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Transcript of Οδηγός στα Ασσυριακά

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PRINCIPAL W. R. TAYLOR

COLLECTION1951

FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIAN

FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIANA BOOK FOR BEGINNERSBEING

A SERIES OF HISTORICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, RELIGIOUS, MAGICAL, EPISTOLARY AND OTHER TEXTS PRINTED IN CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS WITH INTERLINEAR TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATIONAND

A SKETCH OF ASSYRIAN GRAMMAR, SIGN-LIST AND

VOCABULARY

BY

L.ASSISTANTIN

W. KING, M.BRITISH

A.,ANTIQUITIES,

THE

DEPT. OF EGYPTIAN

AND ASSYRIAN MUSEUM

522645LONDONKEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TROBNER &1898.[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]

CO., LTD.

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD

SEEN BY PRESERVATIONSERVICESFEB*

'" 2

DATE..

PJ32SI

Re

Printed by Adolphus Holzhausen, Vienna.

PREFACE.THE aimall

of the present

work

is

to furnish the beginner with

the materials which he

will require in his earliest studies ofIt

the Assyrian language and the cuneiform inscriptions.tains a sketch of the

con-

most useful

facts

concerning the cuneiform

of Assyrian system of writing, and an outline of the principles

grammarseries

;

a

list

of the

more commonprintedin

signs

and ideograms

;

a

of texts

and

extracts

the Assyrian cuneiform

character with interlinear transliteration and translation, rangingin date

from about B. C. 2250 to B. C. 260all

;

and

a full voca-

bulary to

the texts printed in the book.

To

enable the readerfirst

to apply the

knowledge he can obtain by a perusal of the

294 pages, and to give him practice in independent decipherment, a few untransliterated and untranslated texts have beenadded.

For the convenience of the beginner

all

the Babylonian texts

included in this volume have been transcribed into the Assyriancharacter.It is

of the greatest importance foras

him

to

becomefor

master of the so-called Ninevite script

soon as possible

almost every work found in Ashur-bani-pal's Royal Library at Nineveh is written in it. His Babylonian studies should begin

when heease.

is

able to read

the ordinary Assyrian character with

The

texts

here chosen represent

all

the

main

divisions

of

Babylonian and Assyrian literature and include examples of histor-

VI

PREFACE.mythological, religious, magical, epistolary andother do-

ical,

cuments, and care has been taken in selecting them to include those which are of importance from an historical point of view.

Among

these

may

be specially mentioned

the account of the

siege of Jerusalem

by Sennacherib

in

701 B. C. and of the takingStudents of Eastern cosmo-

of Babylon by Cyrus in 588 B. C.

gonies will be glad to have in a handy form the Babylonian

legends of the Creation and the Deluge.here given,viz.

The

other

legends

the Descent of Ishtar intoZii,

Hades and the Loves

of Ishtar, the Treachery of the god

the story of the Eagle

and the Serpent, and of Etana's flight to heaven with the Eagle, etc. illustrate the stories with which the early dwellers on theplains of

Mesopotamia amused

their leisure in the childhood of

their race.

Recent discoveries are illustrated by some extracts from the now famous correspondence between the kings of Egypt and their Babylonian allies and vassals in the fifteenth centuryB. C. as found in the Tell

el-Amarna

tablets.literal

The

translations

have been made asexists

as

is

consistent

with the difference which

between the Assyrian and English

languages, and usually the meaning of every word will be found In the few passages in which this is not the case beneath it.reference to the vocabulary will

enable the reader to identifyIn

the words and their meanings.

the full vocabulary which;

follows the texts the words are arranged alphabetically

words

clearly derived from the same root are placed together, but where-

ever this might cause the beginner difficulty cross references have

been added.

It

may

be remarked, in passing, that the readerwill findit

who

possesses a

knowledge of Hebrew;

most useful

in his Assyrian studies

such knowledge, however, on his part,

has not been assumed anywhere throughout the book.

The remarksto

that Dr. Wallis

Budge has made

in

the Prefacescarcity

his First Steps in Egyptian

with reference to the

of

material

for study at the disposal

of the beginner in Egyptian

PREFACE.are true, mutatis mutandis, for Assyrian.hisI

VII

undertook

this

work

at

suggestion andin

I

have carriedI

it

out practically on the lines

adoptedfor

his book.

take

this

opportunity of thanking him

many

valuable suggestions and for his friendly advice whichat

he has freely placedwork.

my

disposal

during the course of the

L.

W. KING.

London, May 2nd, 1898.

CONTENTS.PAGE.

Preface

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

v

PARTIntroduction:

I.

Cuneiform inscriptions Cuneiform writing

...

...

...

...

XVII

XXI...

The

Assyrian method of writing

...

...

XXVIXXXII

Syllabic signs

IdeogramsDeterminatives and phonetic complements.,.

XXXVXXXIX

Phonetic changes

XLV...

Pronouns

...

...

...

...

...

XLVIIILIII

NounsAdverbs

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

LXI

Prepositions

LXIV..

Conjunctions

...

...

...

...

...

LXVI

VerbsList of Assyrian signs List of...

LXVIU...... ... ...

LXXXVIIICXXXIII

numerals

...

...

...

...

...

...

List of determinatives List of List ofList

CXXXIV...... ...

ideograms for the months ideograms

CXXXVCXXXVII

for the principal deities

...

...

of ideograms for the principal countries, cities

and

rivers

CXXXVIII

X

CONTENTS.PAGE.

PART

II.

Texts with interlinear transliteration and translation1.

:

NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABYLONIAN ANDASSYRIAN KINGS1

4

2.

INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT 2200 B. C.See Strassmaier and Winckler,II, P1

Zeitschr. filr Assyr.,

75

f.

57I,

3.

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 1825 B C.See Cun.pi,

KING

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), and Jastrow, Am, Journ. of Sem. Lang, and 3g,

Lit.,

Vol. XII, pp.

i

43

if.

817I,

4.

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TlGLATH-PILESER KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT noo B. C.See Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia,

Vol.

I,

pi.

14

...

18

21

5.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NXSIRPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA, 884

860 B. C.I,

See Cun.6.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

pi.

17

...

22

28

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 60

f.,

7.

and Jeremias, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 268 ff. ... THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMANESER II AND

29

36

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF ISRAEL, 842See Cun.8.

B. C.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 5,

No. 6

37

3g

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESERIII.

See Cun.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 9,

No.

3,

and

pi.

10,

No. 2; and Rost, Die22f.,

Keilschrifttexteff.

Tiglat-Pilesers III, pp.9.

26

f.,

78

4046pll.

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON.See Botta, Monument de Ninive, Vol. IV,145,

CONTENTS.PAGli.

XI

82 and 65, andWincklcr, Die Keikthrifttextc Sargoru,I,

pp. 38

tf.,

100

f.,

II,

pll. 9, 14,

3o

f.

...

4751

10.

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE AND THESIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C.See Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.I,

pi.

38

f.

...

5266

11.

THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB,See Abel and Winckler,

681 B. C.p.

Keilschrifttexte,

48;

Scheil, Recueil de travaux, Vol. XVIII, p.

17,

and

Messerschmidtsellschaft,

,

Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen GeI,

1896,

pp. 24

f.,

73

...

...

...

67

69

12.

THE DESTRUCTION OFSee Cun.Inscr.

SlDON BY ESARH ADDON.I,

of West. Asia, Vol.

pi.

45

...

70

76

1

3.

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 2

...

77

80

14.

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OFSee Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

LYDIA.pi. 2...

V,

8187

15.

THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OFPOLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON,See Strassmaier and Winckler,II,

SlPPAR BY NABO-

625604Zeitschr.

B. C.Assyr.,

fur

pp. 69

ff.

88

90

1

6.

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON BYNEBUCHADNEZZAR561 B. C.See Cun.Inscr.Zeitschr.II,

KING OF BABYLON, 604and...

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 34,...

Winckler,17.

fur

Assyr.,

II,

p.

143

gi

94

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,zur Assyr.,II,

pi.

64;

Hagenf.,

and Delitzsch,1

Beitr.

pp. 218

248

95

102

8.

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,zur Assyr.,II,

pi.

35

;

Hagenf.,

and Delitzsch,248

Beitr.

pp. 210

ff.,-222

io3

114

X

CONTENTS.PAGE.

PART

II.

Texts with interlinear transliteration and translation1.

:

NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABYLONIAN ANDASSYRIAN KINGS1

4

2.

INSCRIPTION EROM A CYLINDER OE HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT 2200 B. C.See Strassmaier and Winckler,II,

Zeitschr.

fur Assyr.,

p.i 75

fI,

57KING

3.

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 1825 B C.See Can.pi.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), and Jastrow, Am. Journ. of Sem. Lang, and Sg,

Lit.,

Vol. XII, pp. 143

ff.

817I,

4.

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TlGLATH-PILESER KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT noo B. C.See

dm.

Inscr. of West. Asia,

Vol.

I,

pi.

14

...

18

21

5.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIRPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA,

884860

B. C.I,

See Cun.6.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

pi. 17

...

22

28

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 60

f.,

7.

and Jeremias, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 268 ff. ... THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMANESER II AND

29

36

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OFSee Cun.8.

ISRAEL, 842 B. C.Ill, pi. 5,

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

No. 6

37

3g

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESERIII.

See Cun.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 9,

No.

3,

and

pi.

10,

No. 2; and Rost, Die22f.,

Keilschrifttexteff.

Tiglat-Pilesers III, pp.9.

26

f.,

78

4046pll.

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON.See Botta, Monument de Ninive, Vol. IV,145,

CONTENTS.PAGD.

XI

82 and 65, and Wincklcr, DieI,

Keilschrifttexte Sargons,

pp. 38

tf.,

100

f.,

II,

pll. 9, 14,

3o

f.

...

4751

10.

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE AND THESIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C.See Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.I,

pi.

38

f.

...

5266

11.

THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB,See Abel and Wincklcr,

681 B. C.p.

Keilschrifttexte,

48;

Scheil, Recueil de travaux, Vol. XVIII, p.

17,

and

Mcsserschmidtsellschaft,

,

Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen GeI,

1896,

pp. 24

f.,

73

...

...

...

67

69

12.

THE DESTRUCTION OF SlDON BY ESARHADDON.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

I,

pi.

45

...

70

76

13.

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 2

...

77

80

14.

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OFSee Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

LYDIA.pi. 2...

V,

8187

15.

THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OFPOLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON, See Strassmaier and Winckler,II,

SlPPAR BY NABO-

625604Zeitschr.

B. C.

fur Assy r.,88 90

pp. 69

ff.

1

6.

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON BYNEBUCHADNEZZAR561 B. C.See Cun.Inscr.Zeitschr.II,

KING OF BABYLON, 604and...

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 34,...

Winckler,17.

fur

Assyr.,

II,

p.

143

gi

94

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,II,

pi.

64;

Hagenf.,

and Delitzsch,1

Beitr. zur Assyr.,

pp. 218

248

95

102

8.

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,zur Assyr.,II,

pi.

35

;

Hagen222f.,

and Delitzsch,248

Beitr.

pp. 210

ff.

r

io3

114

XII

CONTENTS.PAGE.

19.

INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS, KING OF BABYLON, 521

485 B. C.Seet.

Schulz, Jotirnal Asiatique, Troisieme Serie,pi. VIII,

IX,

Col.f.,

a,

and Bezold, Die Achdmeniden... ... ... ...

inschriften,

pp. 36

y3, 87

115

116

20. INSCRIPTION

OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER, KING OF BAB. C.pi.

BYLON,

280260Inscr.

See Cun.21.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

66

...

117

121

THE CREATION OF THEVol. IV, p. 362p.

GODS.Soc.

See George Smith, Trans, of thef.,

of Bibl. Arch.,

and Chaldean

account of Genesis,

62

f.

;

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp.

268p.

ff.;

Zimmernf.;

in Gunkel's Schopfung

und Chaos,

401

and Delitzsch, Abh.Bd. XVII, pp. 22

der konigl. Gesellsch. derf.,

Wissensch.,

92

...

...

...

122

123

22.

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON.See S. A. Smith, Miscellaneous Texts, pp.i

5;cit.,.,.

Zimmern,pp. 3223.if.,

op.

cit.,ff.

pp. 407...

ff.;

and Delitzsch,... ... ...

op.

100

124

136

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON.See E. A. Wallis Budge, Proc. of theArch.,Soc.

of Bibl.

Vol.X,

p.

86

(six plates); Delitzsch, Assyrische

Lesestiicke

(3nd

ed.), pp.

97

ff.;

Jensen, Die Kosmologiein

der Babylonier,

pp. 278

ff.;

Zimmernff.;

Gunkel's

Schopfung und Chaos, pp. 410Abh. der konigl.Gesellsch....

and Delitzsch,Bd. XVII,...

der Wissensch.,

pp. 2224.

f.,

92

137157

THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES ANDTHE SEASONS.See George Smith, Trans, ofVol. IV, p. 362f.,

the Soc. op.

of Bibl. Arch.,cit.,

pi. 2;

Jensen,

p.

288op.

f.,

Zimmern,pp. 46ff.,

op.

cit.,f. ...

p.

414; and Delitzsch,...... ...

cit.,...

108

...

158

160

CONTENTS.25.

XIIII'ACil.

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE.See Cun.48f.;

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),babylonische Nimrodepos, pp.

pi.

Haupt, Das

184

n.

;

George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, pp. 264Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp. 368ff.;

ff. ;

andpp.161

Zimmern42826.ff.

in

Gunkel's Schdpfung und Chaos,

181

THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV,

pi.

3i

;

and

Jeremias, Die babylonisch-assyrischcn Vorstellungen vomLeben nach dem Tode, pp. 1027.ff....

...

...

182

185

THE LOVES OFSee Cun.;

ISHTAR.of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),ff.;

Inscr.

pi. 41 Haupt, Das babylonische Nimrodepos, pp. 42 and Jeremias, Izdubar-Nimrod, pp. 24 f., 51 f.

...

186

191

28.

THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD115ff.

Zu.Genesis, pp.II,...

See George Smith, Chaldean account of;

and E. T. Harper,ff.,

Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

pp. 40929.

467

ff.

192199

ETANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE EAGLE.See E. T. Harper,449, 453f....

Beitr....

zur Assyr.,...

II,...

pp. 3g6...

ff.,...

200

2o3

30.

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE, THE SERPENT, ANDTHE SUN-GOD.See Morris Jastrow,Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

Ill,

pp. 363

ff.

;

George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, p. i3g f

.

;

and E. T. Harper,43931.ff....

Beitr....

zur Assyr.,...

II,...

pp. 3g2...

ff.,...

...

204

214

HowWIND.

ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-

See Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El-Amarna,pp.II,1

66 (a andff.

//);

and E. T. Harper,

Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

pp. 418

215218

XIV32.

CONTENTS.PAGE.

THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD.See George Smith,p.1

Chaldean account of Genesis,

33

f.

49533.

f.;

E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 432 f., and King, Zeitschr. filr Assyr., YA, pp. 53, 56, 61 219;

222

LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH AND BOYHOOD OF KING SARGON I.See Cun.Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 4,

No. 7 223

225

34.

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS.See Haupt, Akkadische und sumerischep.pi.1 1

Keilschrifttexte,

6

f.

;

Cim. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),pi.op.

26,

No. 8;Haupt,

27,

No. 3;'/.,

pi.;

29**, No. 5;Cun. Inscr. of

pi.

24;

p.

i22f.

West. Asia, Vol.

IV (2nd

ed.), pi. 59,,

No. 2

;

pi.

54,

No.

i

;

andf.,

Zimmernf.,

Babylonische52, 100f.,

Busspsalmen,

pp. 3335.

85

i

f.,

62

ff.,

89

f.

...

226240

HYMNS AND PRAYERS.See Cun.pi.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),a" Assyriologie,

20, No. 2; Bertin, Revueff. ;

Vol.

I,

pp. 157ed.),

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd

pi.

29,

No.ff.,

i

;

King, Babylonian Magic and43;

Sorcery, pp. 16

pi.

f.

;

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia,Zeitschr.

Vol. IV,Assyr.,

pi. 20,

No.ff.,

and Briinnow,

fur

V, pp. 66

79

241251assyrische

36. _

INCANTATIONS.SeeMaqlu,Tallqvist,I,

Die

Beschworungsseriep. i3,

pp. 48

f.,

58

f.,

38

f.

;

II,

19

f.,

7

;

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),

pi.

51

;

and Zimmern,Religion,I,

Beitriige

zur Kenntnis der babylonischen

p.

4

f.

252260Letters,

37.

ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS.See R. F. Harper, Assyrian and BabylonianI,

p.

42,

III,

pp. 276, 327, IV, p. 350;

S.i,

A. Smith,pi.

Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl Arch., X,

No.

VIII

;

CONTENTS.and19838.

XVPAGE,I,

Delitzsch,ff.,

Beiir.

zur Assyr.,

pp.

189

ff.,

212

ff.,

222

ff.

26l

269

LKTTKUS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA.See Budge and Bezold, Thein the British

Tell el-Amarna Tabletsf.;

Museum,f.,

pp. 6

f.,

24

Bezold, OrientalKeilinschriftliche

Diplomacy, pp. 3

i3;

and Schrader,48f.

BiWothek, V, pp. 143g.

ff.,

270281Ill,

OBSERVATORY REPORTS.SeeCun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.pi.

51,

Nos.'i, 3, 6,40.

and 7

282

285

REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS.See Cun.Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 51,pi. 58,

Nos.

I

and'41.

II

;

and

No.

i

286288V,pi.

SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS.See Cun.Inscr.

of

West. Asia, Vol.

25

...

289

292

42.

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS.See \}&\\tz&ch,AssyrischeLesestucke($Tded.), p.

134;

Cun

Inscr.

of

West. Asia, Vol. II, pi. 16;

and Bezold,Kouyunjik... ...

Catalogue of the CuneiformCollection,

Tablets...

in...

Ihe

Vol. IV, p. 1742

2g3

294

PART

III.

Texts to be transliterated and translated

...

...

295

314

PARTVocabulary totexts in

IV.III...

Parts

II

and

...

3 15

399

A

LIST OF ASSYRIAN

GRAMMARS AND

DICTIONARIES.Jules Oppert.Elements de la grammaire assyrienne. First edition(Paris,

1860).

Secondof

edition, Paris,

1868.

Edward Hincks.Menant.

Specimen

Chapters

an Assyrian

Grammar,

London, 1866.J.

Expose

des elements

de la

grammaire

assyrienne,

Paris, 1868.

Eberhard Schrader, Diezig,

assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften,

Leip-

1872.

A. H. Sayce.

An An

Assyrian Grammar,

London, 1872.

Do.

Elementary Grammar, London, 1875.

George Rertin.

Abridged Grammars of the Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions,

London, 1888.Berlin,

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrische Grammalik,translation by R. S.

1889.

English1889).

Kennedy (London,PartsI

Edwin

Norris.

Assyrian

Dictionary.

III,

London,

1868J.

72 (unfinished).1886.Leipzig,

N. Strassmaier.

Alphabetisches Verzeichniss, Leipzig,

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Worterbuch.

Parts

I

III,

R. E.

Bmnnow.

18871888 (unfinished). A classified List of cuneiformLeyden, 1889;Indices,

ideographs,

etc.,

1897.the Assyrian

W.

Muss-Arnolt.

A

concise Dictionary

of

Language,

Berlin,

1894. (In progress.)

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Handworterbuch, Leipzig, 1896.B. Meissner.

Supplement

zu

den

assyrischen

Worterbiichern,

Leyden, 1898.

INTRODUCTION.Assyrianis

the

name

that

nowofto

indicates the language once The

spoken

by

the

inhabitantsIt

Mesopotamia,theis"

Assyrians

and

Babylonians

alike.

belongs

northern

group

of the

Semitic family of languages and;

closely akin to Phoenician

or Himyaritic,

and Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldee these are distinct from Sabaean Arabic and Ethiopic, which form the southern

group.

The languageon stone and;

is

made knownnumber ofcities

to

us by numerous inJ

scriptions

clay, written in "cuneiform"

or wedge-

shaped characters

the greater

these inscriptions have

been unearthed from the buriedthe present century.

of Mesopotamia during

The deciphermentPersian

of the Assyrian

inscriptions

is

a natural The

deci-

result of the labours of scholars

cuneiform inscriptions.

who have investigated the old The Achaemenian kings whoto the fourth

P hermentof the inscriptions.

ruled over Persia from the sixth

century beforeat that

Christ, after the fashion of other races in

Western Asia

period, borrowed from the Babylonians the idea of cuneiform

writing ;1.

2

they, however, considerably simplified the Babylonian"Keilschrift"

In

German

;

the Arabs

call

it

^.l^c*-* (mistnarl)lived

"nail-

writing".2.

The

Susians, the Elamites,

and the people

who

around Lake Van,1888 of the "Telldiffu-

for instance, all used cuneiform characters.

The

discovery

in

el-Amarna

Upper Egypt showed the wide sion of Babylonian cuneiform throughout Western Asia as early as thetablets" at Tell

el-Amarna

in

XV th

b

XVIIIsystem,

INTRODUCTIONemployingin

their

inscriptions not

more than

thirty-

nine groupscharacter.

of wedgestheir

As

and each group formed an alphabetic empire was not confined to Persia, butto

embraced the important countries of Susia and Babylonia,the greater

number of

their

inscriptions

they appended Susian

icriptions.

and Babylonian translations written in the cuneiform characters employed by these two nations. After the fall of the Achae-

menian empire the Old Persian cuneiform

fell

into disuse,

and

the inscriptions in this character, as well as those in the other

kinds of cuneiform writing, in the course of time ceased to be

understood.

Those

records, however, that

were engraved upon

the stone walls of buildings and on the faces of rocks did notperish, but

remained as permanent though unintelligible monu-

ments of the kings

who

set

them

up.era,

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of our

however, travellers in the East began to turn their attention tothese inscriptions, especially those at Persepolis,

and we

find in

the accounts of their journeys1 expressed concerning them.

many

strange views and opinionsuntil

It

was not

the beginning of

century B. C. At this period not only in Egypt but from the coast of the Mediterranean to Elam, and from Armenia to the Persian Gulf, Babylonian cuneiform

was the language ofneeds, butI

official

correspondence.

It

was not unnatural thereforewhich would lead us

that

other races should have modified this widely diffused system to meet their

own

do not see any

sufficient evidence

to

assume

that the Phoenician alphabet

was formed by the modification of

certain cunei-

form characters.i.

1665)1711)

See Pietro della Valle, Viaggi (Rome, 1662; English translation, London, en Perse, et autres lieux de I 'Orient (Amsterdam, Chardin, Voyages ;..

de Bruin, Rei\en over Moskovie, door Persie en Indie (Amsterdam, 1714; English translation, London, 1787); and Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung nach Ara;

bien

und andern umliegenden Ldndern, Bd.by

II

(Copenhagen, 1778).

For de-

scriptions

travellers at the beginning of the present century,inin

see Morier,

A

journey through Persia (London, 1812); Ouseley, Travels of the East (London, 1819 23); R. Ker Porter, Travelsetc.

various countries

Georgia, Persia,

(London,

182122)

;

and Burckhardt, Travels

in

Arabia,

etc.

(London, 1829).

CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONSthe

XIXwas made towards

nineteenth

century

that the

first

step

deciphering them correctly.

Of

the three kinds

of cuneiform writingin

(t.

e.,

the Persian,

the Susian, and the Babylonian),

which the Achaemenianit

kings inscribed their trilingual records,the Persian shouldasit

was most natural

that inthedeci

first

hermcnt engage the serious attention of scholars, P

is

by

far the simplest

of the three.

The

credit of

havinginGrotefend

first

discovered

the

method by which the Persian columnbelongsto

these

inscriptionsin

might be decipheredx

Grotefend

whorius,

1802 succeeded in reading the names of Hystaspes, Da-

and Xerxes.

Other scholars followed on the

lines

laidall

down by him, and made contributions-of the

Rask, Saint Martin, Burnouf and Lassen

to the further identification of the characters

Old Persian alphabet.

Up

to

the year 1887, however,

the decipherers had merely succeeded in reading a

names, and they had not been able to

few proper make accurate and con-

nected translations even of the short inscriptions they had studied.i.

Grotefend announced

his

discovery in theleft

Gottinger

Gesellschaft

der

Wissenschaften, Sept. Hth, 1802, and he has

a lengthy description of the

process by which he arrived at his results in Heeren's Historical Researches(English translation, Oxford, i833), Vol.II,

pp. 3i3ff.

The

process by which

both he and Sir Henry Rawlinson obtained the clue to reading the inscriptions was the same in each case and may be briefly described. Grotefend took foranalysis two short inscriptions in which he noticed the characters corresponded throughout with the exception of two groups of signs in each. As the rest of the inscriptions tallied, it was not unreasonable to suppose that the groups of the name of the man signs in each which differed represented proper names

who

set

up theits

inscription and possibly that of his father.

But

in

these

two

inscriptions the

group which occupied the second placeposition looked as thoughsetit it

in

one inscription, and

which fromof the

represented thefirst

name

of the father

man whonow

up, occurred in thethat

place in the

other inscription.

As he already imaginedGrotefendinferred

the inscriptions were set

that these three

up by Persian kings, groups of signs gave the names of

three consecutive generations of the Persian monarchy.

On

trying the

names

Hystaspes, Darius and Xerxes he found they

fitted

the various signs exactly.

At a

later period Rawlinson, working independently on two other inscriptions, succeeded in reading the same three names by a similar process of reasoning.

b*

XXawlinson

INTRODUCTIONfor the late Sir

This achievement was reservedson> G. c. B.,Persia,tailsfirst

LdtheBe-

who

in 1885,

and whilst stationed

Henry C. Rawlinat Kirmanshah in

ription.

turned his attention to the subject. Unaware of the de-

of Grotefend's discovery, he independently obtained similar

resultslater

by making an analysis of two short inscriptions two years he succeeded in climbing the rock at Bahistun (Pers. Bagi;

and in copying the greater part of the Persian text of the Annals of Darius Hystaspes which was engraved upon its face.stan)In the winter of

1887 he sent a

first

instalment of his transla-

tion of these texts to the

translation of the Behistun inscription

Royal Asiatic Society. His complete was published in 1846 init

Vol.

X

of the Journal of that Society, but

was on the

original

translation

made

in

i83y

3g that Rawlinson himself based his

Apart from his correct identification of the entire Persian alphabet, he was also able, from his knowchief claims to originality.

ledge of Zendinscriptionliteral;

and Pehlevi, to arrivefirst

at

the meaning of the

he was thus the

to

present to the world alines of cu-

and correct translation of over two hundred1

neiform writing.he deci-

The deciphermentQf

of the Babylonian cuneiform followed that

lerment'

^Q

Persian cuneiform.

The

writing:

in

the third

column of

Babylotne an cu;iform

g r ^at trilingual inscription of Darius Hystaspes had been

already identified as Babylonian from the fact thatcharacters were identical with thoseslabs thati.

some of the

on the inscribed bricks andand Babylonia. Thefirst

had been found

in Assyria

The

fullest descriptionis

of Rawlinson's

own achievements and

those of his

predecessors

given in his

memoir The Persian Cuneiformfrom those of Spiegel

Inscription at Be-

histun (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. X).translations differ in but few details

His transliterations andin

Die altpersischen

Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1881). See also Flemming's article Sir

Henry Rawlin-

son und seine Verdienste urn die Assyriologie in the Beitrdge %ur Assyriologie,Vol.II,

pp.

i

ff.

;

Nature, Vol. LI,

p. 536f.,

Vol. 58, pp. XLIVff., and Prof. G. Rawlinson's

Proceedings of the Royal Society, Memoir of Sir H. C. Rawlinsonis

(London, 1898); a

list

of the Persian cuneiform inscriptions

given by Weiss-

bach, Die altpersischen Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1893).

CUNEIFORM WRITINGstepin

XXI

the decipherment

was made by comparing the proper

names occurring

in the Persian text of the Behistun inscription

with the corresponding groups of characters which

representedthis

them

in

the

third

or Babylonian

column.

Starting with

point as a base, Rawlinson, Hincks, Norris and Oppert gradually

worked out the values of the Babylonian and Assyrian signs. The principal steps in the work of decipherment are markedby the discovery of the polyphony of the Babylonian signs a pointed out by Rawlinson and by Hincks' proof of their syllabic nature. For the determination of the Assyrian sylfact first

labary these scholars obtained considerable aid from the ancient

Assyrian

lists

of signs whichthis

had been recently excavated

at

Kuyunjik and brought to

country, while for help in the

interpretation of the inscriptions they

depended upon the close

resemblance of roots in Assyrian with those in Arabic, Hebrew,Syriac and Chaldee.1

The methodAssyriansis

of writing employed

commonly

called "cuneiform"

by the Babylonians and Cuneifor w from the Latin cuneus

"a wedge". Each character or sign consists of one or more wedgesarranged in a variety of ways, while the characters themselvesare written from left to right.

Strangely enough, however, the

wedge, though

its

most

distinctive characteristic,;

no part

in its

composition

its

existence

is

had originally entirely due to theis

material for writing employed by the scribes. Therethat the cuneiform system of writing, like all othersi.

no doubt

which have

See Rawlinson's paper

On

the Inscriptions of Assyria

(Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc., Vol. XII), and his

Memoir on

the Babylonian

and Babylonia andscientifique en

Assyrian Inscriptionsactions of the

(ibid.,

Vol. XIV), Hincks' numerous papers in the Trans-

RoyalII

Irish

Academy, and Oppert's Expedition;

Mesopotamie, Vol.

(Paris, 1859)

Norris' principal contribution to Assyriology

his great Assyrian Dictionary which he did not live to complete. For the decipherment of Susian, the language of the second column of the Achaemenian trilingual inscriptions see Norris, Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behi-

was

stun Inscription (Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc., Vol.

XV) and Weissbach, Die

Achdmenideninscliriften ^welter Art (Leipzig, 1890).

XXIIorigin'"

INTRODUCTIONits1 origin in picture-writing. All pri-

developed naturally, had

mitive races employ the same rude means

whenfirst

they begin toofall

iting.

record their names

and

actions,

and they

scratch

rough pictures on any substance that may come to hand. After certain pictures have become associated with certain words thepicturestheir,

are used;

to

express the

sound of the words withoutused phonetically.

meaning

in other words, they are

The

forms of the characters themselves, from being written rapidly

I

become more and moreor charactersit

simplified,

until

in

the resulting signs

j

is

hard to recognise the originals from which

!

they have

descended.

This

is

particularly

the

case

with the

cuneiform writing of the Babylonians.of the countryin|

The

primitive inhabitantsof pictures, tracing

made

their records

by means

rough outline the various objects they wished to represent, and in course of time employing many of their picture-signs torepresent sounds merely, apart from ideas.

I

record stone would naturally suggestpreserving an inscription,

itself asit

For any permanent most suitable forso

ie

deve-

and we find

wassoil

employed

in

jment of

Babyloniaofits

;

but the alluvial nature of theasit

was not

in favour

extensive use,

had generally

to

be imported from

some other country.

These early Babylonians therefore adapted

themselves to their surroundings and from the fine clay of theirsoil

they fashioned tablets on which they continued to outline

their picture-characters.

But

it is

possible to write faster on softlines,

clay than

on

stone,stilus,

and straight

pressure of thei.

tend to become wedges.

when made by a The pictures

single there-

two

tablets in the British

That the Assyrians themselves believed this to be the case is proved by Museum. These tablets are lists of picture characters

arranged in groups, and opposite each sign or group the scribe has writtenthe cuneiform character to which he supposedit

corresponded.

Thethe

tablets are

numbered

K

8520 and 81

7

27, 49

+ 5;

a

photograph of

former

is

published by Houghton in the Trans, of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, p. 454; a copy of the latter is given in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian tablets etc.in

the British

Museum, Part

V

(1898).

CUNEIFORM WRITINGfore soon1

(XXIIl)

lost

their original

lines

and became mere groups ofcharacters, however, The picto-

wedges.

Fromit

the archaic forms of

some of the

is

still

possible to recognise the objects for

intended.

Theis

assyrian

sign

for*->^f-,

which they were instance, which means

"*characterssti11

"heaven",

the

descendant of the archaic sign

^

in

which

rec g-

nisable.

we mayThewhen

possibly see a star with eight points,

or a representa-

tion of heaven as a circle devided into eight equal portions

(^.

archaic form of the signset2

for

"ox",

:|,etc. is

is

^>, whichin the earliercircle

vertically,

thus

W,in

certainly suggests the head of an

ox with horns.

The

sign for "the sun, day"

^|,

inscriptions written

5^>,

which we may

see a

roughis

O,

representing the sun's disk.theearlier

The

sign for "corn"

inscriptionsvertically,

is

written

^^>

and

^; m ^/j^?

this in

which,

'when written

we may perhaps see a representation of a blade of corn. Some signs for new ideas were formed by The a combination of two other signs already in existence.u "mountain" placed within ox", gave the new " a mountain -ox". The sign |^ sign t^$$> (= mod. Asssign

V

l>

-

t^)

"water" when placed within>~Hfj|T "to drink";

^J^J

"mouth" gave the new"to eat"is

sign

similarly

>-Hy[

formed from

^p^ "food", and forms of *-*$combination of

^^"J

"mouth". One of the commonest archaicis

"month"

X^>,and

which we may explain

as

a

j* "day"

^^ "thirty".later

To

trace the pic-

1.

In the characters

employed by the

Assyrians and Babylonians thedifferent

signs are formed by various combinations

and repetitions of|,

wedges,,

those of most frequent occurrence being the upright

the horizontal *

and the diagonal wedge /, which

frequentlywrittenri

interchanges

with

the

slopings y llablesl

wedge

\

,

e.

g. the

syllablef

di

is

as

/T>t

an ^ T^fc' lhe

bu as >-T^T and >-TT

the

syllablein

as

>-TT^Tfew

and *"TTI'

The

P in S

wedges

f

andin

y/

are employed

only a

signs. In writing

on clay the

differences

the shape of the wedges could be produced by slightly shifting

the position of the stilus in the fingers.2.

Some

archaic inscriptions are written vertically.

XXIVtorial

INTRODUCTIONorigin of the majorityinscriptions,

of theis

signs

,

however

,

even in

the

most ancient

quite impossible,J;

because

we

cannot identify the objects which they representlater periods of

while in the

Babylonian and Assyrian history the signs beforit

came

still

less like pictures,

was but natural

that the scribe

writing quickly on his soft clay tablet should tend to simplifythe characters.

The

inscriptions engravedin

on stone

reflected the

changes which took place

the inscriptions on clay and thelatter

forms of the characters on thein stone hein-

were carefully reproducedone thatwhile

by means of the-

chisel,is

Theoj^

subject of the invention of cuneiform writing

;ntors

meiformriting.it

as g- yen r se to a considerableis

amount of controversy,

for,

generally agreed that

it

was due

to the early inhabitants ofis

Babylonia, the nationality of this peoplestill

disputed; some scholars

hold that this race were the Semitic Babylonians themselves,

though the majority now admit that the Semitic Babylonians borrowed their method of writing from an earlier race of non-Semiticorigin.

The

point at issue

may

be best stated by briefly indicatingit.

the course of the controversy that has taken place around

Amongmany

the literary remains of the Babylonians and Assyrians are

compositions that are inscribed in thebut, to judgein\

same cuneiform

characters,

from the forms of the words, are clearly not writtenlanguage.

the

Assyrian

Many

of

these

compositions

are

furnished with interlinear Assyrian translations while the wordsi.

A

theory has recently been put forward by Dr. Delitzsch, who, while reattempts to explain the rest as

cognising the pictorial origin of certain signs,

formed from themsigns

artificially.

Instances have been

given above of

how new

were formed by combinations of signs already in existence, but Dr. Delitzsch goes further and asserts that new signs were formed by combinationsand variations of simple wedges or rather lines. He distinguishes some fortyfive Urbilder or signs with a "motive" and thinks the majority of the characters were developed from them. Of the methods of combination he sets forth theis that in which the meaning of a simple sign was intensified this process the Sumerians by the addition of a number of extra wedges termed gnnu. Few people will, however, accept his theory in its present form.;

most convincing

CUNEIFORM WRITING

XXV

and forms employed are explained in a number of tablets containing lists of words with Assyrian explanations compiled by the Assyrian scribes. Moreover the monumental and documentaryinscriptions of the

early rulersIsin

of cities in Babylonia, such as

Shirpurla oridiom.Sir

Lagash, Ur,first

and Larsa,

are

written in

this/

The

to

detect the existence of this language

wag The]

Su-

Henry Rawlinson,

who

in

1852 concluded that

it

was tht

menanquestion

tongue of the early non-Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia amor whom the Semitic Babylonians had settled, and from the fadthat Babylonian kings,in

addition to their other

titles,

style(

Xfecmselves king of

Sumer and Akkad, he concludedof the

that th^>^- the Assyrians possessedfor markirig"~TrIe breathing, but in useit

soundsAssy-

rian,

especially at the beginning of a word.

was generally omitted, The Assyrian method of

writing, moreover,

was

ill-adapted for the expression of peculiarfind that the consonants K,!"1,

Semitic sounds, and

we

H

(c),

&(,)

y

(,)>

1

an d

V

f r

which

special characters exist in the other Semiticits

languages, were not distinguished inroot, for instance,

syllabary.

If a

Semitic

commences with any one of these consonants form of the word is without the consonant altothe Assyrian 2 g. 75K ('*/) "to eat" gether and commences with a vowel,.

= Assyr. akdlu;1.

3

TOP! (haldkP) "to go"is

= Assyr.

alaku ; t^*lH (hadh aty

Of

these

consonants K

aspirate

corresponding to the English h

employed to indicate the breathing; .1 is an H had two sounds distinguished in ;,

Arabic by the characters

^ andand1

the

nounced with

friction, the latter a guttural

former representing a strong h proch y also had two sounds cor;

responding to the Arabiclatter a guttural2.

g or

r

;

=

^,

the former a softer guttural sound,^

the

w, and

= y.

In the transliteration of the

Hebrew words herethe

cited the softer

pronun-

,

ciation of the letters

nSDIIQ, when without

Daghesh

lene, is indicatedIt is

by

\I

the addition to the letter of a small h printed above the line.in

possible that

Assyrian the corresponding consonantal sounds were softenedin the

when

they

came between two vowel sounds but

Assyrian method of writing there

was no means of marking3. In this list

this difference of pronunciation.s.

and

in

the following paragraph the 3 m.

Perf. of

Hebrew

verbs

is cited

while the corresponding verbs in Assyrian are given in the Infinitive.^-.

XXVIII"to be

INTRODUCTION

new"

= Assyr.D*1JJ

ed'e^u ;1 ,

ID^e.

(ab

h

ar,

i.

e,

_^)

"to cross"sun),

=to

Assyr. eberu;

grow dark"

= Assyr.its

Assyr. alddu ; pJJ

^) "to = (yanak) "to suck"('drab'i.

enter,

(of the

h erebu; *TT (yalad

i.

e.

ibl) "to bear"Similarly

Assyr.

en'eku.

when

one of these consonants occursa Semitic

as the second or third

letter ine.

root

= Assyr.It

D!T"J (rahani)

"to

love" =

place

is

taken in Assyrian by a vowel,Assyr. rdmu ; $?t# (Zdma) "to

g.

hear"

semu.

has been already stated that the Assyrian language belongsof the Semitic languages.Its

to

the northern group

affinities

with Hebrew however are closer than with the other languages

which make up the group. The following examples of words whidr-t5ccuf both in Hebrew and Assyrian will suffice to indicate the close resemblance

between the two languages, and will

further illustrate the inability of Assyrian to represent theitic

Sem-

consonants referred to in the preceding paragraph:Assyrian]'eb h

Hebrew

IX

'06*

a-bu

DK

en

fc

TMI'ahaz'el

'arba

THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITINGHebrewnritf 'alia

XXIXMeaning

Assyrian

^Ejh

ai~ ia

ITT

thou (m.) house

Hebrewand Assyrian compared.

TO

bayit

band

ba-nu-ube-e-lu

to build

lord

bir-ku

kneelightning

bdrak

bir-ku

hM

gam-ma- ludi-i-nudal-tu

camel

judgmentdoor

^PITzera

zik-ruzi-e-ru

nameseedfriend

^ffl

ib-ru

DPI

e-muha-du-uJ

father-in-lawto rejoice

1C

1

IW

ha-ta-nuta-a-bui-du

son-in-law

goodhand, side

u-muydrriin

dayright

im-nui-sa-ru

hand

righteousstar

kak-ka-bukal-bulib-bu

dogheartto clotheto learnto take

la-ba-$u

-ET ET

la-ma-dula-ku-uh'-Sa-a-nu

tongue

XXXHebrewHebrewindrian

INTRODUCTION

mdhas

Assy-

com-

1

sdhap'

nna^it selem

Up

kol

IP *&.

kerm

THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITINGThough

XXXI

the Assyrians possessed the consonantal sounds al- Assyrian'

ready described, their method of writing did not include separate signs for each consonant.

They

did not employ an alphabet

but a syllabaryracter,letter

;

in

other words each cuneiform sign or chais

witnthe

exception of the vowel signs,itself a

not a singleif

but represents in

completethe

syllable.

Thus

an As-

syrian

wished to write

down

word

akshud "I

conquered",

he would employ three signs only >-^f ^EJ ^J, i, e. ak-$u-ud, or, if he wished to write down abu "father", he would employ only

twois

signs

y^r

^>-

a-bu.

Each of the

signs hereis

employedit

is

whatS 7 llables -

termed a simple syllable, that

to say, in sound

consists simple

of one vowel and one consonant, or of a vowel by

itself.

In

H ^7 M'"in";

the following words each sign represents a simple syllable: " ~ *--* "i"; t^TTT at ta thou "; ^ a ~ ma - fu " word "to"

sT

>

flf

~ry,

a-na,

;

flf

Ej

^=[,}}

>

,

ba-la-ti, "life",

;

|;

gt^f-

^J

fa

written

written

be-lu ; niru JEJJ,

written ^yy~ "^JJJ, ni-ru;

IDEOGRAMSwrittenthe**f-

XXXVother

+^-,

nu-nii.is

(2)

The

method oj^indicatingj

length of a vowel"distant"is

to

double the following Consonant,

e.g. riiku

writtenisit

^JTT E^V^Tin

~^is

ru-uk-ku.

Whenj

a consonantal

sound

sharpenedis

pronunciation and should

be doubled in writinge..

generally doubled by the Assyrians,is

iUakin,

"he was placed",however, the

written

i*-*a-kin ;

sometimes,in writing.

doubled

consonant

not

indicated

TheThe

Assyrians,

however, did not always writeitself to

in

syllables, Ideograms

but often used one sign byreason of this willof the signsidea.be

represent a complete word.

readily seen

when

it

is,

remembered

that each

was originallysyllabic

a picture

representing acharacters

complete

and that the

values of the

were only subsequently developed. The Assyrians, then, while

employingnetically,

their

characters

as

syllables

in writing

words pho-

continued to use

many

of

them;

in their old sense as

pictures or symbols for a

whole idea

in other

words they usedfor instance,

many"son"

of their signs as ideograms.as

The

sign;

^E|,

was used;

an ideogram for abu "father"ilu

the sign J^ for aplu

the sign >~>^- forlist

"god"

;

the sign

^^J|

for alu "city".

Thethem

following

of some of the

common

ideograms should be

learnt by heart

;

this can best be done by writing out a few of

at a time.

Ideogram

Pronunciation

Meaning

Ideogram

kakkabu

star

^*

E

fff

amelu$arru

mankingnobl-^

rububelli

lord

XXXVI

Ideogram

XXXVIII

INTRODUCTION

they pronounced the Assyrian

word which corresponded

to

it

in

.meaning;

in fact

they regarded these Sumerian words as sym-

bols for their Assyrian equivalents in meaning.

Ain

similar use ofcertain

borrowed words or expressions may be seenbols

sym-

employed by "that is", or

at the

present day,

when

a reader renders "i. e."

"e. g."

by "for example".

In

each

of theserelation

phrases the Latin original stands in precisely thetoits

same

English rendering as the Sumerian word used as an ideotoits

gramthemsigns,

Assyrian equivalent. This

fact,

though explaining the

existence of ideograms, does not help the learner to understand;

he must content himself with remembering that certainor groups of signs, werefor certain

regarded by the Assyrians as

symbols

words. reasoa that the Assyrianis

PerhapswritingPolyphons. thatis

the

principal

method of

somewhat complicatedsigns aresyllabic

to

be sought in the fact

many

than one

polyphons, value and are used

in other

words they have more as ideograms for morea,is

than one word. Thus YI, which has the syllabic valueas

used1

an ideogram for aplu "son" and mu "water"is

;

the sign T^T V*'

has the syllabic values ku, dur and tus and

used as an ideo;

gram

for subatu

"garment" and asdbu "to dwell"tarn, pir,

^J

has

the

syllabic values ud, tu,

lah,

his

and

is

used as an ideo-

gram

for

Samtu "sun", umu "day" and pisu "white".

The

exi-

stence of this polyphony

may be explained by supposing that the same sign might be used as an ideogram for synonymous or closely connected words (it being easy to trace, for instance, the ;e, meconnection between "sun", "day" and "white"), and subseqfor

"fetjfc

words of similar sound

;

while from the meanings so

tained various syllabic values were developed.

To what

exent mt

tl^^6^

Assyrian signs are polyphonous, the student

may

judge for himself

by referring

to the List of Signs at the

end of the Introduction.

From

the above brief

summary

of the variouscharactersit

methodswill

in

which the Assyrians employed

their

be ob-

DETERMINATIVESserved that a sign(a) as a syllable

XXXIXways:

mayin

possibly be used in one of three

a

word written

phonetically, or (b) as an(c)

ideogram representing a whole word, orgroup of two orfor a

as

one sign

in a

moreIt

whole word.

signs which together form an ideogram will be obvious that this method of writ'

ing

would often be ambiguous, andfeltit.

that the Assyrians them-

selves

it

to

be so

is

proved by the means they took totfcey

simplify

To many words

attached certain signs, whichclass of thing Deter'

have been called determinatives, to indicate theto

which the word belongs. The majority of these determinatives are placed before the words to which they refer they;

are never

pronounced but are intended

to

help the reader tothe followingtheirlist:

understand the word that follows them..of

In

determinatives examples

are

addedis

illustrating

use

for ilu "god") ^p- (the ideogram of deities, e. g. -*f

placed before the names Deter-

~-^- >-^yy ^.^y,l

e.

g. y >- >^-

'^yyyy E^TT> r****w *&-y jEy ^y< E- Sar-ra, Tiglathpileser y ^< }} JEJJ y^ ^}}]^, Ha;r

^^y;

A>

za-ki-a-u,

Hezekiah

y *-J][

^^]

y

^yyj^

^:,

Hu-um-ri-i,

Omriis

y ^TTT^ Tf placed before female proper names,;

t\]

Ia ~ u ~ a

Jehu>

e.

g. ">-

^Sy.^PF

^TT! ~ll* I^f, As-ta-ar-ta-m-ik-ku,

ideogram

for

matu "country", and

Sadii

"mountain")Ku-u-

placed before theg.

V^

names of countries and mountains,;

maStakal,

names ofthe

plants,-

^^^L ^E^yy^yyy^: JEf

mdStakal

plant

^^is

^--^, ku-un-gu,

(the

ideogram

for

abnu "stone")Efj-^f]f|

placed

before

the

names of stones, e.g.^iT

"V* uknu, "lapis lazuli"',

^^^

ET*^? paruiu, "alabaster".

DETERMINATIVES(the

XLIis

ideogramstuffs

for subatu

"garment")e.

Deterplaced before the

names ofa

and garments,;

ng.

JEJ x^kX^E: |^a

fruHu,;

,

ceremonial garment

JEJ

*J-, kilu,

kind of cloth

cede the

I!0

IiU -Mfflkideogramfor

HT

stuffs,j

g.

sHTT^yyj^

n ^T^

JEJjE

"P ur P le

wo

r

ISIE

^-, ar-ga-man-nu,

"crimson wool".is

for karpatu "vessel") E^yf^ (the ideogram names of vessels, e. g. f^ ^>^yy

placed before the

^f^

^^J"^^!*

a vessel for incense.

Jl^T^

(the

ideogram

for imeru "ass")

ise.

placed before the namesg.

of

some of the;

larger animals,

l^T

"horse"

^^

\

tflp, gammalu,

"camel"

;

fl-/i,

"dromedaries".

(the

ideogram

for immeru

"lamb, sheep")JE^f

is

fore ~>vprds

for sheep, e.g.

t^]]is

^

placed beW-///,

J^I,

"sheep".(the

ideogram

for siru "flesh")e.

sometimes placed bekiSddu,

fore parts of the body,

g.

t^^*^< >f2^is

"neck";

fc^^< t^,(

irtu,

"breast".

tne

ideogram

for

arhu "month")e.

placed

before the

names of the months,

g.

^^"^e.

ET^J Nisannu, Nisan.is

y- (the ideogram for kakkabu "star")

placed before the*>~^-

Dil-

Venus

^z^z^^- ^yy^^.for a$ru "place")districts,

Mars. ^yy^y, Karradu,:

A

few determinatives follow the words to which they refer(the01

Deter-

ideogram

is

minatives placed after the namesthat fol-

many towns and

even

when preceded bye.

the owj

t j ie

determinatives

V

("country") or

VHW ^M'Nineveh;

Babilu,

*J

t?> s

j,

.Efcwi/tt,

Elam

;

V*-|^,-

^I^f>>~yj

^'^7, Akkad.vr"bird")wis

(the "ideogram for

placed after the names

of birds,nuniu,

e.

g.

E3^J

*~|J,

^rw

>

"eagle";

^J^

"swallow"; ^^fEJ *~J][, summatu, "dove". nunu "fish") is placed after the names ^r^ (the ideogram forof fish buteteris

of rare occurrence.

Nativesr

ter

numand

-4^*^ are used as determinatives after num bers, while the sign-groups TI >nJf- and ^TTT TI >-i4- aresigns

The

^E:

an1

sign for the plural

j^*,mark

lural.

V

I

"god",

JL T ^*^, fldni,TheTTsignisj

"gods"

;

V,

mdtu, "land",

-,

matati,

"lands".

|

frequently used toe.

the plural of things which occur regularly in pairs,

g.

^E|, kdtu,

"hand", ^EJjy,

kdtd,

"hands"; ^J>-, mu, "eye", 4^>-]],idd,

ina,

"eyes";

,/^,"side",^^|yy,plural.

"sides".

The

signs j>-, >^-, andit

are also placed after a

word

to indicate that

is

in the

Another method of indicating the plural of a word

exg.

pressed by an ideogram>->Jf-, ilu,

was

to write thetldnit

ideogram twice,md/u, "land",

e.

"god", >-*^- *~*f~,

"gods";

V>

^^

matati,

"lands".

Such are the principal determinatives employed by the Assyrians and they prove of great assistance to the reader by simplifying his analysis of the text.

Many

ideograms, however, are

not furnished with determinatives and the reading of these wouldoften be uncertain or

ambiguous were

it

not for an ingeniousin

honeiic

icnts.

adding to the ideogram a phonetic sign expressing the final syllable of the word which the ideogram is intended to represent the syllable so added has been conveniently named the ideogram's phoneticl;

device of the Assyrian scribes.

This consists

j

complement.

A

fevv

examples will

illustrate

the use

of the! I

DETERMINATIVES AND PHONETIC COMPLEMENTSphonetic complement.

XLIIIPhoneti~>j- ^| y);

merits.

cates that

***$-

in that

passage

is

not to be read as

ilu,

"god",

but as Same, "the heavens".

Thewhen

sign

^EJirsitu

is

used as an ideo-

gram

for

/'///',

"with", a$ru, "place", andirsita)

(with the accusative

termination,(t.e.

"earth"it

;

the syllable

^JfJ,

ta,

is is

addedto be

^JEJ ^^y[J)irsita.

indicates that

^JEJ

in that passage

read

The when

sign

^J-^

is

used as an ideogram both for

the substantive Jumku, "favour" and for the adjective damku, "fa-

vourable"

;

the sign ^|,

indicates that the

ideogram

is

^J>~^f ^|) it to be read as damiktu, the femininetu,(i.e.

is

added

singular of the adjective damku. In the case of a verb expressed by

an ideogram the particular verbal inflection intended by the writeris

frequently

Weandfied

by means of the phonetic complement. have now seen how words in Assyrian could be eitherindicated

written out phonetically in syllables or expressed by ideograms

how

this rather

complicated system of writing was simpli-

by the use of additional signs as determinatives and phocomplements,the former indicating the general characterAnalysis extra

netic

of words, the latter furnishing clues to their actual readings.

Wehow

will

now

take a passage from an Assyrian

textis

and

see

from an

the signs are there employed.

The

following

an extract

Assyriartext-

from a historical inscription.

T

IHHF-

tTTT^

^

E!

T

^7

JT

^

XLIV

INTRODUCTION

The

first

point the reader will observe

is

that the

signs run

on and are not

clearly divided into words, though a line in theItis

inscriptions always ends with a complete word.

true that

some

scribes, especially in writing religious or poetical

tions, leave a clear space

composibetween each word, and when special

attention^is

is

to be called to the division of

two words the

sign

placed between them. As a general rule however the signs

run on without clear division and the correct division of wordsis

one of thewill

first

difficulties

to

be overcome by the beginner.

We

now

break the passage up into words indicating under

each sign the

way

it

ii

to be read

and

its

meaning.

ina

$ane(e)

gir

-

ri

-

ia

a

-

na

matu

Mu-sur

u

In

second

my

expedition

to

Egypt

and

matu

Ku-u-

si

-

/eI

-

es -

se

-

ra

har

-

ra

-

nu

Ethiopia

directed

the way.

rm

IHUr-

da

ma Urdamane

ni

-

e

alu

Me

-

im

-

pi

Memphis1f

HfTT=u-

HF-

-^- gyT ^I^f>aS-ri-$u,

"thy2W ~;

mercy"; g^' ^JIJ ^E|,

"its

place"

;

^^J|

A^ L?

;wr-^, "his body"; ^J>- gj?yy

^g^J ^^|,blood";

h'-ma-tu-u$, "his destiny";

-^y"those kings"; "those

"those districts"; i^-, na-gi-i su-a-tu-nu,,

sarraniP 1 hi-a-tu-nu,?

VV;

mdtati?

1

hi-a-ti-na,?

lands"

^^yT{(b)

E^f

^^E,

^^ekallum(lum)

^yh'-f,

^//j// U-ti-na, "those palaces";;

S^yy^, paraMu

Su-u, "that shrine"

"that palace";

>^-,

mu-ra-ni $u-u, "those1

young

lions"

;

^

J

sdbeP su-nu-ti, "those people"; ~^- ^y, ^yy^ S^ ^^pronounis:

^->> sade\ and tff^ |

plural,

e.

g.

^;

**

saddni ?

l

(/'),ir~ ri ~ e

occur as plurals__of_^7^, ^mQuntain"girre),

^yy^

*~]\(*

1 *~\i>

and ^flk ^TII

^"1^

K^I^

gir-n-e-ti

e

girreti)

occur

as plurals of girru, "expedition".

The masculinethe termination

plural^pf_adjectives_//,

is

formed^ by means ofdti,

the feminine plural by the terminationeti

which generally becomesadjective

after a

preceding

/'

or

e,

e.

g,

masc. plur.

fern. plur.

damku "favourable",rabu

damkuti,rabuti,

damkdti.rabdti.

"great",

gasru_ellu

"strong","bright","distant

gasruti,elluti,

gatrdti.elleti.

ruku

rukuti,

rukdti

and

ruketi.

NOUNS

LIXit

Therefers,

adjectivee.

generally follows the substantive to whichEJfflf?

Position1

g.

fcjjgSE|*- y

^

Sarrur*

dan-nu,?',

"mightygreat

king";^gods";

^

*-*y~

y

?//

ra$w//

"the

^1

T

^TTthe

3!L^is

-J-+i\Tothis

*>-

^,

ku-la i-kab-bu-u,

they

utter".

rule,

however,

exceptions

con-

stantly occur, the case endings being oftenately,e.

employed indiscrimin-

g,

^yyy

^y - Ejjfcj,

"may my

shine"

;

-

^^ ^:]}

JtJ

^^yy >^y-

^^,

;

*

-

LX

INTRODUCTION

J/-/HW,

botha

mean "on

earth" or "on the earth".itself,it

Whenit

noun stands by

is

said to be in theis

absoit,

lute state.is

When

a substantive in the genitive

joined to

said to be in the construct state.

In consequence of the

close connection of

two nounsis

so

joined they are pronounced

togetherfirst

and there

a

tendency to lighten and shorten the

of the two.

A noun

in the construct state, therefore, (i.) geif itis

nerally drops the mimation, and,

a singular

noun

in the

nominative or accusative,ing(in

it

also generally drops the case

end

some words

a

short

droppedreappears,(2.)if

out before the case-endinge.

vowel of the stem has already and this in the constructin the construct

g.

zikru,is

"name",in

becomesthei

zikir)

;

the

noun

the;

genitive,(3.) indti,

however,

of the

genitive does not disappear

the case of a plural nounuti

the plural terminations am,tively an,at,it

eti

and

may become

respec-

and:

ut.

The

following examples will illustrate

the above rules

fcz=^;

AE^

Ef

]}

^1^

nap-har ma-a-ti, "the

whole of the land""sun-rise";

^]] gg^y HP"

*| -^f- y^

zi-kir mati-su-un,

"the

namefirst-

of their land"

^*:

A^-

4^\^

A-nim, "the

born of

Ann"

;

VJ>,

^E

^] ]} **-]{,his

^ laf

i-la-a-tt,

"goddesszik-ri

of goddesses"; f} *~*~]su-mi-sa, "at the*~->^-

^-]]\ ^]name";

mention of

^^ f ^f

J,

a-na

t\ JEJ ^^| "myJ

^ears

openilu

(Y.

inform me)

4$?\

a-na-ku-u mar-ti

B'el,

"amis

I

not the daughter of Bel?"

Thecndin

ad-

The

verbialCT

adverbial ending YYY J J yy j,

i$

(or eS)

of veryi

commonTT**Y"*,.

occurrence,//.

^~*\it

T*

"y

/^

Q;

^/-//?,

"below"is

f

^-

ma ''~^ "much". Thise.

adverbial termination,

frequently employed for comparison,"like a

g.

,

"like a bird";,

>-ET

^

i' na ">

rare ty

^SS

in

-

ana "to". Ideogr. y

;

written phonetically y

PREPOSITIONSiUuultuI

LXV

"from". Ideogr.

;

written phonetically

^:J^

^^,//-//.

Preposi-

|

#-/; -^=y,

ul-tu.

////"with". Ideogr.

^JEJ

;

written phonetically;

E^J *^J