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, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne, Operating Systems Concepts, 6th Edition. : http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/yau/cs503/

(); (Mainframe Systems) (Desktop Systems) (Multiprocessor Systems) (Distributed Systems) (Clustered Systems) (Real -Time Systems) (Handheld Systems) (Computing Environments)

3

() ()

: / 4

1. 2. (Hardware) (, , / (I/O devices)). (.. , , ) (, , )

3.

4.

5

6

(extended virtualmachine). / 1: 2: , (interrupt handling)

7

() (resource allocation). 1: H , , 2: ,

8

() Top down view: () ( ),

Bottom up view: , , , , / , - (Tanenbaum, 2001)

9

10

... (resource allocator) /

(Kernel) , ( ) 11

.

,

12

(batching of similar jobs)

( ) monitor):

( ) (resident, , 13

(Spooling) ( , , / )

,

,

,

14

(batch system)

15

3 : : , (Tanenbaum, 1993)

, 16

17

() ( ) ( )

( ) 18

()

19

(Time-sharing Systems) (interactive) . ,

20

(Interactive Computing) H KME

(swapped) . ,

(file systems) 21

(Desktop Systems)

I/O , , ,

, (Windows, MacOS, Linux) 22

MS-DOS:

23

Unix:

24

(Tightly coupled systems) , ()

: ( ) ( ) ( ) 25

() (Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)) SMP

(Asymmetric multiprocessing) ,

26

27

(Real-Time Systems) , , ,

(hard - ) (soft ) 28

() : , ROM

: (, )

29

. : (peer-to-peer NOSs) (dedicated server NOSs)

30

( )

(Loosely coupled systems)

(networks) -load sharing (reliability & availability) ( )

:

31

() (Local area networks (LANs)) (Wide area networks (WANs))

-(client-server) (peer-to-peer)

32

( WAN)

33

(Client Server)

34

(Clustered Systems)

(Asymmetric clustering):

(Symmetric clustering): 35

(Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)) : ()

36

37

-

39

To (Application Programming Interface - API)

( ), ( / )

40

UNIXUNIX , UNIX . UNIX :

(kernel): , , , ( ) 41

Unix

42

(Layered Approach) To -(layers levels), . ( 0), , ( N) - (user interface)

(modularity), 43

44

OS/2

45

Microkernel

: ( kernel mode) 46

Client-Server / ()

(iterative)

( ), (concurrent)

47

- Windows NT

48

(Virtual Machines) (virtual machine)

, ()

49

() ,

50

51

/ . , . ,

52

Java Java bytecodes Java (Java Virtual Machine JVM)

H JVM : (class verifier) (run-time interpreter)

Just-In-Time (JIT)

53

Java

54

(Modules) (kernel modules) (interfaces)

, 55

()

56

, , ,

, , , ,

57

( )

,

58

assembly,

: (debugging)

(porting)

59

(SYSGEN) . (configured)

SYSGEN

(Booting) Bootstrap ROM ,

60