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- HdG jG ```f

``````````J eCG e HdG dG jH dG YVdG SGQO J cCGh ,gCG cCG H a ,HdG idG SGQO ac H YVdG .bdG f a IQKEG cCGh ,dT d GPEG - j jdG ee a CN iCG Ca ;gCG cCG fc eCa a ,edG e Ic AGLC QeO dEG iODj CG - adG YdH j c GPEG cQGJ j iNCG HdG idG ee H a CN iCG CG M .gCG cCG fEG f g eh , jdG f k HdG idG YVd SQGO iCG Ca ;dT cCG fc eCGh ee a iNCG hdG aH Jhe LQH eT ae dEG j ej fEa HdG GddG jbh ke SQJ M fCa ,HdG idG BH UdG LGdG e FNh HdG GddG SGQO M k YVe EG f g eh .dG UY H SGQO Y Ggh ,HdG .dT cCG g jbdG HdG idG eH J dG YCG Ca ;IQKEG cCG fc eCGh Se j K eh ,ahX Y d f bdG ah ,Ieh Yeh Ic CG jbdG Se Yh ,ej T IjL GMCG eCG FGO f jbdG k c eeCa ,IOdG dG g d FGO JNh Yh a j k o H OGdG a QJ dG iNCG hdG e d kaN jL AT j .e H JhQ GQeCG Jh Ia k dT cCGh gCG cCG g b c jbdG YVe Ea g eh .HdG idG SGQO ac H eh IQKEG cCGh ?dG Gg GPd dG a J H HdG dH Le OjE dhe dG Gg dG IQKEGh ddGh ,gCG :jbdG YVd gcP HdG dG 3

- HdG jG ```f

d HdG fdG OhdG QdG Sh .HdG SdG ed dPh a e a c a Ieh e IQH Vhe jbdG e .dG N Ic bGhh Y d Pf jCG jh ,dG k dG a j edG VY a GjL HSCG j dGh k k a c IdG dGh VjdG OdG Y dG jOcCG jh ,HdG dG bGh e b ee j d ,KdG LGdG .dG a dGh dG Y j ke ?dG Gg d dch ,AHdG bCG a FdG GdG d SSCG c dG Gg k keJ cCG fCG H ,NCG Lh Y AHdG S h eY Sd SCG a YhQ a VdG gC Gfh .. d ,HdG dG e k iOdG QdG SJ e Ic AGLCG CG LQO dEG , ke j CG Hc Se jCG L HdG dH Hc CG c .e SdG Z M k k ej e SSCG a Y MdG dG dG e jY d H j CG j dG CG Th .dG a J hCG d e e hO H a e Ghj dh jbdG Vd edG d gdGh edG W .GVdG a fj dG dG g WH fC ;dG d e edG dG d dG SCG CG jGdG a a a Gdh ,HdG g dG Gg d HdG Qd Gf ,QNG Gg SG dh ,HdG a a HdG k H d eGb dEG JAGb Y j AdG Oj dGh ,dG Gg a e UCG HdG dG d QU M ,HdG dH edG dG jfEG dH dH NCG e Ha Gdh !LCG LGdG d aOGdG e H cCG HQ ,H L Y Y SdG ZCG QU dGh .HdG cCG CG khCG a : e dG ed jW e cCG eeCG c bh k .dG U c a dPh ,LJ Sb Hh HdG dH dG 4

- HdG jG ```f

CG Y eCG H SG K .QGdG e f a S dP CG Lh dh cP j CG Y ,dG e b VGe a a HdG LdG SCG j h ,dG U ZCG a LJ hHh jfEG dH dG da : JeL ac a edG jdG g jdG g CG MCG Y GY HdG dH AT c j PSCGh ,jfEG dH e edG .g JG idG SCG gh ,dG hH dG V J Overcurrent Relay c CG QdG S ka fC Overcurrent Relay ddG g a fh{ : ke f Cc LJ e M ,LJ hH Gg ,z...YCG e YdG g cG a aCG a SCG Gg CG QdG Sh .d ee dG g CG cDdG QJh .jW J b LdG CG UN ,HdG LdG QGJ e kH IAGdG Y dG jdG GJDdG H UhCG e g SCG Gg CG dEG IQTEG .HdG dhdG a dG gdG jJ QJ d :GNCGh k eJ jGQO Y HdG SdG j CG hj e a da e J H ,HdG dG UY jM a dG jbdG SCH .dEG ... ,dG Nh ,jRdG bh ,dGh ,GddG iNCG FGb dG jf a IOLdG edG LGdG Fd VCG bh dDd Ie kKH J dG LGdG d a c jf a Ie d aVEH ,ddG GJDdGh dG jQhdG a gf b c jj d ,dG VH bY d dGh jNB jdGh jdG HCG .jj CG f dG UdG ad QdG e Ie YH dG OhR c . Vd dG dG a QdG j M ;eEG Qb Y

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- HdG jG ```f

dG N bU :K e EG Y fG OBG HG e GPEG{ : () dG SQ b .zd Yj dU dh hCG ,H j Y hCG ,jQL .zH j Y{ : H dG Gg j CG eCj dDdG h

fL Oe .O.CG

2006 HcCG - jdGmahmoudgilany@yahoo.com

: dDdG e UGd

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S``dG3 .............................................................................................................................. : 7 ...................................................................................................................... jJh T : hCG dG

9 ............................................................ HdG idG f jbh SSCG: fdG dG

37 .................................................................................... QdGh G : ddG dG

67 .................................................................... QdG IOjR V jbdG ILCG: HGdG dG

111 .............................................................................................. aG jbdG: eG dG

153 ...................................................................... HdG idG jbh: SOdG dG

189 ................................................................................ HdG GdG jbh: HdG dG

219 .............................................................. G a jRdG b jbh 239 .............................................................. : KG dG HM e 255 ............................................................................................ ```e```Y ``LG``e

256

. . . .. .

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

1

hCG dG

jbh SSCG HdG idG fj idG ddG e CGJ 1-1 dG a hJ c HdG idG ee ,Synchronous Generator eGdG dG e j e IOY gh ,AHdG dY b dEG ddG L b aj idG Transformer dH GQhe k e e ddG IQdG a dG N K eh QdG b N VH GHCG Y de J CG eEG kdZ gh ,IQdG f N dP j K ,NB Hc Hc IQU a eEGh ,(Overhead Transmission Lines) dY J K ,dG NGO S (Underground Cables) VQCG a fae dG Distribution Transformers jRdG e e YH dG N YdG WdG a dG Y jRd e b dEG dG J ,HdG e T N e (e L) fdG WdGh ,(Se L) jh .Distribution Boards HdG MdG e Ye YH J ,Bus Bars jRdG H j e N e H edG UY HQ e OY Y cj dG gh ,1-1 dG a S c J dGh .hdG jNh NdG jN dPh ,YCG e Ic GfC ,SCd ,Ve edG edG g Qd IOe d Jh gUY H J NGO J b SC AGLCG Y IKDdG jdG eGdG f LQN SC J hCG ,dGh dG Gg e hCG AdG a VS fEa Gdh .edG g e LQdG . HdG idG ee a YCG GfCGh SC 11

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

dch ,jbdG ee Ud dG Gg e fdG AdG a Vf K g c jbdG ILCG eJ dG Relaying Signals GQTEG TCG GfCG TCGh ,Protective Relays jbdG ILCG GfCG TCG ASCGh ,YCG . jbdG ILCG Hh H bdGh ,Circuit Breakers HdG IFGdG WGb dG jbdG ee a SSCG gdG gC Vf ddG AdG ah H e j CG UN jbdG Seh eY AHdG Sd j v k k dG dG gC dG Gg e HGdG AdG a Vf CG b eJ eEG v k .eY H jbdG ILCG QNG Y YGJ ILCG J W TC Vf dG Gg e NCGh eG AG ah .jG bdG ILCH AfGh fehdEG ILCG e GAH jbdG k k

HdG idG ee 1-1 dG

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HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

idG ee YCG 1-1

YCG SCG 1-1-1a W Z GJ j e c g HdG idG ee a YCG k dG a QfG hM g keY dP j e cCGh . dG hCG QdG b f HQ hCG ,Hc hCG fe V H UdG Y OLdG H hCG ,N H eJ hM hCG ,VQCG e eJ H hCG ,jL hX dG d QfG hM dEG iODJ dG SCG e dP Z dEG , VQCGh N c .c hCG dG hCG QdG b a W Z GJ J K eh ,SSCG k ,ke IFGdG Ue MCG a c H Open Circuit f dG j b . Over load FGR J f jCG dG j bh k

YCG J 2-1-1:YCG J e dZh k :dG j Ha ,dH IKCdG Phases LhCG Od kW * Single Lines to Ground. VQCH ee GMGh vN k k * Double Lines to Ground. VQCG e ee N * Three Lines. e ee N KK k * Phase to Phase. e ee N k * Three Lines to Ground. VQCG e ee N KK HQCG GfCG ka , Phases``dG H HdG LQd kW J b c b C Unsymmetrical Faults Ke Z kYCG J HdG hCG kY a edG dG eCG ,NB Phase e J dGh QdG Phases``dG L a GQdGh OdG b C Symmetrical Fault kKe .jhe dG a , Phase Faults hCG Earth Faults gQYH YCG J bh dG IFGO e GAL a VQCG J idG dG a EF gh hCG k 13

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

GAL d VQCG Ea k

Phase Faults gh fdG dG a H ,dG

.dG dG IFGO e ,dG bj dG edG Id kW jCG YCG J jh k ,Transient Faults d iNCGh , Permenant Faults FGO YCG a a ddHh ,ke VQCG Y S FGg N f J b dhCa j a dG e ke IT a eJ f J b fdG H .FGO YCd iNCG J gh .c c VdG Lj K gd UY .dG Gg a kM d VS jbdG ee UY 2-1

jbdG ee Xh 1-2-1da ,dG hM e d jbdG ee Xh CG dEG khCG g f ILC IQb LQN J b HSCG YCG e dG C ; e T . bH YCG a YS g jbdG ee QhO d ,e Y jbdG :g jbdG ee QhO EG f cCG Hh IQTEG SQEG K eh ,feh JQN ie jJh YCG cG hCG ,a dG Circuit Breaker HdG WGd Trip Signal a c dPh ,dG e e dG WGd Block Signal e IQTEG . Protective Relay jbdG RL SGH j .SdG WGdG a SGH j dPh ,a dH IKCdG UdG Y a jdG ee UY f CG j fEa VdG Gg Y AHh :g FQ jY Protective Relays PR jdG ILCG - 1 Circuit Breakers CB HdG IFGdG WGb - 2 GQTEH jdG ILCG jJ Y e dK Y dEG jh :g dG Ggh ,QGdG PJG K dGh dG Y CGd eRdG 14

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

.Voltage and Current Transformer VT&CT : QdGh dG e - 3 e jd fdG dG d f a QdGh dG e eCa Gg a GLe MT d f a CBs HdG IFGdG WGb eCGh .dG k k j idG ,dG Gg f QN J d dG SGQdG EG M dG Circuit Y eY Ie If g S d ,a jbdG ILCH SSCG k .jbdG ILCG Hh H bd kjJh Breakers

jbdG ee UY e 2-2-1M ,HdG idG ee NGO IQe IQH LJ jbdG ee a dG S a ,jM OGj Y d e jbh ee Lj c e IOLe fCG c , Transmission Line c jfh jGH a IOLe a . 1-1 dG a gX g c , Transformer c e IOLeh , Generator S d , H UN jbh ee d gcP HdG UdG e Y .kM S c dG jbdG ee Y H dG e f g WGdG e eCG ,H dG Z NGO jbdG ILCG Vh jh eEGh LQdG dG a c dG MS a eEG a VTh CT eh .1-1 IQdG a c RdH dhdG dG a GIS Ye V NGO UdG bGdG a j 1-1 dG a U He c CG dEG IQTEG QJh . Relay + CB + VT + CT ``dG j fCG iCG ,jbdG ed KdG e a jbdG UY Yd dG dG J 1-1 IQdGh .kfeCG cCG fC vdM dG Yf TCG gh SF6 RH dhdG GIS :e c IQdG a hjh w oCircuit Breaker (CB) Voltage Transformer, (VT) Current Transformer (CT)

a adG SCG M .KdG jbdG ee UY H gh aZ a kdZ VJ dG jbdG ILCG dEG GQTEG J dG gh IQdG .dG MS Y IH UN 15

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG Earthing ``dG e IYdG dG UY H dc IQdG a Jh

. Busbars ``dG dch Isolator ,ES ,SwitchCircuit Breaker Current Transformer Isolator

Bus Bar

Voltage Transformer

Earthing Switch

GIS Yd dG dG 1-1 IQU

Relaying Signals

YCG GQ````TEG 3-2-1

J MCG ZCG a QdGh dG b Ea IFGdH Y hM Y Z - iNCG b g dH d ,acGh He j kXe GJ r k J dG GQTEG Lh ,YCG hM f J b - dGh QdG :dG S Y eh (Relaying Signals)`H J YCG cG a .(j hCG Jj b) OOdG dM a UN ,a SfG j b) HdG IQdG Qhe JG .(GddG .(dG f j b) KdG Phases ``dG a MCG RGJ 16

HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG

e H b J M Circuit Impedance Z IFGdG fe b S c dG e jJ Y GYe dP j CG jh ,dG k .kM dG dG) e d QdG QdGh NGdG QdG b H dG . (Y f Cj H ...gZh e cCG -QdGh ddG b a hCG - GQTEG g e iCG a J ha j dG a M b W Z e T CG j H dG OhdG k .dG LQO dEG Uh EG ,IFGdG a j K eh ,SGQOh acG

:SdG ebQCGh jbdG ILCG GfCG 4-2-1e jdG J J a GQTEG e dG GfCG g Y AHh bQ RL c AYEG Y JG SdG H edG ddh .jbdG ILCG k . SG Y j ANSI Code `d kW ebQCGh jbdG ILC eCG H j 1-1 hdGh .Ie dY Sb UGe gh IEC ``d kW IdG RedG dch

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HdG idG f jbh SSCG - hCG dG jbdG ILCG d SdG bQCGh RedG 1-1 hL

:gCG e ,HdG hdG a j d ILCG e jdG g dHh25 Synchronizing Check 52 Circuit Breaker 40 Field Failure 86 Lock out

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