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συνταγματική θεώρηση του πολιτισμού στην Ελλάδα

Transcript of πολιτιστικό περιβάλλον τελικό

E

1975/86/2001

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............................................................................................................................................. 2 ........................................................................................................................................ 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 7 ........................................................................................................................... 15 ................................................................................................................. 33 ........................................................................................... 37 .................................................................... 37 - ............................................. 39 . ....................................................... 51 1975/86 ........... 52 24 . 2001 ................................................................ 58 ....................................................................................................... 61 ..................................................................................................................... 66 ........................................................................ 70 . 24 . ........................................................................................................................................................ 75 ................................................................................................. 78 , ............................................................ 84 ....................................................................... 86 ..................................................................... 89 ........................................................................................... 94 ................................................. 101 ................................................................. 102 ............................................................... 106 ............................... 110 .............................................. 121 .................................... 121 . ; ....................................... 128 .............................................................. 132 24.6 . ......................................................................................... 143 . ........................................................................... 149 ........................................... 149 - .............................................................. 151 ................................................................................................... 154 .................................................................................................................................................. 158 . 151 ......................................................................................................... 161 ........................................................................................................ 166 . ................................................................................... 170 ............................................................ 175 ........................................................................................... 177 . .............................................................................................. 179 ........................................................................................... 182 ................................................... 186 . .............................................................................................................................................................. 194 . 1650/1986 ................................................................... 198 . 2742/1999 . 2508/1997 ..................................................................................................................................... 205 . 1892/90 ................................................................................ 211 ......................................................... 211 . 5351/1932 , ........................ 227 3028/2002 ................................................................................................................ 237

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....................................................... 243 . .......................................................................................................... 254 . ......................................... 254 .................................................................................................................................. 254 - . 5351/1932 . 5351/32 ........................................................................... 255 9 . 5351/1932 - contra legem ......................................... 255 52 . 5351/1932 ........................................................................................................................ 257 . 1469/1950 1830 .................................................................................................................. 259 .......................................................................... 259 5 . 1469/50 ................. 264 .................................................. 265 . 3028/02 .......................................................... 270 ....................................................................................................... 270 ............................................... 271 , ........................................................................................................................... 271 ........................................................................................... 271 ..................................................................................... 272 .................................................................................................................... 278 ............................... 278 ........................................................................... 281 ........................................................................ 281 .................................................................... 282 .................................................................................................................. 283 ......................................................................................... 283 . - ............................................................................................... 283 . ............... 285 .............................................................. 285 . . 1469/50. ................................................................................................................................................ 287 O ................................................................................... 288 288 ........................................................................................ 290 1975 ............................................ 292 ............................................................ 299 ...................................................................................................................................... 301 : ..................................................................... 301

............................................................................................................................... 311............................................................................................................................................... 311 ......................................................................................................................................... 335

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AJDA A. K. A.N. .. . . art. . .. . C.E. concl. D. .

ctualit Juridique de Droit Administratif A () article () Conseil d'Etat Conclusions Receuil Dalloz ()

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.... .... E... . LGDJ Ml. . .. Librairie Gnrale de Droit et de Jurisprudence Mlanges

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.. (..) .. .. PUF () Presses Universitaires Franaises

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PUN R.D.P. RFDA RTDE . . . .C.

Presses Universitaires de Nancy Revue de Droit Public et de la Science Politique Revue Franaise de Droit Administratif Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Europen Tribunal de Conflits

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. , . ., , 1979, . 25 . . 28 17 24 ., ., , 1982, . 66 . ( ), ., , . . 1929-1979,1, 1979, . 128 ., ., , , 1984, . 13, ., , 1985, . 38 ., ., ( , 36, . 724, ., , 1983, , , , . 28 ., ., , 1989, ., , 1985, . 33, ., , 1987, . 116 ., . / ., , 36, . 1581 ., ., , 1,1984, .,. , 23, . 1205, ., , , , , 1991, . -, . 29 .123

. ., , 1975, . 209 ., . 230 : 23 , .124

3682/86 ... , . 17, 24.1 , , ' , , , ( .

55

. 125 . , 126. . 24.1 6 127 128, 129,130. 125

., , 1985, . 48 .126

., , , . 117 ., , , . 50 .127

., , .128

., , , . 54 . .129

. ., , . 160, . 459; , , . 3123/1990, , . . 3897/1988, , . , . . ., , , 1977, . 91 .130

., , , (), - ., 1991, . 64, 65. 56

131, 132, 133. . 2001 134, . , .., , . 1998, . 220 .131

. , , . 44 . .132

., , , . 58 . . ., , , , 1979, . 23, 24 .133

. - ., . 24 . , . 1975, 1990, . 157.134

() 550/1999 : 6. , 21 . 1 . , , . 4 21, . , , , , . , , 24 , , , , , , , ' 57

2001 . 2001 3347/1999 , , . . 24 . , 135. .

24 . 2001

2001136 137

, , ' , , , 26 . 1, 24 . 2 43 . 2 .135

. ., , , . 2000, . 612 .136

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., , . 2002, ., , , , . 2000, ., , 1975, ., : 21 - , 1998, , , . , 2001, . (), , . 2002, ., , . , . , 2000, . 1037 ., ., , , 2000, ., 2001, . , 2002, . 340 ., .., , , , 4/2000, .475 ., , (.), , - , 2000, . (), 24 , , , 8, . , 2002, ., , 2001, . 2001, , ., ., , . 2000, ., , , 10/11-02-01, ., , , . 2000, ., ., , , . 2001, . 305 ., ., 2001, , , ., ., . (), . 2001, . 105 ., ., , , 18-01-95, ., , , , , 10-11-00, ./ ./ . () , , , . , 2001, ., . () 1975/86/2001, 2001.137

24 1975/86 ., , 20.11.2000, ., 24 , 4/2000, . 509 ., ., , 4/2000, . 468 ., ., , 8.10.2000, ., , , 10.11.00 , , . , 2001,59

. 24 .138. 139. ., , , 31-12-00, ., 24 , , 29-01-01, ., , , , , 2000, . 475 ., ., , 24 , , 4/2000, . 464 ., ., , 8.10.2000, ., , , 10/2001, . 427 ., ., 24 : ? 4/2000, . 590 ., ., , , 01-12-00, ., , 4/2000, . 521 ., ., 24 , , 10/2001, . 417 ., ., 24, 19.11.2000, ., 24 , 4/2000, . 586 ., ., , 4/2000, . 466 ., ., 24 , , 29-11-00, ., . , 12.11.2000, ., , , 12-02-01, ., , , 14-11-00.138

. ., 2001, , , ., ., . (), . 2001, . 105 .139

. ., , , , . , 1996, ,. , . , 2000, .., (85/337/) , , 1998, . 561 ., ., , . 2000, . - ., , - ., , ,1995, ., , 42, . 151-155. . 60

. . 24 . 140. , . 24 . 141. . 24.1 ., , . .

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. ., , ( GATT ), , 2002, ., , . 2001, ., 61

24 . 1 . . 143 , . , , , . , , . 144,145

. . 24

2001, . (), 24 , , , 8, . , 2002, . 57 , ., , , 2003, . 94 ., ., 2001, . 2002, . 386 ., ., : , . , 1998, . 23 ., ., , 2000, . 466 ., ., 2001, , / / () , . , 2001 . 105 . Eleftheriadis P., The future of environmental rights in the European Union, Alston Ph (ed), The EU and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, 2000 . 529 ., .143

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106 . . o TVX , . , , , 28 . 146 147.

, , . 2002, . 306 .145

. ., ( 2/1999 . 182 ).146

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63

148. , , , , , . 149, Supreme Court 150. 148

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24 . . , . ( ) 154. 5 155 156

,

sustainability

2844/1993, 2760/1994, 3955- 6/1995,5235/1996, 2731/1997, 4207/1997, 772/1998, 637/1998, 2425/2000 ( : 2000, . 619 .), .. 577/1995, 618/1995 ..). , , 24 106 ., 2 130 ., ., - , , .. , 2002.154

Agenda 21 2004 . .- ., , . 2001, . 102 .155

( 1993, C 138, . 5, ). , 1992-2000 : . , , 1 1993 ( C 138, . 1). . . 2179/98/ 24 1998 . L 275 10/10/1998 . 0001 0013, http://europa.eu.int/eurlex/el/lif/dat/1998/el_398D2179.html . Liger C- 371/98 The Queen v Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions ex parte First Corporate Shipping Ltd.156

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67

Agenda 21157, 158. . ,159

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157

http://sedac.ciesin.org/pidb/texts/a21/a21-contents.html.158

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.

2805/1997, 2818/1997, 609/1996.159

. , . 2000, . 147 .

160

. 2742/1999 . ., . 2742/1999, 4/1999 . 519 .161

, 68

24 . , . ,163,164 165

,

. ,

( ) , . 18/1/2002 . 1/2002, . 198 . . ., , . 393 .162

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163

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28 . . 1 . , 15/11/1996, , 15/11/1996 , , . . , . 24.3 ., 1999, . 28.69

. . , . . 1 . 2508/97 . , . . 67/1998 , , 166. . . 24 . .

. 2 24 , , , 167.

166

. ., , , . 2000, . 615 .167

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, , . . 168. , , . (patrimoine culturel)

, , 24 . 2 , , , . ( 1071/1994, 1072/1994, 6070/1996 ..), , , , , , , , , , . . 1712/1998 : , (. 24 . 1, 2 6) ( ) , - . 358/1998 , (. 24 . 1, 2 6) ( ) , .168

. . 110, 182 270 .71

. . . 24 . , . , 2001. . . 24 . 169.

169

. . () 1682/2002 : 5. , 24 , , " . ..." (. 1), " , , , , " (. 2) " , ..." (. 6). , . , , . 2 , (. . 6070/1996, 173/1998). , , . 1 6 , , . , , . , 50 . 5351 " ", 72

3. 24 . , , , , , , . . 4 , , 170. . 6. . 24 . , . , . . 1 . 24 . , . 6 , . 171,

9/24.8.1932 ./ ( 275) 1 ./ 6/1968 ( 279), , , ( : ), " ", , , , . (. . 3478/ 2000).170

. 6310/1999, de facto 1406/1999, 695/1986, 4950/1995 . ., , , 1997, , , , 1999, . 81 .171

. . 1469/50 .73

. 1975 . . 17 . 172 . 24.6 1975/86173. 3044/2002174 , 175. , , 176

172

. ., . 3044/2002, 3/2002, . 461 .173

. ., 4/1997, . 7 ., ., ( . 1071/1994 21, 1995, . 87 ., . (), , . , 1996, ., , 30, 1982, . 333 .174

197/27.8.2002

175

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, .

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2072/97 : 8. . , , . , (... 1502, 1530/1984), ' (. 4 . 1577/1985, 210 ) , . , . 43 . 2 .

75

178 28 25 179. . 28 . , , , 24 17 . , 180 181. 178

. 17 . .. ., 17 , , 10/2001, . 405 ., ., , , 02-12-00, ., , . 2001, ., 2001, , , ., ., . (.), . 2001, . 105 .179

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, (2, 1358a 10). , , . , , 24, 2, 3, , , , , , , , (. 213, 214). I . , 2001.181

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. . 184

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.

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. , , , 17 ., 190, , . 191. 192 193.

190

1212/1996 .

191

. ., , 2 ., . 2002, . 339 ., ., , , . 461 .192

1943/71 . , ' , (. 50), ' ..., 298/84 ( ), 736/1998 1998, . 408 .193

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194 .

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() 3236/1995, 2299/1996 : , 1071/1994 (.), : ( ) , . 24 . 2 , . , ( ) 17 24 . 2 . . 3392 /2001 .

83

. 24 . . 3114/1998 195. . 24 ., . 17 ., , 196. . . . . .

, . 24 . . 24 . , , 25 197 198. 195

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, ., . 25 , . 10/2001 . 457-471 , ., , 15/2002, . 641-663, ., , 1987, . 773 .198

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(. 352) . 1469/1950, , , .. 1122/72, . 667/77 (. 233), . 1-7-1981 ./ ( 387), ' , . , . , 0,6, . , 44 . 2145/1993 (. 88) , 125/92 (. 160) , , , , : 0,8, 50%, 16 . 5% 27 ., , 20.000 .. 20 , , . , , , 16 (. 1 2 ), 24 , , , , , , , , , , . , 44 . 2145/93, (0,8 0,6 ) , . , 20 . . . . , , 87

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, , .202

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, .206

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99

, , , , , 106 22 . 1. , . , , , , , , , .

,

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238

. .., , 4/1999 . 524 . , ., . , 1998, . 281 ., ., ., , , . 319 ., , , . 105 .239

300 MW , . 16 1999 C- 435/97 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) .. Autonome Provinz Bozen .. 1925/1926 , , , , , , , ( charters) cargo.

109

. . , . 240 . . 11.8.1919 . , . 142 . 150 241. , , . .240

. http://confinder.richmond.edu/241

, , .. 11.8, 1919 . . ., , , . 627 .

110

1947. 242, . 9 . 243. . . 244. , , , . , . , .

242

. Article 9 Research http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/it00000_.html

and

Culture

(1) The Republic shall promote the development of culture, and scientific and technical research. (2) It shall safeguard the natural beauties and the historical and artistic heritage of the Nation. . . Pergolesi F., Diritto Constituzionale, Padova 1962, . 104, Lombardi G. M., Contributo allo studio dei doveri constituzionali, Milano 1967, . 428.243

89. . ., . .244

regioni, . Bessone M., Sul ruolo elle regioni nel amministrazione dei beni culturali. Prospettive di riforma, Rivista Trimestriale di diritto pubblico 1975, . 201 .

111

245. , , 246. . 1992247 . 31.2 248. : , , , . . 44 , . , . 46249 :

245

. Merusi F., Principi fondamentali, art. 1-12, Mortati, Barbera, Agro, Romagnoli, Berti, Pizzorusso, Merusi, Cassese, Commentario dlia Costituzione a cura, Bologna Roma 1975, Nicola Zanichelli Editore, Soc. Ed. Del Porto Italiano, . 434 .246

. Marlines T., Diritto Costituzionale, 4 ., Guiffre Editore, . 672, , Merusi F., Principi fondamentali, , . 442 ., .247

. Bon ., Moderne F., Rodriguez Y., La justice constitutionnelle en Espagne, Economica, Presses Universitaires d' Aix- Marseille 1984.248

. - ., , . 724.

249

Article 44 Culture, Science http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/sp00000_.html#A044_ (1) The public authorities shall promote and watch over access to culture, to which all have a right. (2) The public authorities shall promote science and scientific and technical research for the benefit of the general interest. Article 46 National Heritage The public authorities shall guarantee the preservation, and promote the enrichment, of the historical, cultural, and artistic heritage of the peoples of Spain and the property that makes them up, regardless of their legal status and their ownership. The penal law shall punish any offenses against this heritage.112

, , . . , 250. . Unesco. 1976 9 , 251. Article 48 Participation of Youths The public authorities shall promote the conditions for the free and effective participation by the young in political, social, economic and cultural development.250

53.2, 14-30 ( . 46 ) AMPARO. , Die verfassungsbegchwerbe. . Bon ., Moderne F., Rodriguez Y., La justice constitutionnelle en Espagne, , . 107.251

Article 9 Basic Tasks of the State

The basic tasks of the State are: a) To safeguard national independence and create the political, economic, social, and cultural conditions conducive to it; b) To safeguard fundamental rights and freedoms and respect for the principles of the democratic State based on law; c) To defend political democracy, secure and promote the democratic participation of the citizens in solving the national problems; d) To promote the people's welfare and quality of life, real equality among the Portuguese as well as the realization of economic, social, and cultural rights by way of transforming and modernizing the economic and social structures; e) To protect and enhance the cultural heritage of the Portuguese people, defend nature and the environment, conserve natural resources, and ensure a proper regional planning;113

252, 253. 254. , . . , . . (publicisation progressive du fait culturel).

f) To secure training on and constant valorization of the Portuguese language, to defend its use and promote its international circulation.252

. 1978 . . ., , , . 31. . . 2 http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/html/constitution/constitution2.htm#titre1 Art. 2. - La langue de la Rpublique est le franais253

Conseil Constitutionnel, 23.11.1977, , , , . (dignit de l'existence). . Rivero J., La libert d'enseignement, principe fondamental de la rpublique, note sur CC. 23.11.1977, AJDA, nov. 1978, , 565, Luchaire F., Procdures et techniques de protection des droits fondamentaux, Cours Constitutionnelles et droits fondamentaux, Economica, 1982, . 68 . . 104 .254

, . , . Debbasch C., Pontier J.M., Bourdon J., Ricci J.C., Droit Constitutionnel et Institutions Politiques, 2e d., Economica, Paris 1986, . 483. . , 1958, Luchaire F., Teitgen . ., Luchaire F., Conac G., La Constitution de la Rpublique Franaise, Economica 1987, . 89.114

(service public culturel)255. H , , . . . (publicisation progressive du fait culturel). (service public culturel)256. H , , . . 23 257

255

. Mesnard A. H., L'volution de la politique culturelle sous la Vme Rpublique et la qualification du service publie culturel, Service public et Liberts, Mlanges R. E. Charlier, d. Emile Paul 1981, . 475 . Pontier J.., Le contentieux culturel devant le juge administratif, RDP 1989, . 1607 . . CE 19.3.1948, Socit Les amis de l' Oprette, Rec. 142, CE 11.5.1959, Dauphin, Rec. 294, , CE, Ass 21.11.1947, Cons. de Castex, Rec. 433, CE 26.1.1968, Dame Maron, AJDA 1968, . 293 . .256

. Mesnard A. H., , , L'volution de la politique culturelle sous la Vme Rpublique et la qualification du service publie culturel, Service public et Liberts, Mlanges R. E. Charlier, d. Emile Paul 1981, . 475 . Pontier J.., Le contentieux culturel devant le juge administratif, RDP 1989, . 1607 . . CE 19.3.1948, Socit Les amis de l' Oprette, Rec. 142, CE 11.5.1959, Dauphin, Rec. 294, , CE, Ass 21.11.1947, Cons. de Castex, Rec. 433, CE 26.1.1968, Dame Maron, AJDA 1968, . 293 . .257

1970 http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/be00000_.html Article 23 Dignity (1) Everyone has the right to lead a life in conformity with human dignity.115

. . . . 17 20 258

(2) To this end, the laws, decrees, and rulings alluded to in Article guarantee, taking into account corresponding obligations, economic, social, and cultural rights, and determine the conditions for exercising them. (3) These rights include notably: 1) the right to employment and to the free choice of a professional activity in the framework of a general employment policy, aimed among others at ensuring a level of employment that is as stable and high as possible, the right to fair terms of employment and to fair remuneration, as well as the right to information, consultation and collective negotiation; 2) the right to social security, to health care and to social, medical, and legal aid; 3) the right to have decent accommodation; 4) the right to enjoy the protection of a healthy environment: 5) the right to enjoy cultural and social fulfillment. Article 30 Choice of Language The use of languages current in Belgium is optional; only the law can rule on this matter, and only for acts of the public authorities and for legal matters.258

. 1999 http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/fi00000_.html Section 17 Right to one's language and culture (1) The national languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. (2) The right of everyone to use his or her own language, either Finnish or Swedish, before courts of law and other authorities, and to receive official documents in that language, shall be guaranteed by an Act. The public authorities shall provide for the cultural and societal needs of the Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking populations of the country on an equal basis. (3) The Sami, as an indigenous people, as well as the Roma and other groups, have the right to maintain and develop their own language and culture. Provisions on the right of the Sami to use the Sami language before the authorities are laid down by an Act. The rights of persons using sign language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation aid owing to disability shall be guaranteed by an Act. Section 20 Responsibility for the environment (1) Nature and its biodiversity, the environment and the national heritage are the responsibility of everyone. (2) The public authorities shall endeavour to guarantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and for everyone the possibility to influence the decisions that concern their own living environment.

116

. . . . 1983 259 . , . . , ( . 24 ) , . . , , ,

259

1983 http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/nl00000_.html Article 21 Environment It shall be the concern of the authorities to keep the country habitable and to protect and improve the environment. Article 22 Health (1) The authorities shall take steps to promote the health of the population. (2) It shall be the concern of the authorities to provide sufficient living accommodation. (3) The authorities shall promote social and cultural development and leisure activities.

117

260. 261. 262. 1993263. . 44 , . . 1982, . , , , , , 264.260

., , , . 31.261

. ., , , . 31.262

1989 MULTICULTURAL HERITAGE 27.- This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.263

1993 Article 44. Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of literary, artistic, scientific,intellectual and other types of creative activity and tuition. Intellectual property shall be protected by the law. Everyone shall have the right to participation in cultural life, to the use of institutions of culture, and access to cultural values. Everyone shall care for the preservation of the historic and cultural heritage and safeguard landmarks of history and culture.264

. - ., , . 798.118

. 9 , ... ... ... . 22 , , ... . . 25 , . . . 47 , . : , , , , , , . . , , , . . .