Απαντημενα θέματα ΑΝΟΡΓΑΝΗΣ ΧΗΜΕΙΑΣ

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Transcript of Απαντημενα θέματα ΑΝΟΡΓΑΝΗΣ ΧΗΜΕΙΑΣ

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1. IUPAC =113, ( ) . ; (Cl ). . IUPAC > 100, Ununtrium (Uut). .. = 113 Uub, 7 3 ( ). [Rn]5f146d107s27p1 ( 2.2). l In ( ). Cl ( 3.2) UutCl3 UutCl.

2. . . Ti, Fe3+, V, Mn2+, K () K > Ti > V > Mn2+ > Fe3+. , ( 3.3, 3.2 - 3.4). Mn2+ Fe3+ Mn > Mn2+ Fe > Fe3+. Mn2+ Fe3+ ( 23 ), Fe3+ (26 25 Mn2+). () K < Ti < V < Mn2+ = Fe3+. ( 3.5). . : 4s19

[Ar]4s

1

[Ar]2

3d 4s 4s 4s 3d 3 d 3d

1 2 3

22

Ti [Ar]3d 4s V [Ar]3d 4s3

2

[Ar] [Ar]

23

2

25

Mn2+ [Ar]3d5 Fe3+

[Ar] [Ar]

5 4s 5

26

[Ar]3d

5

: , ns (n 1)d. [Ar] .

3. . () K, Cs, Rb, Li () N, B, Be, O () : Cs < Rb < K < Li. T .. ( 1). , ., ( , n) eff . . () : B < Be < O < N . T .. , .. eff . ( 3.9, . 176). , np ( ) ns . 1 1 Be. , 1 1 . (2p) . , 1 1 .

4. N Br 1 . 1 laser . 3.4, ( nm) 1 Br. ; () .. ( ). (r), = 35, (I), = 53, . , 1 1 , (g) + e X(g) Br. () (g) X(g) + e . . 3.4 1 Br 324,6 kJ mol-1 , mole , Br(g) + e r (g) . , E Laser 1 mol Br(g) +324,6 kJ mol1 . 1 ( ) Br(g), : 1 = /A= (324,6 kJ mol1) (103 J kJ1) /6,022 1023 mol1 = 5,390 1019 J. : 1 = h =h c/ = h c/E1 = (6,626 1034 J s 2,998 108 m s1) / 5,390 1019 J = 3,685 107 m = 368,5 nm 2.3, (. 3.7).

5. ; . Lewis . . Mo 4 . H a(s) Na+(g) + e- 1 Na. 6 3d Fe2+ Co3+. 1 . T Na+, 2 , Mg2+, Ne, F . Cu+ 1 o o. 1A .. 1 . 1 1.

Lewis .

Lewis . VSEPR . .

. . Mo 4 .

Mo 6 . [Kr]4d55s1 [Kr]4d45s2, (d5) .

H a(s) Na+(g) + e- 1 Na.

(1) , , . (1) : a(g) Na+(g) + e, [Ar]3d6 1 .

6 3d Fe2+ Co3+

( ), 1 .T Na+, 2 , Mg2+, Ne, F .

, 5 , [Ne] . Cu+ 1 o o.

Cu [Ar]3d104s1 Cu+ [Ar]3d10 . 1 .. 1 .

( 1) I1 ( 3.9). 1 1

O (eff ) .

6. AlCl3(s). () AlCl3(s) 704 kJ/mol. () l(s) +326 kJ/mol. () , Al +558, +1820 +2750 kJ/mol, . () Cl 244 kJ/mol. () Cl Cl 349 kJ/mol. 4.2, : Al(s) 1. Al(s) Al(g) 2. Al(g) Al3+(g) + 3e 3. 3/2Cl2(g) 3Cl(g) 4. 3Cl(g) + 3e 3Cl(g) 5. Al3+(g) + 3Cl(g) AlCl3(s) 6. Al(s) + 3/2Cl2(g) AlCl3(s) Cl-Cl 1 Cl(g) AlCl3(s) AlCl3(s)

H1 = 326 kJ mol1 H3 = (3/2 244) = 366 kJ H4 = 3(349) = 1047 kJ H5 = ? H = 704 kJ mol1

Al(g) (1+2+3) H2 = 5128 kJ mol1

Hess : . = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 5 = 5477 kJ mol1 , AlCl3(s) +5477 kJ mol1.

7. , : () CH3OH, () H2CO () CO . Lewis (. 4.10 4.11).

() C ( = 1), () ( O = 2) () ( = 3). ( 4.11), ( ), . : : () > () > () : () > () > () : () > () > ()

8. M 4.7, : () NO NF, () HO HS, () CF CBr, () CH C. . ( 4.7) ( ). A 4.7 : C = 2,5, = 3,5, = 3,0, S = 2,5, = 2,1, r = 2,8 = 2,5, F = 4,0. F 0,5 1,0 H O H S 1,4 0,4 C F C Br 1,5 0,3 C H C I 0,4 0

+ + : + , F H , O C C +. F H 4.8 , 20%, 40%, 45% 5%, (. 4.9).

9. Lewis : () 3 , () PH3, () PO43 . ; P43 3 3 . 4.14 : ()

12 ( ). ()

( ). ()

10 ( ).

10. VSEPR, : () CF3Cl, () ICl3, VSEPR ( 4.10), Lewis , ( ) 4.5 4.6: () H2S, () XeF4, () PCl5, () N2O, () ClO3 , () SF6,

() SiF4, () CH3

CF3Cl

=4, =0

H2S

=2, =2

PCl5

=5, =0

ClO3

=3, =1

SiF4

=4, =0

ICl3

=3, =2

XeF4

=4, =2

N2O

=2, =0

SF6

=6, =0

CH3

=3, =1