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20022003

20012002 20022003 . . .

. , . , .

, .

2003 . . .

1 .............................................. . 1 2 ............................................................ . 15 3 ....................................................................... . 29 4 .................................................................................. . 49 5 & ........................... . 77 6 .......................... . 101 7 & ..................................... . 129 8 ........................................................................................................... . 135 .................................................................................................. . 163

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1.

1.1 , , (10 m, ) ( 1 mm 1 m, ). . 1.1 , , Minor Stuctures () Petro Fabrics (). Carey (1962, 1976) 5 () ( 1986): 1 : . (Tectonics). 10 10.000 Km, , , , (rifts) . ,. 2 : . (Structural Geology). 10 m 10 Km, , , , .. . . 3 : : (Minor structures). 1 cm 10 m, ( ), , , boudins, , , , , . , , , .

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. 1.1. ( 1986, ).

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4 : : (Petrofabrics). 10 1 cm, , , , , , , , . . 5 : . (Rock mechanics). 1 10 , , , , , , . . 5 3 4 , (). . , . , , , (), . , . , , - , . , . , , (.. , .), , . . "" . , , -

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, , . , . . .. , , , 6 . , , , . .. , , , . , . , fabric, texture microstructure. fabric . texture, structure crystallographic preferred orientation ( ). (fabric) fabric elements (penetrative) . random fabric , non-random fabric , (foliation) (lineation). microfabrics ( *), (elements) , , , (lattice preferred orientation).

, , (microfabric) .

*

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texture lattice preferred orientation. texture structure . texture , , structure , , , . IUGS texture microstructure, microfabric. 1.2 (Deformation phases and metamorphic events) , , , . (. 1.2) , (microfabric). , , . : . . . , . - " ". - , . .. , . , , . (deformation phases) (metamorphic events) . .. , , , ,

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. . "" (overprint) . . (overprint) . "" .

. 1.2. ( 1986). , , PTt D path (P=, =, t=, D= path=), (. 1.3). , , .

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. 1.3. . . a) , . b) . "" . . P . , , . , , , (overprint) . , , . , (. 1.4).

. 1.4. O .

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, . 1.4 ( vertical shortening) ( ) . ( oblique shortening) ( ) , . , , .

. 1.5. .

. 1.5 (D1) S0 S1. (D2) S0 S1 S2, . S1 & S2 , . ,

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( overprinting) . , , , , : 1. . . (. ) ( sheath folds) (. 1.6), , .

. 1.6. . 2. . . .. 2400 a, (. 1.7) , 1600 Ma, . "" (strengthening) .

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. 1.7. . 3. . . .. . 1.8 S1 (crenulation cleavage) S2. , .

. 1.8. .

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. 1.9. . . 4. . (crenulation cleavage) (. 1.9). . . . 5. . , . (. 1.10). (D1) C ( ) (D2) . D2 C D1 .

. 1.10. .

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(. 1.11).

b a

c

d

e

f

. 1.11. (. ).

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a) , . b) , , , , oblique fabrics shear band cleavages (. ), . c) , , . (Type III Ramsay), . d) Boudins (shortened boudins), . (extension) boudins (shortening) shortened boudins. e) (. ) . f) .

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2.

2.1 , , . , (kinematics), , () . . 2.1 . (10:00 11:00). . , (velocity vector). (.. 5 sec) (incremental displacement vector). . (displacement path, particle path) , . (finite displacement vector). , -- (flow pattern). (incremental deformation pattern), (deformation path) (finite deformation pattern).

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(progressive deformation), (finite deformation) .

. 2.1. , . . . . , . . (reference frame) (reference axes), (. 2.2). -

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. . .. , .. .

. 2.2. ( ) . (stretch) . , .. , (. 2.2). (stretch) . , (stretching rate), , .

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2.2 -- , .. . boudins . . "-" (. 2.3).

. 2.3. . "-" . 4 , (tensors). (. 2.4). . . 2.4a m . (. 2.4b) . cm (. 2.4c), (. 2.4d) (. 2.4e). . (. 2.5a). (. 2.5b).

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. 2.4. .

, , (material lines, . 2.5c) (stretching rate ) (angular velocity ) (. 2.5d). - , (. 2.3). (. 2.5e). , . max min 450. , . -- . 2.5 2.6. , (instantaneous stretching axes ISA). . , irrotational material lines ( ). () . (vorticity). , (. 2.6). (isochoric). . 2.6 . a () () (material lines) -

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. b . c (flow pattern -- ).

Homogenous flow

e

a

b

c

d

f

velocity field at 10.33h

material lines connecting particles

stretching rate and angular velocity

irrotational material lines

. 2.5. -- . , (irrotational lines) ISA. (coaxial), (pure shear flow), (. 2.6). , . - (non-coaxial) irrotational lines ISA (. 2.6). , (vorticity). irrotational line. -

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(simple shear flow, . 2.6). . : = 1 - 2 = 1 2 Wk = (1 + 2)/2 k = (1 + 2)/2

. 2.6. -- .

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(strain rate). To Wk (kinematic vorticity number) . k (kinematic dilatancy number) . .. Wk = 1 k = 0. Wk = 0 k = 0 (. 2.6). Wk k, . -- , . 2.6, , (extending irrotational material line). "" (attracts) . (. ) . , (? finite) (. ) . ? (fabric attractor, FA . 2.6). fabric attractor "" . . 2.3 (Deformation and Strain) -- , (stretch) (rotation) - (. 2.7). , . . . 2.7 . () (. 2.7b). - (material lines) (rotation "r") (stretch "S") (. 2.7c). ( ) . (. 2.7d)