εγχειρίδιο χρήσης αβακίου ιι

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Transcript of εγχειρίδιο χρήσης αβακίου ιι

  • 1. 1. ............................................................................................................................... 4 1.1. .........................................................................................................................4 1.1.1. ; ................................................................................................................ 41.1.2. ; ..................................................................................................................... 5 1.2. ; ..................................................................................62. ..................................................................................................................... 7 2.1. ........................................................................................................................................7 2.2. ................................................................................................................................72.3. ..........................................................................................................................................83. ............................................................................................................. 9 3.1. ..................................................................................................................9 3.2. ........................................................................................................................9 3.3. ..............................................................................................................113.4. ...........................................................................................11 3.5. .....................................................................................................13 3.5.1. - ....................................................................................... 133.5.2. ................................................................................................. 143.5.3. .................................................................................... 143.5.4. - ................................................................................. 14 3.6. ............................................................................................15 3.7. .......................................................................................16 3.8. - - ..........................................................................23 3.9. .......................................................................................................243.10. ....................................................................................................25 3.11. ...............................................274. ..................................... 29 4.1. ..................................................................................................................29 4.2. .....................................................................................32 4.3. ......................................................................................34 2 / , . / ....

2. 4.4. ..............................35 4.5. ................................42 4.5.1. : ........................................ 424.5.2. ......................................................................................................... 43 4.6. .........................................................................................46 4.6.1. ............................................................................................................................. 464.6.2. .................................................................................................................. 46 4.7. .....................................................................474.8. .......................................................................................................................48 4.9. .........................................................................................................48 4.10. ..................................................................................49 4.11. ....................................................................................495. .............................................................................................. 49 5.1. ........................................................................515.2. ..........................................................................................53 5.3.Logo : ......................................................................57 5.4. .....................................................................................586. ................................................................................. 61 6.1. ...................................................................................676.2. ...........................................................................................69 6.3. ................................................................................697. : Nesting ......................................................................................... 728. : - Logo ............................................................................................... 74 8.1. Logo ....................................................................................75 8.1.1.TELL < > ............................................................................................................ 758.1.2.ASK < > < > .......................................................................... 788.1.3.EACH < > .......................................................................................................... 79 3 / , . / .... 3. 1. 1.1. : . - - . : (, , , , ) , , . , - . (software components), , . , -, -. Logo. 1.1.1. ; . , , , , , , , , (, , animations, , ). 4 / , . / .... 4. , edutainment . . (authoring tools , , ). , () . , : 1.1.2. ; 1. / ( ). - , , , ( 5 / , . / .... 5. ) . 2. () , . 3. ( ) : (rapid prototyping), - . 4. , , : , , , . 5. , . . ( ). 1.2. ; , . (scripting) 6 / , . / .... 6. 2. 2.1. (software components) , , ( ). () (instances). , , . ( ): 2.2. (Microworld) , . , . 7 / , . / .... 7. . 1 : ( ) ( ..mwd) () , , ( , e-mail, ). 2.3. , , - . , () , ( ). , , . , 8 / , . / .... 8. : , . : ... (desktop) : , , -. : , (, , ) , .3. 3.1. E-SlateSetup.exe. - : C:Program Files. ( ) ->. . -> . 3.2. 1 : 1 , Java, Java Virtual Machine (VM). VM Sun, , , VM , . CTRL , VMs. 9 / , . / .... 9. ) ) > > (browser), Applet . (. 2) .2 4 :10 / , . / .... 10. ) ) ( .mwd ) ) ) ) ( ) ) ) ) 3.3. , , -> -> . : ( -> ) 3.4. . 311 / , . / .... 11. . 3 , (. 4) .412 / , . / .... 12. , (. 5) .5 3.5. , . , , , . , . 3.5.1. - : ( ). .6 (.. ) . (. 7). .7 13 / , . / .... 13. : - ( . 8) . 8 Alt R 3.5.2. , -, . -> . ->- >... ( , ) . ( , ) - > ... 3.5.3. . . 9: : , , . 3.5.4. - , . , . ,14 / , . / .... 14. / . -> , . 3.6. . 10 .10 ( 11) 15 / , . / .... 15. . 11: . 11: . - .. -. . : . , .. , . , . 3.7. . . (1 3 , , -) ( ) . 12.16 / , . / .... 16. . 12: . - : - (. 13) 17 / , . / .... 17. . 13 ( ). . . . 18 / , . / .... 18. , . 14 . 14 : ( ) . (. ) 19 / , . / .... 19. 15 Dialog, 9. (. Dialog, 9) . TimesNew Roman14 . , . 15 Dialog,9 Times New Roman, , 14 (. 16).20 / , . / .... 20. . 16 . (. 17) . 17 . - - . 18 21 / , . / .... 21. . 18 . . . : , . . : - ( . - , - 22 / , . / .... 22. (. 19). .png, .jpg, .gif . 19 . . , (. ) 3.8. - - .. - 23 / , . / .... 23. . - , -> -> ( : 2 2 ..). . 3.9. - . (. 20). . . 20 24 / , . / .... 24. 3.10. , , . -> (. ) . 21 . (. 22) . 25 / , . / .... 25. . 22 26 / , . / .... 26. . 23 (. 23, ). . 3.11. . . : 27 / , . / .... 27. , . (. 24) . 24 (. 25) 28 / , . / .... 28. . 25 4. . . - . . . , . 4.1. . 29 / , . / .... 29. . (. 26). . 26: . ( ). . (. ) . , .. . ( ): ( ). 26 (.. ). 30 / , . / .... 30. : . 27 ( ) .. . . , , , , . , . , . . . . . , , , , , , . . . . , , :, . : ,. , , . 31 / , . / .... 31. . . . , , :,. :, . , , . . . , , . , , . .4.2. : -> . 2 . 2! . 32 / , . / .... 32. . 28 . . (. 4.7 ). 33 / , . / .... 33. 4.3. . (. 29). . . 29 . 30 . 30 34 / , . / .... 34. , . . . .. 1 .4.4. (.. ) . .. , . 3135 / , . / .... 35. . 31 , (. 31) ( . , 31) ( , 31) . ( example_1.mwd. C:Program FilesE- Slate2 mwd_material, ) 32, : (. 32) , . 36 / , . / .... 36. . 32 . ( -> -> ) ( -> -> 3): , , , . (. 33) 3 1 2 (. 1) , .37 / , . / .... 37. 8 . , , , (.. mwd- texts/vrasidas.txt4. ( C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_materialmwd-texts, ) .. mwd-images/Vrasidas.jpg (. ). .. jpg, gif . C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_materialmwd-images, . . 33 4 mwd-texts .txt . vrasidas.txt . mwd-texts . ( . 38 / , . / .... 38. . , . . . ( . 4.1) . . : (. 34) . 34 39 / , . / .... 39. . ( . . ) . ( . ). . ( ). (. 35) . 35 (: ). . 40 / , . / .... 40. . . (. 36) . (. 36). . 36 . 41 / , . / .... 41. , . 4.5. : . . 4.5.1. : (. 37) 1. 2. 3. . 37: 42 / , . / .... 42. : - - (. 38) . 38 http://etl.ppp.uoa.gr 4.5.2. . : 43 / , . / .... 43. 1. 2. 3. . 39 : : . - >-> .. . . 44 / , . / .... 44. , (1) , ( . 40) . 40 .. . ( 45 / , . / .... 45. . .. . . . http://etl.ppp.uoa.gr. 4.6. 4.6.1. - (grid), (draging) (resizing). () -> ( ) . 414.6.2. , ( ) -. , -46 / , . / .... 46. >-> (. 42). . 424.7. ALT+Z - -, . Composer ( 47 / , . / .... 47. ALT+Z ). 4.8. (z- order) ( ) . ->... -> ... , . 43 . 43 : example_2.mwd. 4.9. , - >// .48 / , . / .... 48. 4.10. ->->... , ->- >... ( ). 4.11. , ->.5. Logo ( (.DAzumaTutrleTracksdocumentation http://turtletracks.sourceforge.net/docs/index.html ). . : (. 4.7) E Logo. . Logo : ask _ [primitives] (: ask [primitives]): Logo (. ) , Logo Logo 49 / , . / .... 49. . 44 ! .. ask | | [primitives]. . ( ) 50 / , . / .... 50. 5.1. , Logo. . , . Logo. Logo (. ) _ask [hide] . . 4551 / , . / .... 51. Insert. , Logo _ defined (. ). Logo , _ . : . _ ( ) insert . . : ask . , hide . , . underscore: _ Logo _ ask [restore] Insert. Logo _ defined Logo _ Insert. . , Logo ( ). . . . 52 / , . / .... 52. . . : . . (. , example2.mwd. C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_material, ). . 46 : . , (.. ) . . 5.2. ( ) . (. 47) 53 / , . / .... 53. . 47 L (L Logo). L (. ) : ask Logo [logo.execute _] (. ) 54 / , . / .... 54. : Logo _ . 48 ( ). . . , . . . . . . _ .55 / , . / .... 55. : . . Logo : _ _. Logo : _ ifelse ask " [tbutton.selected] [_] [_] , . Insert. Logo - defined, , ask Logo [logo.execute _] . Logo : _ ifelse ask " [tbutton.selected] [ _ ask " [tbutton.settext " ]] [_ ask " [tbutton.settext " ]] . , 56 / , . / .... 56. Insert. Logo _ redefined. , . example2.mwd ( C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_material, )5.3. Logo : Logo ) ( ). . ) . ) , - , . (localmake) (make) . text_base.comp example_3.mwd ( C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_material, ) . , :57 / , . / .... 57. > Logo (. 49) . 49 http://etl.ppp.uoa.gr. 5.4. , : , . 4, 5, 6. . , .. . . . . 50 58 / , . / .... 58. . 50 (.. ) . . (. 51).59 / , . / .... 59. . 51 : .wav, .midi, .au, .rmf, .aiff. . wav mwd_material applauds.wav ( C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_material, ) ) ) (. 52)60 / , . / .... 60. . 52 Play . . .6. . . . 61 / , . / .... 61. . : ( ) (: -> -> ). . ( -> ). : (. , . . 53 . 53 (. 54) . .62 / , . / .... 62. . 54 (. 55) . 55 . : , . (. 56) 63 / , . / .... 63. . 56 . . , 57. 64 / , . / .... 64. . 57 (. ). 65 / , . / .... 65. text_base.comp . Logo (. ). . 58 : (. 59) 66 / , . / .... 66. . 59 . , . 6.1. : , (. : ->->). (. 60)67 / , . / .... 67. . 60 (.. , ) . 68 / , . / .... 68. 6.2. (. 4.4). -. (.. , , ) . 6.3. 4.5 ( ) .. . . : -> (. 61) . 6169 / , . / .... 69. . location (. 62) . 62 200 400 (location) 199 134 ( -> -> ) . ( -> ->) text_base.comp70 / , . / .... 70. -> . : word.cdb ( ( . ) ( ( ) (. 63). . 63 -. 71 / , . / .... 71. 64. . 64 example_3.mwd ( C:Program FilesE-Slate2 mwd_material, ) - .7. : Nesting . .72 / , . / .... 72. 5 . . . : . , . . ( ->) , . . 65: .65 . drop down . . . 5 . . .73 / , . / .... 73. (. 66). . 66 . 8. : - Logo -Logo Logo scripting (component oriented) . Logo , ( )74 / , . / .... 74. . , Logo ( ObjectLogo Atari Logo), , Logo, Logo. scripting - . : TELL, ASK EACH . : : , , . : , . (primitive): Logo . : / TurtleTracks6 //: //. , . 8.1. Logo 8.1.1. TELL < > ( ) 6 TurtleTracks Java / Logo, Daniel Azuma ([email protected]) TurtleTracks (http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~dazuma/turtle/). TurtleTracks Logo , 75 / , . / .... 75. . TELL - - TELL. : ( ) TELL, - . - - TELL, ( , ). : ) , , () ( , ), ) . TELL, / . TELL [3 1 2 1] FORWARD 10 FORWARD XCOR , ( ). . 3, 1, 2, 1. , Logo, Tell ( ). FORWARD 10 ( 10 ), 10 3, 10 1 2 - . 1, TELL, . FORWARD XCOR ( XCOR Logo, X ), 76 / , . / .... 76. TELL, FORWARD . XCOR, TELL ( , XCOR Language Exception, ). XCOR, FORWARD TELL - . TELL , TELL. TELL [3 1 4 5] FORWARD VECTORANGLE TELL ( 3 4) ( 1 5). , FORWARD, , 3 4 ( ), 1 VECTORANGLE. : 1 , , TELL. , 5 ( VECTORANGLE TELL). FORWARD VECTORANGLE TELL - . , 3 4, 1 5 . , , VECTORANGLE ANGLE, . , , FORWARD BACKWARD ( 77 / , . / .... 77. FORWARDTURTLE BACKWARDTURTLE). , Logo. TELL [1 [ ] 2 [ ] 1] Logo / : TELL TELL . , . . TELL [ A [ B] 61] . [], A 61. TELL [1 2 1] 1. 1, 2, 1 8.1.2. ASK < > < > TELL , TELL. , TELL ASK. , ASK . , ASK , ASK. , - . 78 / , . / .... 78. ASK [1] [FORWARD XCOR] 1 FD XCOR, . ASK [1 2] [FD XCOR] 1 2 FD XCOR, 1. TELL [1 3] FORWARD ASK [2] [XCOR] ( TELL TELL) 1 3. FORWARD, ASK 2, . 1 ( ASK XCOR 1), FORWARD 1, 3. 8.1.3.EACH < > , TELL. : TELL TELL . : o TELL , TELL o , TELL 79 / , . / .... 79. , TELL TELL EACH TELL [1 3] EACH [PRINT XCOR] 1 3 X . PRINT , XCOR, (.. REPEAT). TELL EACH. TELL 1, TELL 2. TELL [1 3 1] EACH [FD 10 PRINT ASK [2] [XCOR+6]] EACH. , 1 10 2 6. , 3 10 2 6, , 1 , FD. , , , 2 6. , , , () Logo TurtleTracks Logo : http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~dazuma/turtle/docs/std_data.html80 / , . / ....