διδασκοντας αρχαια ελληνικα με ροκ τραγουδια

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Georgia L. Irby-Massie The College of William and Mary This article describes an unconventional method of teaching Greek vocabulary, grammar, and syntax through the translation or adaptation of popular songs into Attic Greek. To reinforce vocabulary and introduce or review points of grammar of syntax in a memorable way, I have adapted and translated a number of modern songs into Attic Greek. Each song was focused around one or two significant concepts (e.g., adverbs, participles, the optative mood) and was presented with the appropriate textbook chapter to augment other available materials. The students themselves, who recommended many of the songs and themes, were consequently active participants in the development of their own ancillary and review materials. My students, furthermore, were inspired to create their own translations and adaptations which were then, once the author approved the instructor’s corrections, presented to the class. Incorporating this challenging language into contemporary culture gives students a sense of intimacy and confidence with Greek. In this article, I outline the creative process, explain my Attic Greek song lyrics, and suggest further applications of this technique. 2 Greek language, grammar, composition, vocabulary, pedagogy, music, song Music, the greatest good that mortals know, And all of heaven we have below. Music can noble hints impart, Engender fury, kindle love; With unsuspected eloquence can move, And manage all the man with secret art. Joseph Addison (1672-1719) from "A Song for St. Cecilia’s Day” 1 An earlier version of this paper was read at the Tucson, AZ meeting of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South, April, 2008. I also owe a debt of gratitude to the anonymous referees, whose suggestions helped tighten my argument and improve the Greek in the songs, and to my colleague William E. Hutton for reading the revised Greek lyrics and catching some few remaining exigencies. Any remaining infelicities are my own. I also wish to thank my elementary Greek students at the College of William and Mary (Fall 2006-Spring 2007) for inadvertently suggesting the project, for cheerfully enduring my singing voice, and for reacting so positively to the songs in the first place. I dedicate this paper to the memory of my maternal grandfather Joseph Martin Kubala, whom I know only through my mother and the deep love of all music the three of us share. 2 Printing Note: Pages 45, 49 and 57 in the appendix are legal size (8.5” x 14”), to better facilitate handout-production.

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7KDW $LQW :RUNLQ 7KDWV WKH :D\ . Rouse, W. H. D. Chanties in Greek and Latin 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1930. Rubin, Joan. A Review of Second Language Listening Comprehension Research. The Modern Language Journal 78 (1994): 199-221. Saunders, A. L. The Value of Latin Prose Composition. CJ 88.4 (1993) 385-92. School House Rock! Walt Disney Video, 2002. Silverman, Allan. Color and color-perception in Aristotle's De anima. AncPhil 1989 (9): 271292. Staples, Brian Gerrard. Domus Anguli Puensis. London: Methen, 1980. Traupman, John C. Conversational Latin for Oral Proficiency, 4th ed. Wauconda, IL: BolchazyCarducci, 2007. . Conversational Latin for Oral Proficiency: Audio Conversations (2 CD set). Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 2007. Tunberg, Jennifer, Morrish and Terence O. Tunberg. Quomodo Invidiosulus nomine GRINCHUS Christi natalem Abrogaverit. Waucanda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 1998. Wilson, Andrew. $5(,26 327+5 .$, 728 ),/262)28 /,426 New York: Bloomsbury USA Childrens Books, 2004. . Harry Potter in Greek. The Classics Pages. 21 October 2008 . Woodhouse, S.C. English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language. 1910. The University of Chicago Library. The University of Chicago. 24 June 2009.

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$SSHQGL[ 7KH *UHHN 6RQJVSongs to Introduce Grammar 1. DQTUZSRY [UZPDWZQ ....................................................................................... 45 Color Man ....................................................................................................... 45 (with interlinear original English lyrics and caesuras).................................. 47 2. NZaPRM WHUDWRM ................................................................................................... 48 Monster Mash ................................................................................................. 48 3. SORXWRM RXGHQRM ................................................................................................ 51 Money for Nothing ......................................................................................... 51 Songs to Review Grammar and Vocabulary 4. GZGHN KPHUDL WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ.......................................................................... 53 Twelve Days of the Dionysia .......................................................................... 53 5. LULG [ZUD ........................................................................................................... 55 Rainbow Country ............................................................................................ 55 6. \X[K? GUXLQ .......................................................................................................... 57 Greek Heart of Oak ......................................................................................... 57 7. %URP DLPDWRM ..................................................................................................... 59 A Drop of Bromiuss Blood ............................................................................ 59 Student Songs 8. K 0XUULQK XVWUL[D H[HL ..................................................................................... 61 Myrrhine Had a Little Hedgehog .................................................................... 61 9. KOLRM IDLQHL ......................................................................................................... 63 Here Comes the Sun........................................................................................ 63 10. IXVHWDL F DU[KM ................................................................................................ 65 It Will Regrow ................................................................................................ 65

7H[WERRNV IRU ZKLFK , KDYH SURYLGHG VXJJHVWLRQV IRU VXSSOHPHQWDWLRQBalme, Maurice G. and Gilbert Lawall. Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Crosby, H. Lamar, and John Nevin Schaeffer. An Introduction to Greek. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2003 (repr). Groton, Anne. From Alpha to Omega: A Beginning Course in Classical Greek. 3rd ed. Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2000. Hanson, Hardy, and Gerald Quinn. Greek: An Intensive Course. 2nd ed. New York: Fordham University Press, 1992. Mastronarde, Donald J. Introduction to Attic Greek. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1993.

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DQTUZSRY [UZPDWZQ&RORU 0DQOriginally presented with Athenaze, chapter 8. Adapted from Black Sabbath, Iron Man, Paranoid (Warner Brothers, 1971), words and music by Tony Iommi, Ozzy Osbourne, Geezer Butler, Bill Ward; Greek lyrics by Georgia L. Irby-Massie, 2006. notes: [spoken] DQTUZSRM HLPL? [UZPDWZQ WR? JD?U PHQRM PRL PXULZQ [UZPDWZQ VH THOJHLQ RQRPDV WK?Q WH JKQ SRVL? UD_GRLM WXSWHWH XPQHLW WRLM NDLQRLM GK? UXTPRLM NDL? DP XSRJXLRLM GK? WR?Q VRIR?Q XPQRQ

R =HX?M NHODLQHIK?M EURQWD_ K $UWHPLM DUJXUD ODPSHL VHOKQK_ PDODNK_ $IURGLWK [UXVK WHUSRPHQK $SROOZQ OHXNRM $LGKM VNRWLRM R FDQTR?M +OLRM IDLGUR?M DQDWHOOHL K $TKQD SRWQLD HODLZaQ [OZUZaQ R $UKM JD?U HUXTUR?M NDL? PHODM DLPDWL WZaQ DQGUHLZQ DQTUZSZQ R PH?Q 3RVHLGZaQ WRX?M PHJDORXM [HLPZaQDM NDWD? WK?Q NXDQ TDODWWDQ NDWD[HL K ,ULM SRLNLOK WD?M NDUGLDM SDQWZQ THOJRXVD NDL? [RUHXRPHQK WZa_ RXUDQZ_a R [email protected] 'LRQXVRM WZa_ RLQZ_ WZaQ LZQ DQTHZQ HDULQZaQ R VRIR?M (UPKM R IDLGUR?M WD? SUREDWD WD? PHODQD NDL? WD? OHXND? WK_ VXULJJL WK_ SRUIXUK_ WH WD?M NDUGLDM NDL? WHUSZQ NDL? WHUSRPHQRM NXDQZaSLM IDLDLM TULFL WHUSRPHQRL NDLQRLM UXTPRLM W RQRPDWD WD? [UZPDWZQ GK? WDWWHWH

WR? PHQRM (desire, wish, purpose); PXULZQ (countless: Athenaze, chapter 15); THOJHLQ (charm, enchant); RQRPDV[L]; UD_G[L]RLM (the iota has been removed, in violation of the rules of Greek prosody, to maintain the rhythm of the song) XPQHZ XPQHLW[H] (hymn, praise, sing: Athenaze, chapter 11); NDLQRM (new, strange); R UXTPRM (measure, rhythm); DP[D] (together, at the same time); XSRJXLRM (recent, fresh); VRIRM(skilled, wise, clever: Athenaze, chapter 11) NHODLQHIKM(dark, dark-clouded); EURQWDZ (to thunder); DUJXUHRM (silvery); ODPSZ (shine); K VHOKQK (moon); PDODNRM (soft, tender) [UXVHRM [UXVRXM (golden); WHUSZ (delight); OHXNRM (light, bright, white, fair); VNRWLRM (dark, gloomy) FDQTRM (yellow, golden); DQDWHOOZ (rise); IDLGURM(bright, beaming, joyous); K SRWQLD (mistress, revered); K HODLD (olive, olive tree); [OZURM(greenish yellow, pale green, fresh, pallid) HUXTURM (red); WR? DL>PD (blood); PHODM PHODLQD PHODQ (black, dark, murky)

NDWD[HZ (pour down); NXDQHRM D RQ (dark blue, dark, black), expand to NXDQHDQ; SRLNLORM (many colored, embroidered); K NDUGLD (heart, mind, soul); [RUHXRPHQK (cp. [RURM); R RXUDQRM (sky: Athenaze, chapter 9) WR? LRQ (violet); WR? DQTRM (flower, blossom); HDULQRM (springtime)

K VXULJF (shepherds pipe); OHXNRM (light, bright, white, fair); SRUIXUHRM RXaM (purple) ; NXDQZaSLM (with dark blue eyes, by analogy with the strictly feminine but common epithet for Athena, JODXNZaSLM bright-eyed, owl-eyed); K TULF (hair); IDLRM (brown) W[D]: WDWWZ (arrange, draw up in order).

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&RORU 0DQI am color-man My intent is to charm you with the names of myriad colors So, tap the earth with your light feet and sing a clever song in new and truly strange rhythms Zeus dark-clouded thunders, Artemis silvery with the splendor of the delicate moon. Golden Aphrodite rejoicing, bright clear Apollo, shadowy Hades Beaming Helios rises golden yellow. Athena, mistress of the yellow-green olives. Ares, bright red and black with the blood of brave men. Poseidon pours down great storms on the dark blue sea. Dappled Iris charming the hearts of all, dancing in the sky. Dionysos with the wine of the violet springtime flowers. Clever Hermes shining, delighting the flocks black and white with his purple pipes, delighting their hearts, delighting himself, blue-eyed, brown-haired god. (You are now) delighting in new rhythms which are setting in order the names of the colors.

*UDPPDU ,QWURGXFHGPresent Middle Participle: Balme and Lawall, chapter 8; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 24; Groton, lesson 25; Hanson and Quinn, unit 8; Mastronarde, unit 21.

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGUses of the Dative Case: Balme and Lawall, chapter 6; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 68; Groton, lessons 7, 19; Hanson and Quinn, sections 53, 80, 81; Mastronarde, unit 10. Please note: My composition is longer than the Black Sabbath lyrics by one and half verses and one chorus. Since this song is the most musically complex (and possibly the least familiar), I also include on the following page the Greek text with interlinear Black Sabbath lyrics and caesuras to facilitate performance. An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/ColorMan.mp3

7HDFKLQJ &ODVVLFDO /DQJXDJHV*HRUJLD / ,UE\ 0DVVLHZLWK LQWHUOLQHDU RULJLQDO (QJOLVK O\ULFV DQG FDHVXUDV[spoken] DQTUZSRM HLPL? [UZPDWZQ WR? JD?U PHQRM PRL _ PXULZQ [UZPDWZQ VH Has he lost his mind? || Can he see or is he blind?|| THOJHLQ RQRPDV || WK?Q WH JKQ SRVL? UD_GRLM Can he walk at all, || Or if he moves will he fall? WXSWHWH XPQHLW || WRLM NDLQRLM GK? UXTPRLM Is he alive or dead? || Has he thoughts within his head? NDL? DP XSRJXLRLM || GK? WR?Q VRIR?Q XPQRQ Well just pass him there. || Why should we even care? R =HX?M NHODLQHIK?M || EURQWD_ K $UWHPLM He was turned to steel. || In the great magnetic field. DUJXUD ODPSHL || VHOKQK_ PDODNK_ Where he traveled time. || For the future of mankind. $IURGLWK [UXVK || WHUSRPHQK Nobody wants him. || He just stares at the world. $SROOZQ OHXNRM || $LGKM VNRWLRM Planning his vengeance. || That he will soon unfold. R FDQTR?M +OLRM || IDLGUR?M DQDWHOOHL Now the time is here. || For iron man to spread fear. K $TKQD SRWQLD || HODLZaQ [OZUZaQ Vengeance from the grave. || Kills the people he once saved. R $UKM JD?U || HUXTUR?M NDL? PHODM Nobody wants him. || They just turn their heads. DLPDWL WZaQ || DQGUHLZQ DQTUZSZQ Nobody helps him. || Now he has his revenge. R PH?Q 3RVHLGZaQ || WRX?M PHJDORXM [HLPZaQDM Heavy boots of lead. || Fills his victims full of dread. NDWD? WK?Q NXDQ || TDODWWDQ NDWD[HL Running as fast as they can. || Iron man lives again! [The Black Sabbath lyrics end] K ,ULM SRLNLOK || WD?M NDUGLDM SDQWZQ repeat verse-line melody (Has he lost his mind? || Can he see or is he blind?) THOJRXVD NDL? || [RUHXRPHQK WZa_ RXUDQZ_a repeat verse-line melody

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R [email protected] 'LRQXVRM || WZa_ RLQZ_ WZaQ repeat chorus-line melody (Nobody wants him. || He just stares at the world.) LZQ DQTHZQ || HDULQZaQ repeat chorus-line melody R VRIR?M (UPKM || R IDLGUR?M WD? SUREDWD repeat verse-line melody WD? PHODQD NDL? || WD? OHXND? WK_ VXULJJL repeat verse-line melody WK_ SRUIXUK_ WH || WD?M NDUGLDM NDL? WHUSZQ repeat verse-line melody NDL? WHUSRPHQRM || NXDQZaSLM IDLDLM TULFL repeat verse-line melody WHUSRPHQRL || NDLQRLM UXTPRLM. repeat chorus-line melody W RQRPDWD WD? || [UZPDWZQ GK? WDWWHWH repeat chorus-line melody

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NZaPRM WHUDWRM RM0RQVWHU 0DVKOriginally presented with Athenaze, chapter 10. Translated from Bobby Boris Picket and The Crypt-Kickers, Monster Mash, (Gary Paxton, 1962), English words and music by Bobby Picket and Lenny Capizzi; Greek lyrics by Georgia L. Irby-Massie, 2006. KUJD]RPKQ QXNWZU IURQWLVWHUL RW R\LQ [email protected] QHZWHURQ WR? JD?U WHUDM PRL HN VRURX DQLV[H NDL? HFDLIQKM HNSOKF HPK_ HNZPD]H HNZPD] WHUDWZM WHUDWZM GH DULVWHLD WXPERX HNZPD]H HODEH WD[HZM HNZPD]H HNZPD] WHUDWZM HF HP IURQWLVWKULRX SXUJ HZ_Z_ TDODPRQ WRLM GHLSQRXVL ILODLPDWRLM IDVPDW RLNZQ WDSHLQZaQ DILNHW VHLVHVTDL XS HPRLM VWRL[HLRLM HNZPD]RQ HNZPD] WHUDWZM WHUDWZM GH DULVWHLD WXPERX HNZPD]RQ HODEH WD[HZM HNZPD]RQ HNZPD]RQ WHUDWZM D\X[RL GH? HSDL]RQ NDL? NZaPRM DUWL [email protected] SD?U FHQRLM OXNDQTUZSRM R 'UDNRXODM NDL? XLRM THDP [DLUHW SDQWHM HXK[HLD_ WHUSRQW ,JRU GHVPRLM DNRORXT NXQ XODNWRXQW RL VRURX?M WXSWRQW PHOORQ DILNQHLVT PHW IZQRXQW R[O WDIRXM ODNWL]RQWZQ SHQW .KUJD]RPKQ (imperfect, 1st singular, from HUJD]RPDL); QXNWZU (adverb: by night); WR? IURQWLVWKULRQ IURQWLVWHUL[Z_] laboratory, think-tank, an hapax legomenon from Aristophaness Clouds); K R\LM (eye, sight); [email protected] (1st singular Aorist from RUDZ); WL QHZWHURQ (new, fresh, strange); WR? WHUDM (monster); K VRURM (coffin); DQLV[Z (rise, stand up: inchoative imperfect, began to); HFDLIQKM (suddenly); K HNSOKFLM (HNSOKF[HL], perplexity, awe) HNZPD]H (3rd singular imperfect, from NZPD]Z (revel, celebrate, be playful); WHUDWZM (in a monsterly way, note the adverbial ending); [email protected] (3rd singular imperfect from HLPL); WD? DULVWHLD (heroic prize; moment of valor); R WXPERM (tomb, grave); HODEH (3rd singular aorist from ODPEDQZ) R SXUJRM (SXUJ[Z_]: tower, castle, fortress); HZ_aRM (eastern, in the morning); R TDODPRY (couch, chamber, bedroom); RL ILODLPDWRL (ILORM + DL>PD: those who love blood, vampires); WR? IDVPD (IDVPDW[D] phantom, apparition, ghoul); WDSHLQRM (poor, lowly, humble); DILNHW[R] (aorist from DILNQHRPDL); VHLZ (shake, passive infinitive denoting purpose); HP[RLY]; WR? VWRL[HLRQ (element, primary matter) HNZPD]RQ (3rd plural imperfect)

D\X[RM (soulless; zombie); SDL]Z (play, sport, jest); R NZaPRM (revel, banquet, party); DUWL (just now); [email protected] (aorist from DU[Z: begin); SDU = SDUD (+ dative: in the presence of, among); FHQRM (guest); OXNDQTUZSRM (wolf-man); R XLRM (son) WR? THDP[D] (sight, spectacle, scene); [H][DLUHW[R] (3rd singular, imperfect, middle/passive); K HXK[HLD (euphony); [H]WHUSRQW[R] (3rd plural imperfect); R GHVPRM (fetter, chain); DNRORXT[RXQWZQ] NXQ[ZQ] XODNWRXQW[ZQ] (genitive absolute); DNRORXTHZ (follow, accompany); WXSWRQW[HM]; [H]PHOORQ (imperfect from PHOOZ); DILNQHRPDL (DILNQHLVT[DL], arrive); IZQHZ (IZQRXQW[RX]speak loud); R R[ORM (R[O[RX] throng, crowd); R WDIRM (grave, tomb); ODNWL]Z (kick); SHQW[H]

7HDFKLQJ &ODVVLFDO /DQJXDJHV*HRUJLD / ,UE\ 0DVVLHNZaPRM WHUDWRM &RQW NZP HSRLRXQ NZP SRLRXQ WHUDWZM WHUDWZM GH DULVWHLD WXPERX NZP HSRLRXQ HODEH WD[HZM NZP HSRLRXQ NZP SRLRXQ WHUDWZM HN VRURX IZQK? 'UDN HNOD]H GRNHL OXSHLVTDL [UKPDW HQL Z_`FH SZaPD VHLZQ NRQGXORQ HOHJH WL? HJHQHW HOLF GL XOKM HPK. QXQ NZPD]HLM NZPD]HLM WHUDWZM QXQ WHUDWZM DULVWHLD WXPERX QXQ NZPD]HLM ODPEDQHL WD[HZM QXQ NZPD]HLM NZPD]HLM WHUDWZM QXQ SDQW HVW DULVWD 'UDN PHURM R[ORX NZaPRM WHUDWRM [ZUDM HSLVNRSRM XPLQ JH ]ZRLM PHOOHL RX>W NZaPRM DILNQRXPHQ TXU [email protected] PH? %RULM HSHP\HQ. WRW NZPDVHLM NZPDVHLM WRW WHUDWZM WRW WHUDWZM HVW DULVWHLD WXPERX WRW NZPDVHLM ODPEDQ WD[HZM WRW NZPDVHLM NZPDVHLM WRW WHUDWZM

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HSRLRXQ (3rd plural imperfect from SRLHZ)

K IZQK (voice); 'UDNRXO[RX]; NOD]Z (sound, scream; imperfect); GRNHL (it seems: Athenaze, chapter 11); OXSHZ (grieve, vex: Athenaze, chapter 16); WR? [UKPD ([UKPDW[D], thing, matter); WR? SZaPD (lid); [email protected]_FH (3rd singular aorist from RLJZ: open); VHLZ (shake); R NRQGXORM (knuckle, fist); HOHJ[H]; HJHQHW[R] (3rd singular aorist from JLJQRPDL); K HOLF (spiral, twist); GL[D]; K XOK (wood, forest, Transylvania) NZPD]HLM (notice the change of tense and person)

SDQW[D] (neuter plurals with singular verb); WR? PHURY (part, Athenaze, chapter 15); HSLVNRSRM (hitting the mark, successful; cf. the related noun for bishop, overseer); ]Z_RY (living); DILNQRXPHQ[RM]; [email protected][H] (aorist imperative of OHJZ); HSHP\HQ (3rd singular aorist)

NZPDVHLM (notice the change of tense).

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0RQVWHU 0DVKI was working in the lab late one night When my eyes beheld an eerie sight For my monster from his slab began to rise And suddenly to my surprise He did the mash He did the monster mash The monster mash It was a graveyard smash He did the mash It caught on in a flash He did the mash He did the monster mash From my laboratory in the castle east To the master bedroom where the vampires feast The ghouls all came from their humble abodes To get a jolt from my electrodes They did the mash They did the monster mash The monster mash It was a graveyard smash They did the mash It caught on in a flash They did the mash They did the monster mash The zombies were having fun The party had just begun The guests included Wolf Man Dracula and his son The scene was rockin, all were digging the sounds Igor on chains, backed by his baying hounds The coffin-bangers were about to arrive With their vocal group, The Crypt-Kicker Five They played the mash They played the monster mash The monster mash It was a graveyard smash They played the mash It caught on in a flash They played the mash They played the monster mash Out from his coffin, Dracs voice did ring Seems he was troubled by just one thing He opened the lid and shook his fist And said, Whatever happened to my Transylvania twist? Its now the mash Its now the monster mash The monster mash And its a graveyard smash Its now the mash Its caught on in a flash Its now the mash Its now the monster mash Now everythings cool, Dracs a part of the band And my monster mash is the hit of the land For you, the living, this mash was meant too When you get to my door, tell them Boris sent you Then you can mash Then you can monster mash The monster mash And do my graveyard smash Then you can mash You'll catch on in a flash Then you can mash Then you can monster mash

*UDPPDU ,QWURGXFHGImperfect tense: Balme and Lawall, chapter 13; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 8; Groton, lesson 10; Hanson and Quinn, section 21; Mastronarde, unit 16. Aorist tense: Balme and Lawall, chapter 11; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 10; Groton, lesson 18; Hanson and Quinn, section 23; Mastronarde, unit 19.

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGAdverbs: Balme and Lawall, chapter 4; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 43; Groton, lesson 7, 19; Hanson and Quinn, section 63; Mastronarde, unit 12. Present Tense: Balme and Lawall, chapter 4; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 3; Groton, lesson 3; Hanson and Quinn, section 20; Mastronarde, unit 8. Future Tense: Balme and Lawall, chapter 10; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 9; Groton, lesson 6; Hanson and Quinn, section 22; Mastronarde, unit 18. An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/MonsterMash.mp3

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SORXWRM RXGHQRM0RQH\ IRU 1RWKLQJPresented with Athenaze, chapter 24. Translated from Dire Straights, Money for Nothing, Brothers in Arms (Warner Brothers, 1985), English words and music by Mark Knopfler; Greek lyrics by Georgia L. Irby-Massie, 2007. THOZ PRL 079 [DXQ DJURLNRXM VNRSHL WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM NLTUDQ NLTUL]RLM HQ WZ_a 079 RXGH?Q SRQRX WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM SORXWRQ RXGHQR?M QXPIDM DPLVTL RXGH?Q SRQRX WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM VRL? OHFRLP DQGUHM RXN DJURLN: WD[ DQ IOXNWDLQDQ GDNWXOZ_ PLNUZ_a GH[RL, WD[ DQ IOXNWDLQDQ GDNWXO PHJDOZ_ GH[. NOXGZQLZQ NDPLQRXM THLQDL GHL HS LGLRLM IHURPHQRXM GHL KPLQ NLQHLQ WDXWD \XJHLD GHL NLQHLQ [UZPDWZQ WDG 79 [DXQRQ GK? NLQDLGZQLRQ HQZWLZ_ VNRSHL WZ_a RQWL JDXWZ_a TULF QDXM RXUDQZaQ [DXQZ_ NLQDLGZQLZ_ WZ_a PXULRL WDODQWZQ WZ_a NLQDLGZ_ NOXGZQLZQ NDPLQRXM THLQDL GHL HS LGLRLM IHURPHQRXM GHL KPLQ NLQHLQ WDXWD \XJHLD GHL NLQHLQ [UZPDWZQ WDG 79 NLTDUDQ NLTDUL]HLQ JQRLP. HNHLQ JQRLP WXPSDQD NRSWHLQ. WK?Q QXPIKQ VNRSHL [RUHXRXVDQ EDN[HLZM DOKTZaM SDL]RLPHQ DQ NDL? LGRX WL? WRXWR NODJJDL? $YLDL WD? WXPSDQD NRSWZQ LVRM SLTKNZ_ RXGH?Q SRQRX WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM SORXWRQ RXGHQR?M QXPIDM DPLVTL NOXGZQLZQ NDPLQRXM THLQDL GHL HS LGLRLM IHURPHQRXM GHL KPLQ NLQHLQ WDXWD \XJHLD GHL NLQHLQ [UZPDWZQ WDG 79 RXGH?Q SRQRX WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM NLTUDQ NLTUL]RLM HQ WZ_a 079 RXGH?Q SRQRX WRXWR SZaM SRLRLKM SORXWRQ RXGHQR?M QXPIDM DPLVTL SORXWRQ RXGHQR?M QXPIDM DPLVTLJQRLP[L] (1st singular Aorist Optative from JLJQRPDL); HNHLQ[D]; WR? WXPSDQRQ (drum); [RUHXZ (dance); EDN[HLZM (in a Bacchic way); SDL]Z (play); K NODJJK (noise); $YLDL (note the digamma and transliterate back into English); LVRM (like, equal to); R SLTKNRM (ape). notes: [H]THOZ [H]PRL 9 (obsolete digamma: wau) [DXQRM ([DXQ[RXM], empty-headed, frivolous); DJURLNRM (rustic, boorish); SRLRLKM (present optative); K NLTDUD (kithara, guitar; cognate accusative); NLTDUL]RLM (NLT[D]UL]RLM); R SORXWRM (wealth, money); RXGHQR?M (genitive of price); K QXPIK (marriageable girl, bride, also applied to the female genitalia); DPLVTL (adverb: unpaid); OHFRLP[L] (future optative); DJURLNHXRPDL (be stupid, expand to DJURLNHXRQWDL); WD[ DQ (perhaps); K IOXNWDLQD (blister); R GDNWXORM (finger); GH[RL[R] (2nd person present potential optative); ); PHJDOZ_ (understand: GDNWXOZ_) R NOXGZQ (wave, diminutive form); K NDPLQRM (furnace, kiln, oven); DSRGLG[RPHQZQ] (deliver); LGLRM (private, personal, custom); R LSQRM (oven, furnace); WR? \XJHLRQ (modern Greek: refrigerator); NLQHZ (move); WR? [UZaPD (color) R NLQDLGRM (a sexually depraved person, diminutive form); R NXNORM (circle, ring: Athenaze, chapter 26); WR? HQZWLRQ (earring); K TULF WUL[RM (hair); WDODQWRQ (an amount of silver weighing about 60 lbs avoirdupois weight, in other words, a great deal of money);

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0RQH\ IRU 1RWKLQI want my MTV Now look at them yo-yos, thats the way you do it You play the guitar on the MTV That aint workin thats the way you do it Money for nothin and chicks for free Now that aint workin thats the way you do it Lemme tell ya them guys aint dumb Maybe get a blister on your little finger Maybe get a blister on your thumb We gotta install microwave ovens Custom kitchen deliveries We gotta move these refrigerators We gotta move these colour TVs See the little faggot with the earring and the makeup Yeah buddy thats his own hair That little faggot got his own jet airplane That little faggot hes a millionaire We gotta install microwave ovens Custom kitchens deliveries We gotta move these refrigerators We gotta move these colour TVs I shoulda learned to play the guitar I shoulda learned to play them drums Look at that mama, she got it stickin in the camera Man we could have some fun And hes up there, whats that? hawaiian noises? Bangin on the bongoes like a chimpanzee That aint workin thats the way you do it Get your money for nothin get your chicks for free We gotta install microwave ovens Custom kitchen deliveries We gotta move these refrigerators We gotta move these colour TVs, lord Now that aint workin thats the way you do it You play the guitar on the MTV That aint workin thats the way you do it Money for nothin and your chicks for free Money for nothin and chicks for free

*UDPPDU ,QWURGXFHGOptative: Balme and Lawall, chapter 25; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 32-33; Groton, lesson 36; Hanson and Quinn, sections 60, 134; Mastronarde, unit 32.

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGSubjunctive: Balme and Lawall, chapters 21-22; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 30-31; Groton, lesson 35; Hanson and Quinn, section 50; Mastronarde, unit 31. Impersonal Verbs: Balme and Lawall, chapter 10; Groton, lesson 43; Hanson and Quinn, sections 146-147; Mastronarde, unit 9.

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GZGHN KPHUDL WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ GZGHN7ZHOYH 'D\V RI WKH 'LRQ\VLDPresented with Athenaze, chapter 14. Adapted from The Twelve Days of Christmas, ca. 1780? Greek lyrics by Georgia L. Irby-Massie, 2006. SUZWK_ KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] DHWR?Q HQ HODLD_ GHXWHU KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] GX 0LQZWDXUZ NDL? DHWR?Q HQ HODLD_ WULWK_ KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] WUHLM .XNOZSDM [] WHWDUW KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] WHWWU HLNRQDM [] SHPSWK_ KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] SHQW [RURX?M NDO [] HNWK_ KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] HF GRXORXM NDTHXGRQW [] HEGRP KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] HSW [HLPZaQ JLJQRP [] RJGR KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] RNW QDXWDM UHVVRQW [] HQDW KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] HQQH SRLKW OHJRQW [] GHNDW KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] GHN [HP]SRURXM SLQRQW [] HQGHNDW KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] HQGHN $UJRXM XODNWRXQW [] GZGHNDW KPHUD_ WZaQ 'LRQXVLZQ [email protected] GZGHN 3HUVDM IHXJRQWDM HQGHN $UJRXM XODNWRXQW GHN [H]PSRURXM SLQRQW HQQH SRLKW OHJRQW RNW QDXWDM UHVVRQW HSW [HLPZaQ JLJQRP HF GRXORXM NDTHXGRQW SHQW [RURX?M NDO WHWWU HLNRQDM WUHLM .XNOZSDM GX 0LQZWDXUZ NDL? DHWRQ HQ HODLD_

see Athenaze, chapter 8, p. 128, for an expansion of the cardinals and ordinals; R DHWRM (eagle); K HODLD (olive, olive tree). 0LQZWDXUZ (a dual form to refer to two objects)

NDO[RXM] NDTHXGRQW[DM] JLJQRP[HQRXM] [H]UHVVRQW[DM] OHJRQW [DM] SLQRQW [DM] XODNWRXQW[DM]

7HDFKLQJ &ODVVLFDO /DQJXDJHV*HRUJLD / ,UE\ 0DVVLHOn the 1 day of the Dionysia I saw an eagle in an olive tree On the 2nd day of the Dionysia I saw two Minotaurs and an eagle in an olive tree On the 3rd day of the Dionysia I saw three Cyclopes [] On the 4th day of the Dionysia I saw four (Greek) statues On the 5th day of the Dionysia I saw five (lovely) choruses On the 6th day of the Dionysia I saw six sleeping slaves On the 7th day of the Dionysia I saw seven storms arising On the 8th day of the Dionysia I saw eight sailors rowing On the 9th day of the Dionysia I saw nine poets recitingst

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7ZHOYH 'D\V RI WKH 'LRQ\VLDOn the 10th day of the Dionysia I saw ten merchants drinking On the 11th day of the Dionysia I saw eleven Argoses barking On the 12th day of the Dionysia I saw twelve Persians fleeing eleven Argoses barking ten merchants drinking nine poets reciting eight sailors rowing seven storms arising six sleeping slaves five (loveliest) choruses four (Greek) statues three Cyclopes two Minotaurs and an eagle in an olive tree

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGNumbers: Balme and Lawall, chapter 8; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 56; Groton, lesson 34; Mastronarde, unit 25. Dative of Time When: Balme and Lawall, chapter 8; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 38; Groton, lesson 23; Hanson and Quinn, sections 53,55; Mastronarde, unit 29. An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/TheTwelveDaysoftheDionysia_1_2.mp3

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LULG [ZUD LULG5DLQERZ &RXQWU\Presented with Athenaze, chapter 22. Translated from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Rainbow Country, Rainbow Country (Upsetter Productions, 1970), English words and music by Bob Marley; Greek lyrics by Georgia L. Irby-Massie, 2007. Z` 0RXVLNH PHOL]HLM DULVWD WL? GHL [email protected] PLQ DGXQDWRM DUQHLVT. NZPD]Z RW HOHXTHURL RL RL RL RL RL RL HPD? H[Z KGLVWK_ [ZUD_ HXSDTZa ZM VXQLHLKM [email protected] JH [email protected] JH [email protected] JH HZM RGR?M OLTLQ [email protected]_ HXSDTZa PRL HL HXWX[HLM [HXWX[Za], DLHL? VXQHVRPHTD LSSKODWZa KOLRM DQWHOOHL KOLRM DQWHOOHL LSSKODWZa (4x) LULG [ZUD (4x). LSSKODWZa KOLRM DQWHOOHL KOLRM DQWHOOHL VHOKQK DQWHOOHLR 0RXVLNRM (just as in English) PHOL]Z (sing); [K]PLQ DUQHRPDL (DUQHLVT[DL], refuse, deny)

NZPD]Z (revel, celebrate) HOHXTHURL [HVPHQ] RL RL RL (Greek doo-wop)

HXSDTHZ (enjoy good things) VXQLHLKM (present optative) [email protected] JH (more doo-wop) HZM (understand DQ) OLTLQ[K]; HXSDTHZ (live comfortably)

LSSKODWHZ (ride/drive a horse) DQ[D]WHOOZ (rise)

K [email protected] (LULG[RM], rainbow)

VHOKQK (moon)

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5DLQERZ &RXQWU\Hey Mr. Music Ya sure sound good to me I cant refuse it What have we got to be Feel like dancing Dance cause we are free la la la la la I got my own In the promised land But I feel at home Can you understand na, na, na, na, na until the road is rocky sure feels good to me and if your lucky together wed always be I will ride it the sun is a risin the sun is a risin I will ride it rainbow country I will ride it the sun is a risin the sun is a risin the moon is a risin

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGComplementary Infinitive: Balme and Lawall, chapter 3; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 3; Groton, lesson 3; Hanson and Quinn, section 27; Mastronarde, unit 9. Impersonal Constructions and the Subjunctive (see above: SORXWRM RXGHQRM).

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Presented with Athenaze, chapter 26. Adapted from Heart of Oak, English words by David Garrick, music by William Boyce (after 1760), original Greek lyrics by Georgia Irby-Massie, 2007. [DLUHW QDXWDL HLM NOHR?M NXEHUQZPHT, LQD SROORX?M 3HUVDM DSRNWHLQZPHQ SUR?M WLPK?Q NDORXPHTD PK? GRXOZPHT HOHXTHUZWHU ZM XLRL? NXPDWZQ \X[K? GUXLQ QDXVL \X[K? GUXLQ QDXWDLM HWRLPRWDWRL NDL? EHEDLRWDWD KPHLM QDXPD[ZaPHQ DHL? QLNZaPHQ 3HUVDL DILNRQWR DSRIHXJRXV WD[LVW, RXGH? ROELRL RXGH? HOHXTHURL QDXWLORL WH SROORL? NDL? GHLORWDWRL HL QDXPD[RXVLQ DXWRX?M DLV[XQRXPHQ [chorus] RPQXDVL HNEDLQRQWHM GHLQRWDWRL IRERXQWDL JXQDLNDM SDLGDM NDL? NXQDM DOO /DNHGDLPRQLRL 4HUPRSXODLM HWUH\ DQGUHLRWHURL WULDNRVLRL [chorus] KPHLM DXWRX?M IRERXPHQ DXWRXM WUH\DPHQ NDWD? JKQ NUDWRXPHQ NDWD? TDOODWDQ [DLUHW QDXWDL RPR\X[K_ XPQRXPHQ QDXWDL NDL? VWUDWLZaWDL NDL? 0DUDTZQ [chorus][H]WUH\DPHQ RPR\X[K_ (compounded from RPRM [common, one and the same] and K \X[K). RPQXPL (swear, affirm by oath) K GUXM (oak); [DLUHW[H] NXEHUQZPHT[D] GRXOZPHT[D]

QDXPD[HZ (deduce from K QDXM and PD[RPDL)

DSRIHXJRXV[RL]; WD[LVW[D]; R QDXWLORM (etymologically related to R QDXWKM); DLV[XQZ (defame, disgrace, put to shame)

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*UHHN +HDUW RI 2DNCheer up, sailors, we are steered to glory, in order that we might kill many Persians we are called to glory lest we be enslaved so that the sons of the waves are always very free heart of oak are our ships, heart of oak are our sailors always ready, steady, steady we fight by sea, & conquer again & again The Persians arrived, running away very quickly neither were they fortunate nor free many shipmen, most cowardly if they fight us by sea, well put them to shame chorus disembarking, they swear oaths, most dreadful men, they fear women, children, and even dogs But the Spartans at Thermopylae routed them, the bravest three hundred chorus we made them afraid, we routed them we are strong on land and sea rejoice, sailors, with one heart we celebrate, both sailors and generals, and also Marathon chorus

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGConditionals: Balme and Lawall, chapter 26; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 15, 17, 31, 33; Groton, lesson 37; Hanson and Quinn, section 41; Mastronarde, units 34, 36. Purpose Clauses: Balme and Lawall, chapter 21; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 30, 32; Groton, lesson 39; Hanson and Quinn, section 36; Mastronarde, unit 31. Comparison: Balme and Lawall, chapter 14, 24; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 41-42; Groton, lessons 32-33; Hanson and Quinn, section 141; Mastronarde, unit 30.

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Presented with Athenaze, chapter 28. Adapted from Drop of Nelsons Blood, sung to the traditional African-American melody, Roll the Old Chariot, English words anonymous (after 1805), original Greek lyrics by Georgia Irby-Massie, 2007. After Lord Nelsons death at the battle of Trafalgar, legend asserts that his body was preserved in a cask of rum, and henceforth sailors referred to grog or rum as Nelsons blood. VWDJZ?Q %URP DLPDWRM KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H WK?Q SDODL WULKUK HUHVVRPHQ WK?Q HWL WULKUK NXEHUQZaPHQ WK?Q SDODL WULKUK HUHVVRPHQ EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H 3HUVDM DSRNWHLQHLQ KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] WR?Q 2PKURQ XPQHLQ KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] K ILDOK RLQRX KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] DJDTRX WL WXURX KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] R NXZQ R SLVWR?M KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] R LSSRM R WD[X?M KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] R SHSORM R NDOR?M KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus] VWDJZ?Q %URP DLPDWRM KPDM RX SDQX OXSHL WULM EDLQRPHQ $TKQD]H [chorus]SLVWRM (faithful, trusty). DJDTRX WXURX (partitive genitive); R WXURM (cheese) K ILDOK (cup, bowl) K VWDJZQ (drop); %URP[LRX]; WR? [email protected] (blood); RX SDQX (not at all) SDODL[DQ]

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$ GURS RI %URPLXVV EORRGa drop of Bromiuss blood wouldnt bring us any grief (3x) and well go Athensward And well row the ol trireme along and well sail the ol trireme along and well row the ol trireme along and well all go Athensward Killing Persians wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] Singing Homer wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] A cup of wine wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] Some good cheese wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] a loyal dog wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] a fast horse wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] a pretty dress wouldnt bring us any grief [chorus] a drop of Bromiuss blood wouldnt bring us any grief (3x) and well all go Athensward [chorus]

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGInfinitives as subjects of Impersonal Verbs (see above: SORXWRM RXGHQRM). Partitive Genitive: Balme and Lawall, chapter 9; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 44; Groton, lesson 32; Hanson and Quinn, section 51; Mastronarde, unit 10.

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+ 0XUULQK XVWUL[D H[HL + XVWUL[D0\UUKLQH +DG D /LWWOH +HGJHKRJGreek and English lyrics by Lindsay Gibson, 2007. K 0XUULQ XVWUL[ H[HL XVWUL[D XVWUL[D K 0XUULQ XVWUL[ H[HL GHLQR?Q ZM RSOLWKQ RSRXSHU HEK_ KGH RSRXSHU RSRXSHU RSRXSHU PH?Q HEK_ KGH R XVWULF HU[HWDL R WK?_ $TKQD] HSHWDL $TKQD] $TKQD] R WK?Q $TKQD] HSHWDL SUR?M WK?Q HNNOKVLDQ K HNNOKVL DSRUHL DSRUHL DSRUHL K HNNOKVL DSRUHL RUZaV WR?Q XVWUL[D R UKWZU WR?Q HNEDOOHL HNEDOOHL HNEDOOHL R UKWZU WR?Q HNEDOOHL R XVWULF QRVW RLNDG[DX]WK?_

[HNNOKVLD]

RUZaV[D] [DX]WR?Q

QRVW[HL]

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0\UUKLQH KDG D OLWWOH KHGJHKRJMyrrine had a hedgehog a hedgehog a hedgehog Myrrine had a hedgehog As terrible as a hoplite. When Myrrine went everywhere Everywhere Everywhere When Myrrine went everywhere The hedgehog went (along). He followed her to Athens To Athens To Athens He followed her to Athens To the assembly. The assembly were at a loss At a loss At a loss The assembly were at a loss To see a hedgehog (there). And so the speaker threw it out Threw it out Threw it out And so the speaker threw it out. The hedgehog returned home.

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGPresent Tense (see above: NZaPRM WHUDWRM). An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/TheHedgehog.mp3 http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/TheHedgehog_Round.mp3 (round version)

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+HUH &RPHV WKH 6XQTranslated from the Beatles, Here Comes the Sun, Abbey Road (Apple Records, 1969), English words and music by George Harrison; Greek lyrics by Timothy Page, 2007. R KOLRM [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] SDOLQ IDLQHL NDL? OHJZ DULVWD Z` ILOLVNK [email protected] [HLPZQ WH NDNR?M NDL? PDNURM Z` ILOLVNK R HWK PXULD DSKQ R KOLRM [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] SDOLQ IDLQHL NDL? OHJZ DULVWD RX>WRL DXWZaQ WR?Q SURVZSRQ [email protected] PHLGZaVL ILOLVNK KOLRM HW PXUL HNSRGZQ R KOLRM [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] SDOLQ IDLQHL NDL? OHJZ DULVWD KOLRM QXQ IDLQHL HFDNLM Z` ILOLVNK R QLIHWR?M EUDGHZM WKNHL ILOLVNK [URQLRQ IDRXM HGHRPHQ R KOLRM [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] SDOLQ IDLQHL NDL? OHJZ DULVWD R KOLRM [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] SDOLQ IDLQHL NDL? OHJZ DULVWD GLMthe first line translates Harrisons repeated phrase, here comes the sun, with a doo-wop phrase [[email protected] JH [email protected] JH] to mark the caesura between the repeats ILOLVNK (diminutive of ILORM: little sweetheart) PHLGDZ (smile); WR? SURVZSRQ (face, countenance) HW[K]; PXUL[D]; HNSRGZQ (away)

KOLRM IDLQHL

R QLIHWR?M (snow shower); WKNZ (melt) [URQLRQ (long time); WR? IDRM IDRXM (light, sunlight, happiness); HGHRPHQ (from GHZ, need, lack, governs a genitive; H contract verbs of two syllables usually do no contract in the present and imperfect; but compare GHZ GHHLM GHL need, it is necessary; GHZ meaning to bind contracts)

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+HUH &RPHV WKH 6XQHere comes the sun, here comes the sun And I say its all right Little darlin it's been a long cold lonely winter Little darlin it feels like years since it's been here Here comes the sun, here comes the sun And I say it's all right Little darlin the smiles returning to their faces Little darlin it seems like years since its been here Here comes the sun, here comes the sun And I say its all right Sun, sun, sun, here it comes (5 times) Little darlin I feel the ice is slowly meltin Little darlin it seems like years since its been clear Here comes the sun, here comes the sun And I say its all right Here comes the sun, here comes the sun Its all right, its all right

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGPresent Tense (see above: NZaPRM WHUDWRM). Accusative of Respect: Balme and Lawall, chapter 26; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 68; Groton, lesson 49; Hanson and Quinn, section 133; Mastronarde, unit 17. Accusative of Duration of Time: Balme and Lawall, chapter 8; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 7, 68; Groton, lesson 23; Hanson and Quinn, section 54; Mastronarde, unit 17. An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/HereComestheSun.mp3

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IXVHWDL F IXVHWDL F DU[KM,W :LOO 5HJURZAdapted from Gloria Gaynor I Will Survive, Love Tracks (Polydor, 1978), English words and music by Freddie Perren and Dino Fekaris; Greek and English lyrics by Georgia Irby-Massies Intermediate Greek Students, Fall 2008: Russell Baker, Anne Certa, Laura Daniels, Peter Gannon, Sophia Gayek, Jillian Jackson, Natasha Marple, Margaret Richards, Michael Roberts, and Nathan Self. SUZaWRQ VXQKPPDL HSL? .DXNDVZ_ HQHPRQ RXGHSRW HNOHL\HLQ QHX PRL KSDWRM WRW WRVDM QXNWD?M HWULERQ QRKVDM PRL? WR?Q DGLNRXQW G LV[XH WH NDL? HPDTRQ XPQHLQ XPQRQ [email protected] SDUHL NDW RXUDQRX HJHLUPHQRM HJ VH [email protected] K>SDU P DTPLWRIDJKVRQW PK? ODEZ PZURX QDUTKNRX OLSRQ DQ DQTUZS HQ VNRWZ_ HL HJQZQ HLM NDUH?M [URQRX HSDQKOTHM DQ OXSHLQ IXVHW F DU[KM IXVHW F DU[KM PH[UL DSRTDQHLQ [email protected] RX SZaM ELZVRPHQRM [email protected] ELZVPDL SDQWD [URQRQ SD?Q KSDWRM GLGRQDL IXVHW F DU[KM IXVHW F DU[KM RLPRLVXQKPPDL (5th principal part of VXQDSWZ)

[D]QHX; WR? K>SDU DWRM (liver, seat of emotion/feelings) WULEZ (wear away, spend, consume, waste) PRL? (dative of disadvantage); DGLNRXQW[D] XPQRQ (cognate accusative)

HJHLU[D]PHQRM; HJ[Z] DT[H]PLWRIDJKVRQW[D] (from DTHPLWRIDJZ: to eat unlawful meat) / R QDUTKF KNRM (fennel reed) contrary to fact conditional expressing Prometheuss regret over his decision to help humanity [H]OLSRQ DQTUZS[RXM] [D]NDUH?M [URQRX (short period of time) IXVHW[DL] HF DU[KM (anew, from the beginning) [email protected][D] ELZV[R]PDL

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,W :LOO 5HJURZAt first I was bound to the Caucuses Kept thinking I would never leave Without my liver (in my side) Then I spent so many nights Considering his (the) wrongs (evils) against me But it did grow strong at night And I learned how to sing this song And so you are back from the sky I just woke up to find you here With that liver-eating look in your eye I shouldnt have grabbed that stupid fennel stalk I would have left man in the dark If I had known for just one second Youd be back to bother me It will regrow It will regrow As long as I dont know how to die I know Ill stay alive Ive got all eternity to live Ive got all my liver to give And it will regrow It will regrow, oimoi

*UDPPDU DQG 6\QWD[ 5HYLHZHGUses of the Participle: Balme and Lawall, chapters 8, 10; Crosby and Schaeffer, lessons 21, 23, 26; Groton, lessons 24-25; Hanson and Quinn, section 107; Mastronarde, units 27-28. Conditionals (see above: \X[K? GUXLQ). Perfect Tense: Balme and Lawall, chapters 27-28; Crosby and Schaeffer, lesson 3; Groton, lesson 20; Hanson and Quinn, section 28; Mastronarde, unit 37. An mp3 recording of students singing this song may be found at: http://tcl.camws.org/fall2009/ItWillRegrow.mp3