . 1992 Whois++. . RFC 1913, 1913, 1834 1835. 3.2 . 1. Archie: ftp . 2. Gopher: (, , ). 3. Veronica: Gopher . 4. Wide Area Information Server (WAIS): . 3.3 3.3.1 File Transfer Protocol FTP . To FTP TCP . . RFC 959 FTP . F ile S y s te m S e r v e r P r o to c o l in te p r e te r S e r v e r d a ta tr a n s f e r m o d u le U s e r In te r f a c e U s e r p r o to c o l in te p r e t e r U s e r d a ta tr a n s f e r m o d u le F ile S y s t e m U s e r U s e r - F T PS e r v e r - F T P F T P C o m m a n d s D a t a c o n n e c t io n 3.1 FTP user/server model 27 28. 3.3.2 Trivial File Transfer Protocol , . UDP (User Datagram Protocol) . . (RFC 1350) 3.4 . , user agent, , dial-up . home outgoing server e-mails . e-mails . Mail Transfer Agents (MTA). MTAs . 3 .2 . U s e r A g e n t U s e r A g e n t M e s s a g e S to r e M a il T r a n s f e r A g e n t M a il T r a n s f e r A g e n t M a il T r a n s f e r A g e n t S M T P S M T P S M T PS M T P O f f lin e M e s s a g e S to r e F ile I/O P O P / IM A P 3.2 . 1. Offline . , . . Post Office Protocol. 2. Online . . IMAP. 3. Disconnected 28 29. . offline. , . IMAP . 3.4.1 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) . SMTP . -. - ASCII . . . SMTP TCP. /. RFC 821 . RFC 822 . Domain Name Service (DNS) . 3.4.2 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) RFC 822 SMTP. RFCs 2045 2049 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, . MIME ASCII. MIME inary . . . 64KB . . IME , MIME ... Text (), Image (), Audio (), Application ( binary ), Structured ( ) Message ( ). 3.5 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) To HTTP . HTTP, FTP / . HTTP / URLs / . FTP . MIME . 29 30. To HTTP / /. H HTTP ( - Web browser) HTTP ( proxy gateway ) URL , HTML . , ( MIME format) . 80, URL HTTP TCP/IP. 3.5.1 (request message) (response message). (Request Line) , (Status Line) . 3.5.2 , HTTP , (methods). GET, HEAD, POST . PUT, DELETE, LINK, UNLINK . GET H GET . : GET HTTP/1.0 HTTP , . HEAD HEAD GET, ( ). POST , POST . 3.5.3 HTTP 1.1 H HTTP 1.1, . : TCP HTTP 1.0 . 30 31. . . virtual hosting. 3.5.4 HTTP specification http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP 31 32. 4 4: INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6) IP (IP version 4 IPv4) . . IPv4 : 32 bits . . . . . IETF IP 1990, IP Next Generation (IPng). Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). IPv6 IPv4 : . 128 bits 296 IPv4. . (40 bytes IPv6 20 bytes IPv4), (8 IPv6 12 IPv4). IP . labeling IP . . 4.1 IPv6 128 bit. intrerfaces . intreface . interface . IP : 1. Unicast: interface. unicast interface . 32 33. 2. Anycast: interfaces ( ). anycast , interfaces ( interface ). 3. Multicast: anycast , interfaces ( ). interfaces . broadcast IPv6 multicast. , IPv6 . Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), . . , , . IP . interface, IEEE MAC ( medium access control data link , Ethernet address) . . IPv6 IEEE MAC . 4.2 IPv6 : x : x : x : x : x : x : x : x, x 16bit. : FEDC:BA98:4798:8798:FEDC:BA98:78D9:3425 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A IPv6 , . "::" 16bit . : 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A unicast FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:43 multicast 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 loopback 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 unspecified 33 34. : 1080::8:800:200C:417A FF01::43 ::1 :: IPv4 IPv6 x: x: x: x: x: x: d.d.d.d, ; x d 4 bytes , IPv4. : 0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3 ::13.1.68.3 4.3 Unicast 4 .3 unicast . unicast 128bits. 128bits 3 bits N bits M bits O bits P bits 010 REG ID Provider ID Subscriber ID Subnet ID Interface ID Provider-based address 10 bits N bits 1111111010 Bits set to 0 Interface ID Site-local-use address 10 bits N bits 1111111010 Bits set to 0 Interface ID Link-local-use address 4.3 Unicast Internet provider-based . Site-local-use . . 34 35. , IPv4. link-local-use , ISDN . 4.4 Multicast IPv6 mulicast IPv4. multicast 128bits, . 128bits 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 112 bits 11111111 Flags Scope Group ID 4.4 Multicast IPv6 multicast 1 8 bits. flags 4 bits, 3 0. 0 () multicast , 1 multicast . scope 4 bit . . 0 Reserved 1 Node-local-scope 2 Link-local-scope 3-4 Unassigned 5 Site-local-scope 6-7 Unassigned 8 Organization-local-scope 9-E Unassigned F Reserved 4.5 Anycast IPv6 anycast , multicast interface. anycast unicast . unicast interface, anycast , anycast. 35 36. 4.6 IPv6 IPv6 Ipv4. 4 .5 . Version Priority Flow Label Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source IP Address Destination IP address 4.5 IPv6 Version 4 bits 6 . Priority 4 bits . 0 7 . . 0 Uncharacterized 1 Idle time or filter 2 Unattended data transfer (such as e-mail) 3 Reserved 4 Attended data transfer (HTTP and FTP) 5 Reserved 6 Interactive traffic (Telnet) 7 Internet Control Traffic (such as routing protocol-related packets) 8 15 . , 8 15 , . Flow Control 24 bits . . . 16bit Payload Length IP . . 36 37. Next Header 8 bits IPv6. IPv4 RFC 1700. HOP limit 8 bits hops ( ) , . TTL (time to live) IPv4. 128 bit . 4.7 IPv6 . IPv6. , . , . IPv6 Header Hop By Hop Options Header Routing Header Fragment Header Authentication Header Encapsulated Security Header Destination Options Header 4.6 Hop By Hop Options ( ) . , IP 64Kbytes. Routing IPv4 source routing. . IPv4 . IPv6 . Fragmentation 8-bit . IETF (Internet Engieetiong Task Force) IP . IPv6 Ipv4. , Authentication Encapsulated Security Payload, IPSec. 37 38. 4.7.1 (Authentication) Authentication (integrity), . . MD5 (essage Digest Algorithm). 4.7.2 Encapsulated Security Payload ( . . , . 4.7.3 (Destination Options) Destination Options . , . . 4.8 IPv6 (Interoperability) IPv6 IPv4 Ipv6. IPv4 IPv6 . IPv6 IPv4, 4 .7. | 96 bits | | 32bits | 0000.............................................00 IPv4 address 4.7 IPv4-compatible Ipv6 address IPv4- IPv6 IPv6 IPv4. IPv6 Ipv4 . Ipv6 IPv4. IPv4- . IPv6. 4 .8. | 80bits | | 16bits | | 32bits | 00000..... FFFF IPv4 address 4.8 IPv4-mapped Ipv6 address 4.9 IPv6 Document Library 38 39. http://www.ipv6.org Cisco Internet Protocol, Version 6 http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/732/ipv6/bak614.ipv6_wp.html 39 40. 5 5: HTML 5.1 HTML . (1.0, 2.0, 3.0) HTML W3C (World-Wide Web Consortium). Netscape Microsoft , . HTML 3.2, . HTML 3.2 Web . Dynamic HTML (D-HTML) . 5.2 HTML V3.2 HyperText Markup Language (HTML 3.2) 1996. W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) IBM, Microsoft, Netscape Communications Corporation, Novell, SoftQuad, Spyglass, Sun Microsystems . HTML 3.2 (tables), applets , HTML 2.0. 5.3 HTML HTML HTML HEAD BODY : .... HEAD .... ... ... HTML, HEAD BODY HTML 3.2 DTD. 40 41. HTML 3.2 , . HTML 3.2 . HTML 3.2 : 5.3.1 HEAD , HEAD. HEAD : TITLE ISINDEX ( PROMPT) BASE URL SCRIPT scripting STYLE Style Sheets META LINK TITLE, SCRIPT and STYLE . , , . 5.3.1.1 TITLE HTML 3.2 TITLE HEAD. WWW. TITLE (&