‰½ƒ„±½„¯½‚...

download ‰½ƒ„±½„¯½‚ €¯³¹€±‚   ´¹±‚ ³…½±¯±

of 270

  • date post

    18-May-2015
  • Category

    Education

  • view

    2.499
  • download

    14

Embed Size (px)

description

http://encyclopedia.pblogs.gr/

Transcript of ‰½ƒ„±½„¯½‚...

  • 1. STEPHEN W. HAWKING Cambridge : Carl Sagan:

2. : A brief history of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes : 1988 Bantam books : Stephen Hawking : Carl Sagan : Ron Miller : - . & ..ISBN 960 7023 02 1 : : . , : : : 10, 114 71 - . 3643272, fax. 3641864: ... : ... : . : . 3. Jane - . . . - . 4. 9 Carl Sagan 15 181. 212. 413. 694. 925. .. 1046. 1277. 1548. 1769. 214 10. 229 11. 250 12. 256 265 5. Stephen Hawking, - , . , . , , ( ) , . Hawking ( - ) , - , , - . Hawking: 6. 10 TO , .. (Big Bang) , - (: , !), (: , - , - ), '80 , - ( : ). Hawking , - : - , , , - . , , - . - 20 , , - . Hubble , 7. 11 , 15 - - . , - , - (- Maxwell ) - , . , . . - , (, , ) . - ( ), - Penrose . - . . - 8. 12 TO , - , , . , Dirac, (, , ), , (confinement) . (G.U.T.) ( 1030 !), - , C,P . - , . , , - . - , - , - Taylor. Hawking ( !) . - - , - . - . - - 9. 13, '70 - , , - , . - . , , - , , . , , - , - - , . - , - Hawking, . . - , , , . . , 10. 14 TO XPONO . , , - - . , - , . - . - Stephen Hawking, . - . Hawking , . . 1988 11. . , , - . ( ), - . , - , 12. 16 TO . , , , . . , . - . , . , . 1974, - "Viking" , - , . - . . , - ( ). , , . , - . Stephen Hawking . Hawking Cambridge, ... Dirac - 13. 17 . Hawking . , . . , , . ... . . Hawking , . , . : , .Carl Sagan Cornell 14. Loeb 1982 Harvard. - , ( "The first three minutes" Steven Weinberg) , . : ; ; , , , ; - . . ' , , , - . . . 2 : = mc . . 15. I 19 - ( ), . Jane Robert, Lucy Timmy, . , ' . - . , , . Roger Penrose, Robert Geroch, o Brandon Carter George Ellis. . - "The large scale structure of Spacetime" Ellis 1973. . - . , 1974, Carry Gibbons, o Don Page Jim Hartle. - , , . , , . , Brian Whitt. To 1985, - , . , 16. 20 TOY . - . Brian , Living Center Walt Woltosz Words Plus Inc. Sunnyvale . , synthesizer Speech Plus, Sunnyvale . To synthesizer David Mason. , . . , Peter Guzzardi, Bantam Books, - . - . Colin Williams, David Thomas Raymond Laflamme. Judy Fella, Ann Ralph, Cheryl Billington, Sue Masey . ' Conville Gaius, Science and Engineering Research Council, Leverhulme, McArthur, Nuffield Ralph Smith. .Stephen Hawking 20 1987 17. 1 . - , , , , - , . , . . . . , , - . . - ; . - . , , . - , 18. 22 .... . , . , . - ; ; ; - ; , , ; , , ; - ; ; ; , , - . - . ; , . 340 .., , , . : - . - . ( - , ). 19. TO 23 - , - . , - . : , ; , , , . , , , , , , , , . .. - : - ' , (, , , , ). - - . , ( ) , 20. 24 TO 1-1. . , . . - . - , ' , . , , - 21. TO 25 ' , ! , , - . , , . 1515, , - . ( , , - ). , .. , - , . . , , - , , . / 1609. , . , . ( ) , ( ). (, - 22. 26 TO . ' , ). , - . ( ). , . ( ) , . - , , , . , 1687, , . . , - , . - . ( , . - 23. TO 27). , , , . - , . , , ( - ), - , . - . , , , . ; - . , , - , . . , . - - 24. 28 TO . , , , . , , ( ). . , . , . , 20 , - . - - , . , , , . , , , . ' , , . 25. TO 29 , . ' - . ' , , : , - , . , - , . Heinrich Olbers, 1823. ( , Olbers , ). : . , , . , . - Olbers . - , , 26. 30 TO XPONO . , , , . , - ( ), . : ; , - . // , - . - . ( , ). - , 400 .. , , - 5.000 .. , , . ( 27. TO 31 , 10.000 .., , - , ). , - . . - , . Immanuel Kant ( ) , 1781. Kant ( - ) ( ) ( ). , , . , ; , - : , 28. 32 TO XPONO . , . . , ( ' !) - . 1929, - , . - . 1929 Edwin Hubble - . , . ' . , - , . . Hubble , - , . , . , 29. TO 33, , . - , . - , - . . - , . ' , . . , ( ) ( ). - , - ( - ' - , ). , ! , ! 30. 34 TO - , . ( ), . . - : , , - - . , , , , , - , - . - : . , , . , . , - . , - 31. TO 35 . Karl Popper, - , . , - , . . , . - . - - . - . , , - . - - , - - . ( !) 32. 36 TO - . , . , . ( , ). , . - . . , - , - . ,