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1 & : : 50 5: . , . . .

. (.. 76671), 04.01 () 21/02/2012

2

1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3. 4. 4.1 Cb 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 13 4.3.2 Igeo (Index of geoaccumulation) 4.3.3 (PLI) (Pollution Load Index) 14

3 3 3 4 9 10 10 11 13

13

5. 15 5.1 Taranto 15 5.2 Besos 5.3 (2011) 18 6. 7. 22 23 24 17

3

1.1 70,8% , , , , . , . . (crude oil) , . . , 95% . (paraffins), , (naphtenes), (aromatics) . : - - . , () , . , . , ,

4 , , ( & , 1988). , . , . . ( ., ..). , . , , , . , . , , . 1.2 . , , - . , . 2.1

5 K 3 , 5-6 . : 15% 10%

(, .) 45% o ( , , , .) 30% o ( ) A 12% ( 1).

6 1: % (: , , ., 2004).

, . 1977 (30,000tn ), IXTOC 1979 (530.000tn ) FUNIWA 5 1980. 1980-1991 , 2010 . , Deepwater Horizon ( 2).

2: Deepwater Horizon, . (: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill#gen1).

2.2 , . :

7 2.2.1 , , , , , . ( 3) . containers, bulk carriers

tanker

( ., ., 2004). 3: Prestige 250 . 100 (13 2002) .

o (DET NORKSE VERITAS, report No 97-2039, Project SAFECO). 2.2.2 , , . , , , / .

3.

8 , , . . , (persistent) (non persistent), . , , . , , ( ., 2008). : 3.1 (spreading) , , . , , ' . 3.2 (evaporation) , . , , . 3.3 (dissolution)

9 , . , , . , ( ), . 3.4 (biodegradation) , . , , . /, . ' . 25 C. 3.5 o (emulsification): : , . . (chocolate mousse): 90% . .

1 . 3.6 - (oxidation) . , . . . 3.7 (sedimentation and sinking) . , . 3.8 , 3% . , . , , 4.

1

4: .

4. - . , , , .. , ( , 2003). 4.1 ( ) : ( MARPOL) ,

1 ( OPRC, 1990). MARPOL .1269/21-7-1982 ( 89 ) OPRC .2252/18-11-1994 ( 192 ). MARPOL , . . MARPOL "" : ( , ) . OPRC Exxon Valdez 1989, . : . MARPOL OPRC (...) , : (....) (....), .

1 11/2002 ( 6/21.1.2002 ) . , . (National Contingency Plan, NCP) , (Local Contingency Plan, L.C.P) . 55/1998 ( 58/20.3.1998 ), , 4.2 , , , . : ( 10 5 ). : 58.694 , 1.173.881 . , 120.000 733.676 . , (....).

1 : . , , , . : , , , , , (. 2252/1994 18 .. 55/1998). 1, . 5. , , , , , . 10 800 ( ., 2010).

,

. , (UNEP, 1988). 0.1g/l (

1 ), 0,2 g/l (Steele, 1977). 2-10 g/l (Vandermeulen & Capuzzo, 1983) (Kuhnhold et al, 1978). 20-40 g/l , . , ' (Lee, 1977). 0,1 g/Kg (Elmgren & Frithsen, 1982). , , . , , . , . 40ppm ( . & ., 2005). , 5-10g/l, (.. , , )

1 .

6.1 . . , , ( ., ..). , , . . . ( ) . , (, .) , X

1 P . , ,

. . . , 50 ng/g, . . 250 ng/g (Clark, 1986). , . ' . , . , ,

. (Rostron, 1990). (,

1 , )

, , , . . , , . , . , . , , . , . , , ( . & ., 2004). , .. , , . .

1 . O . . , , , ( . & ., 2004). (, , .) , ( ., 2010). , supertankers , . . Exxon Valdez Prince William Sound , 40.900 m3 . 350.000 390.000 , 2.800 , 300 , 247 , 22 , . . , . , ,

2 ( ). , 21 ( ., ..). 6.2 , . (. , ) .

10 ppb. 4300 ppm (Rostron, 1990). (). 2-3% .

, (Clark, 1986).

7. . Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, (cleanup) , . : (oil type), (spill size),

2 (location), --

(type of location), (cleanup strategy-methodology), (shoreline oiling) , (time to response) ( ., 2008). Etkin : , , , . Ian White , , , . . 7.1 (oil type - quantity) Etkin, , , ( ) ( ). , (Etkin D., 1999). , (gasoline, diesel, light crudes oils)

2 ( ). (heavy crudes and heavy fuel oils), , . , . 7.2 (spill size) , ,

. , , (Lentz S.A., Felleman F., 2003). , , . , . , , . 7.3 (location).

2 ( ), , . , , , . , , , . , . . . . , , . 7.4 . , ,

2

. , . , , . , , , , , . , , ,

. . , , ( , ), . , , . , (ITOPF, 2005). . , , ( ), , ,

2

(White I.C. & Molloy F.C). 8.1

. , ( load-on-top, ) , . , ( ), .. 242/99 (.20/99) 21, ( ....), . , , , . , .... . (....) ... . ... :

2

(oil skimmers) ( powervac vicoma) ( gerni) 7, : , (Y.A. 3221.2/1/99) . . () (K.Y.A. 5219/2000) (K.Y.A. 1218.91/1997) , . , (Natural Degradation/ To Do Nothing ). . : ) (Bioremediation), ) (In Situ Burning).

2 8.2 (...) ... , , . H , , (www.aqualex.org/elearning/). ...: ...: (, , ) 9.

. , . , . .

2 . , . , .

, . 16.600 ., 2.000 ( 140 ) , , . , , "" . , . , .

10. , , . , ,

2 , . . , . - , . , , . , , , , . , , , ( , 2003). , , ,

. , , .

3

11: Sea Diamond 2007. (: , 2011)

1 ., .. ., ..