ΕΓΧΕΙΡΙΔΙΟ ΠΥΡΗΝΙΚΩΝ ΟΠΛΩΝ

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Transcript of ΕΓΧΕΙΡΙΔΙΟ ΠΥΡΗΝΙΚΩΝ ΟΠΛΩΝ

AN &

Prof. Kosta Tsipis ()

- ., DipEngL.,B.Sc.,Ph.D. .

1999

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

. . .: .1. 1.1 235 239 1.2 U Pu 1.3

2. 2.1 2.2 Coulomb3. 3.1 : 3.2 : 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. 5.1 Compton 5.2

6. : 6.1 6.2 6.3

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

I.

, . , . . , , , . . . . . .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

. 1934 . M.Sc. ( Rutgers) Ph.D. ( Columbia). ' 15 . , . ' . Szilard . . . . E.

II.

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

Ernest Rutherford . . . . () , . , , . , , . : , Cruise . . . . 1989 Rutherford . (38 )

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

. , 1904, Rutheford Frederick Soddy, : ( ) , . Soddy. , Los Alamos 1942 Soddy. 1911 Rutherford ( ) , . 1930. , W.Bothe H.Becker . Irene Curie Frederick Joliot . James Chadwick 1932 . . . ( ) . () , 2 3 10 13 cm 103

(

)

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, Coulomb . , , . . , Hahn Strassmann 1938: , . 1938 Lise Meitner Otto Frisch , Einstein E = mc 2 ., . . 1934 Leo Szilard , , . 1939 Szilard Enrico Fermi Columbia , . Soddy :

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, . . , . . , . - -. : =

, , . . . . r. r3 r2, r ( , ) . rc. 1939 Niels Bohr Princeton, , U235 , 8

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

U238. .1 U238 . Otto Frisch , , , Rudolph Peierls, U235 , .

.1. .

U235 , U235 . . , , U235 . 1940 Frisch Peierls .

1. : 1.1.

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

1927 W.R.Aston : M nucleus = ZM proton + ( A Z ) M neutron M (1) ( ), ( - ) . E binding (, ) . Einstein: Ebinding = Mc 2 . E binding , f = Ebinding / A . .2, f . . f =20 =140 . (f) . .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.2. .

Coulomb Z, : =238 ( =239) , , =56 , . . ( ) , ( ) 1 Me ( .2). (=239) Z=50 =44 ,

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

239 (8,5 7,6) = 216 MeV

( .2

). 9 10 12 calories ,

(

)

2.5 10 21 , 22.5 10 9 calories . , , , 103 calories. , , . 1.2 U235: 10-18 10-18 ; . , 10-12 cm ( .3). . 6 eV .

.3.

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

5,5 MeV - . U235 , 2 MeV. 7,5MeV ( 2 .3) . , (.c ,.3) , . 10-20 sec , (.d, .3). , , . =50 =42. d = 15 10 13 cm (10-20sec ) Coulomb :Z1Z 2 e 2 50 40e 2 200 MeV = d 15 10 13

e . 216 MeV , 200 MeV . 10 9 cm / sec , . 10-18sec . Maxwellian 2 MeV. 10 MeV ( 8 MeV 2 MeV ). , , 10-15 sec . , , 10-5sec,

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

() . 1.3 . .4 .

.4.

, , . , , . 13 10 sec, i.e. U238 Pu239 ( 6 10 23 ). , n

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

2n. Pu239, 10.000 gr. (10.000 / 240) 6 10 23 = 2,5 10 25 . Pu239 : 2 n = 2,5 10 25 . , n = 84 . 84 10 Kgr Pu239. , Pu239 . 10-22 sec. , , 3cm. . =3cm = 10 9 sec . cm 3 10 9 sec

nanosecond. 84 84 nanoseconds, . 10Kgr Pu239 ; 220MeV 10.000 gr . 6 10 23 220 MeV = 55 10 27 MeV 240 gr

2 10 14 calories

103 cal 10Kgr Pu239 2 105 . 74 , . 2 74 = 19 1022 10 . Pu239 1011cal, Pu239 . , , 2,5 10 25 10Kgr Pu239. Pu239 15

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

Pu239, . , . 10 Kgr Pu239 . , Pu239 . , , . nanoseconds ( ) . 10Kgr Pu239 , 5,5 10 27 MeV 8,8 10 21 ergs. Pu239 Pu239 = 15gr / cm 3 . () = 8,8 10 21 ergs / 660cm 3 = 1,3 1019 erg / cm 3 . : CV = 6.2 10 7 C R = 7.6 10 15 . 13 1019 = 6.2 10 7 T + 7.6 10 15 T 4 . . : 14.3 1019 7.6 10 15 T 4 . T 10 8 K . = CV T + C R T 410.000 = 660cm 3 , 15

Pu239 , . 10 Kgr Pu239 100 100 . . 16

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.2.

2.1 ( .2) , f = Ebinding / A . . . 1. 2 1D 3 1T 4 2He 1. 1,1 MeV 2,8 MeV 7,0 MeV

. . : D 2 + 1 T 3 2 He 4 + 0 n 1 1 n + U 235 Kr 92 + Xe142 + 2n . : 2 + 1T 3 2 He 4 + n 1D 2 1,1 MeV + 3 2 ,8 MeV 4 7 ,0 MeV + n

H E = E E = 28 MeV 10 ,8 MeV = 17 MeV . 17 = = 3.4 MeV . 5 17 MeV , 14 MeV .17

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, : n + U 235 Kr 92 + X142

+ 2n

7 ,5 235 MeV 92 8 ,6 MeV + 142 8 ,3 MeV H E = 207 MeV :207 = 0,87 MeV . 236

, . , . 2 3 fermis ( 1 fermi =10-13cm 1 femptometer = 10-15 m) Coulomb . : Z1Z2 e 2 E= R 1,2 , e to R Coulomb . 2.2 Coulomb , . , . 1=2=1, :E DT =

(4,8 10 10 )25 1013

= 4,6 10 7 ergs 0,3 MeV

, : D

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

0,3MeV Coulomb, . Coulomb, :1 2 Z Z e2 C 27.4 M 1 2 (EF ) = exp EF hE F 1/ 2

D,T: DT ( E F ) M1 M 2 M1 + M 2

C e2 exp 22 EF hE F 1/ 2

C , EF , M = h Planck, h 6,6 10 27 erg sec .

: , Coulomb., EF EF . D , , D . EF DT , 100 KeV ( .5).

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.5.

. 20

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

Boltzmann : 14 10 16 erg / 0 K KeV . 16 107 ergs 1KeV = 116 107 Kelvin. . . D 109 0 . 108 . , D , . () D . , , Kgr , . . -6 (Li6), . Li6 : 1 6 4 3 0 n + 3 Li 2 He + 1T + 4.6 MeV 4,6MeV 2,7MeV 13 2MeV 2He4. Li6D, , Coulomb.3.

3.1 , Los Alamos 1942 : U235 Pu239 . . . , 21

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

U235 Pu239. . Pu239 U238 . 92U239 : 239 e + 93 Np 239 . 92 U , 93 Np 239 e + 94 Pu 239 , Pu239 94Pu240 94Pu241. U238 - . . : 94Pu239 , 94Pu240, 94Pu241. 92U235 92U238 92U235 92U238 ( 3/238=1.2%). 94Pu239 92U235 92U238 Kgr . 94Pu239 92U235. .

.6.

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

235 : 92U235, 92U , (.6) , . , 235 , 92 U . . Hiroshima . 14 Ktons 14 1012 calories(5,8 1013 joules) . 20% 92U235 . . 94Pu240 , 94Pu239, . (milliseconds) , 94Pu240 . , , , . () r, . . , c = 0,5 rc rc = 0,8 r . rc = 16 c . rc c . .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

Los Alamos . , .

.6.

, D . 8-10 gr . .6,.b, . . 92U235 94Pu239 . ( 15,9gr/cm3 -235 (98%) 18,9gr/cm3). . . : .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

. - 238 , . D , 94Pu239 235 . U238 92U . U238 D , 80%. 3.2 , -, Li6D ( U238). Pu239 Li6D . U238 ( .7). - Li6D . Li6D cm2sec Li6D .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, , , Li6D, Pu239. (circa 1-2MeV) Li6 2,7 MeV Li6D. D 14 MeV 2He4 3.5MeV 2He4 2MeV Li6. 2He4 Li6D . 14MeV , , Li6 . . 238 92U : 92U238 , . D , 92U238 220MeV/. 92U238 --. , 92U238 . , (1M) D 92U238 . 500 K 5 10 14 calories 1,3 10 28 MeV. D 17 MeV , 7,5 10 26 14 MeV. 1,2 10 3

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

2 Kgr D 4 Kgr . 8,4Kgr lithium deuteride (Li6D). 500 K , 1,3 10 28 MeV 92U238 , 220 MeV, 6 10 25 14 MeV. . 92U238 ( 60Kgr) Li6 , D. - - . , 94Pu239 o Li6D . . , microseconds -- . --, 92U238 , , 14MeV , . , , .4.

4.1

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

K (1012 cal) M, . ( , 2He4 .) . , , nanoseconds . () , ( E rad 10% 1K, E rad 95% 100K). , . : . (-, ) . . , . P Ri Yi :R1 Y11/ 3 = R2 Y21/ 3 T2 Y21/ 3 =... = Ri Yi 1/ 3 Ti Yi 1/ 328

T1 Y11/ 3 = =... =

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

P R, . . . ( ) (3000 0C). (), - -. , , - . - . . , . , , . , . - ( ) :E3 ( cm) 5

KeV. - . , , - . - .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

. 100 . , . , . . , , . ( ) . - . , . 1M 800m ( .8).

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.8.

, ( 80%) . ( 5%) (,). (, ) -. . 4.2 . , . , , , - . 3% , 1% .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

( ) . e-r , r =/, - . - r :N ( ) = 3,15 1012 Y r ( roentgens) 2 f exp r

M, r f f = 1 + 6Y 2 1 + 3 10 2 Y 2 + 5 10 3 Y 3

(

)(

) 1

. .9. , .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.9. 0,5

. , . . , , . , .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

M 2 1013 Curies . , ( t ) : 1 d ( t ) Y = 6.6 10 6 t 2 ( rem / hr )dt A

t . t t1 : 16 ,6 10 6 0 ,2 0 ,2 (t1 t )(rem) (t ,t ) = A t1 = 1 min . t (t ) =16.6 10 6 2.26 t 0.2 (rem) A

(

)

. , , . , 0,5M 10-15 km , , . M. . , , . , . . 34

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

M . , ( ). .9 , , 3 m . , , . 1 M , , 350 150 . , . 50% 70% . , . . , 12 Km2. cm2 r () M :Y r N ( n) 2 1021 2 exp n / cm2 235 r Y r 4.5 1012 2 exp ( rads) 235 r

(

)

. ( = 11g / lt ) . .10 - .

,

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.

.10. .

, . . , . , , .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

.11. .

, .11. . .13 . . , . . .12 . .

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Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, . 2. 12 ( mi2 2560 ).

( rads) (mi2) : (mi2) 1000 160 250 300 440 770 100 1050 2300 30 2500 6600 10 4800 13500 3 7700 24000 1 9400 39000 2.

.12. .

300 rem/day, 1000 Km2. . 4 10 4 /Km2 38

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

, 2 /Km2. (1 M) 5.000 10.000.000 , , , . , . , . , 2 rem , . 3 . 28.000 Km2year (11.000 mile-year) 2 rem/. , , 4.000.000 . . 4 . 50.000 Km2 , .

3. 1 ( mi2 2560 ).39

Prof. Kosta Tsipis () -: Dr. .

D0 (rem/)

2 (mi ) (mi2) (mi2)

20 10 50 100

31000 13000 4900 1600

21000 7400 1400 550

1200 120 26