ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ 5 Δούλαλας Γιώργος

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1 & : : 50 5: . , . . .

. (.. 76671), 04.01 ()

2 07/05/2012 1.1 3 1.2 2.1 4 2.2 6 3. 7 3.1 (spreading) 3.2 (evaporation) 8 3.3 (dissolution) 3.4 (biodegradation) 8 3.5 o (emulsification) 8 3.6 - (oxidation) 9 3.7 (sedimentation and sinking) 9 3.8 4. 10 4.1 10 4.2 12 5. 13 6.1 14 6.2 18

4

7 8

9

7. 18 7.1 (oil type - quantity) 19 7.2 (spill size) 20 7.3 (location) 20 7.4 21

38.1 22 8.2 (...) 24 9. 10. 1 2 24 25 28 30 35

1.1 70,8% , , , , . , . . (crude oil) , . . , 95% . (paraffins), , (naphtenes),

4 (aromatics) . : - - . , () , . , . , , , , ( & , 1988). , . , . . ( ., ..). , . , , , . , . ,

5 , . 1.2 . , , - . ,

.

2.1 3 , 5-6 . : 15% 10%

(, .) 45% ( , , , .) 30% ( ) 12% ( 1).

6

1: % (: , , ., 2004).

, . 1977 (30.000tn ), IXTOC 1979 (530.000tn ) FUNIWA 5 1980. 1980-1991 2010 . , , Deepwater Horizon ( 2).

7

2: Deepwater Horizon, . (: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill#gen1).

2.2 , . : 2.2.1 , , , , , . ( 3) . containers, bulk carriers tanker ( ., ., 2004). 3: Prestige 250 . 100

(13 2002) .

8 o (DET NORKSE VERITAS, report No 97-2039, Project SAFECO). 2.2.2 , , . , , , / .

3. , , . . , (persistent) (non persistent), . , , . , , ( ., 2008). : 3.1 (spreading)

9 , , . , , ' . 3.2 (evaporation) , . , , . 3.3 (dissolution) , . , , . , ( ), . 3.4 (biodegradation) , . , , . /, . ' . 25 C.

10 3.5 o (emulsification): : , . . (chocolate mousse): 90% . . . 3.6 - (oxidation) . , . . . 3.7 (sedimentation and sinking) . , . 3.8 , 3% . , .

11 , , 4.

4: .

4. - . , , , .. , ( , 2003). 4.1 ( ) :

12 ( MARPOL) , ( OPRC, 1990). MARPOL N.1269/21-7-1982 ( 89 ) OPRC N.2252/18-11-1994 ( 192 ). MARPOL , . . MARPOL "" : ( , ) . OPRC Exxon Valdez 1989, . : MARPOL OPRC (...) , : (....) (....), .

13 11/2002 ( 6/21.1.2002 ) . , . (National Contingency Plan, NCP) , (Local Contingency Plan, L.C.P) . 55/1998 ( 58/20.3.1998 ), , 4.2 , , , . : ( 10 5 ). : 58.694 , 1.173.881 . , 120.000 733.676 . , (....).

14 : . , , , . : , , , , , (. 2252/1994 18 .. 55/1998). 1, . 5. , , , , , . 10 800 ( ., 2010).

,

. , (UNEP, 1988). 0.1g/l (

15 ), 0,2 g/l (Steele, 1977). 2-10 g/l (Vandermeulen & Capuzzo, 1983) (Kuhnhold et al, 1978). 20-40 g/l , . , ' (Lee, 1977). 0,1 g/Kg (Elmgren & Frithsen, 1982). , , . , , . , . 40ppm ( . & ., 2005). , 5-10g/l, (.. , , ) .

16

6.1 . . , , ( ., ..). , , . . . ( ) . , (, .) , X P

17 . , ,

. . . , 50 ng/g, . . 250 ng/g (Clark, 1986). , . ' . , . , ,

. (Rostron, 1990). (, , )

18 , , , . . , , . , . , . , , . , . , ., 2004). , .. , , . . . , ( . &

19 . . , , , ( . & ., 2004). (, , .) , ( ., 2010). , supertankers , . . Exxon Valdez Prince William Sound , 40.900m3 . 350.000 390.000 , 2.800 , 300 , 247 , 22 , . . , . , , ( ). , 21 ( ., ..).

20 6.2 , . (. , ) .

10 ppb. 4300 ppm (Rostron, 1990). (). 2-3% .

, (Clark, 1986).

7. . Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, (cleanup) , . : (oil type), (spill size), (location), - (type of location),

21 (cleanup strategy-methodology), (shoreline oiling) , (time to response) ( ., 2008). Etkin : , , , . Ian White , , , . . 7.1 (oil type - quantity) Etkin, , , ( ) ( ). , (Etkin D., 1999). , (gasoline, diesel, light crudes oils)

22 ( ). (heavy crudes and heavy fuel oils), , . , . 7.2 (spill size) , ,

. , , (Lentz S.A., Felleman F., 2003). , , . , . , , . 7.3 (location). ( ), ,

23 . , , , . , , , . , . . . . , , . 7.4 . , , . , .

24 , , . , , , , , . , , ,

. . , , ( , ), . , , . , (ITOPF, 2005). . , , ( ), , ,

(White I.C. & Molloy F.C).

25 8.1

. , ( load-on-top, ) , . , ( ), .. 242/99 (.20/99) 21, ( ....), . , , , . , .... . (....) ... . ... ( 2, 6-10): (oil skimmers)

26 ( powervac

vicoma) ( gerni) 7, : , (Y.A. 3221.2/1/99) . . (...) (K.Y.A. 5219/2000) (K.Y.A. 1218.91/1997) , . , (Natural Degradation/ To Do Nothing ). . : ) (Bioremediation), ) (In Situ Burning). 8.2 (...)

27 ... , , . H , , (www.aqualex.org/elearning/). ...: ...: (, , ) 9.

. , . , . . . ,

28 . , .

, . 16.600 ., 2.000 ( 140 ) , , . , , "" . , .

10. , , . , , , .

29 . , . - , . , , . , , , , . , , , ( , 2003). , , ,

. , , .

30

5: Sea Diamond 2007. (: , 2011)

31 ., .. ., .. SEA DIAMOND ( ), . , 2003. Marpol. , . ., 2008. :

. ..., , : ... . , . ., ., / ., ., 2005. , . ., 2010.

. . . - .., 2010., , . ., ., 1988. . University Studio Press, . ., ., ., ., 2004. - . ., ., 2004. , , ., 2004.

. ,

, .

32 Etkin D.S. Intertanko, For Safe Transport, Cleaner Seas and Free Competition ITOPF, 2002. Technical Information Paper: FATE OF MARINE OIL SPILLS. ITOPF, 2005. OIL TANKER SPILL STATISTICS White I.C. Factors Affecting the Cost of Oil Spills. White I.C. & Molloy F.C., Factors that Determine the Cost of Oil Spills White I.C. Oil Spill Response-Experience, Trends and Challenges

Etkin D.S., 1999. Estimating Clean up Costs for Oil Spills, International Oil Spill Conference, Paper #168 Etkin D.S., 2000. Worldwide Analysis of Marine Oil Spill Clean up Cost Factors, Presented at: Arctic and Marine Oil spill Program Technical Seminar (June 2000). Etkin D.S., Clean up Costs for Oil Spills in Ports, Port Technology International, pp. 237 241 Etkin D.S., 2003. Financial Implications of Hypothetical San Francisco Bay Oil Spill Scenarios : Response, Socio-economic, and Natural Resource Damage Costs, International Oil Spill Conference 2003, pp. 1 15. Etkin D.S. Methodologies for Estimating Shoreline Cleanup Costs. Proceedings of 24th Arctic and Marine Oil spill Program Technical Seminar, pp.647-70. Lentz S.A., Felleman F., 2003. Oil Spill Prevention: A Proactive Approach, International Oil Spill Conference. www.chem.uoa.gr/ www.aqualex.org/elearning/marine_environment/greek/chap5/c ategories.html

33 www.hcg.gr

1 ) ( )

(: , 2003. Marpol. , )

-

(

,

= ) 1) ..187/73 ( 261 '/3-10-73) " " 2) .314/76( 106 '/5-5-76) " 1969 - " 3) .743/77 ( 319 '/17-10-77) " ". 4) .855/78 ( 235 '/78) " 1976 ". 5) .1147/81 ( 110 '/81) " 1972 ". 6) .1267/82 ( 85 '/5-7-82) " , 6 1979 - ". 7) .1269/82 ( 89 '/21-7-82) " MARPOL 73/78 1973 1978 ". 8) .1634/86 ( 104 '/18-7-86) " 1980

34 1982 ". 9) .1638/86 ( 108 '/18-7-86) " 1971 - ". 10) .1650/86 ( 160 '/16-10-86) " ". 11) .1892/9 ( 101 '/31-7-90)" ". 12) .2242/94 ( 162 '/3-10-94) " , ". 13) .2252/94 ( 192 '/18-11-94) " , ,1990" . 14) .2289/95 ( 27 ' /8-02-95) ", ". 15) .2412/96 ( 123 '/17-06-96) ' . 1) .. 666/82 ( 138 '/26-11-82) " ". 2) .. 9/84 ( 3 '/10-1-84) " ". 3) .. 479/84 ( 169 '/1-11-84) " MARPOL 73/78 ". 4) .. 167/86 ( 63 '/15-5-86) " .. 479/84".

35 5) .. 347/86 ( 154 '/6-10-86) " ". 6) .. 404/86 ( 182 '/26-11-86) " ". 7) .. 417/86 ( 195 '/5-12-86) " 1978 1973 ". 8) .. 81/89 ( 36 '/7-2-89) " 1976 , ,1969". 9) .. 254/89 ( 120 '/11-5-89) " 1987 1978 1973 ". 10) .. 494/89 ( 209 '/26-9-89) " .. 666/82". 11) .. 98/90 ( 46 '/2-4-90) " ". 12) .. 305/91 ( 105 '/4-7-91) " ". 13) .. 103/92 ( 47 '/31-3-92) " II 1973 - " (MARPOL 73/78). 14) 16-5-92 .. ( 519 '/28-5-92) " . ". 15) .. 288/92 ( 147 '/2-09-92) " 1978 MARPOL 73/78( )".

36 16) .. 46/92 ( 17 '/17-02-93) " 1978 1973 - (MARPOL 73/78 - )". 17) .. 8/94 ( 4 '/31-1-94) " , ". 18) .. 346/94 ( 183 ' /31-10-94)" , 93/75/ 13 1993". 19) .. 68/95 ( 48 '/7-3-95) " 1972 " ". 20) .. 197/95 ( 106 '/13-6-95) " 1992 1969 " ,1969 ". 21) .. 270/95 ( 151 '/26-7-95) " 1976 1992 1971, ". 22) .. 361/96 ( 233 '/20-9-96) " 1978 1973 (MARPOL 73/78)". 23) .. 400/96 ( 268 /6-12-96) " ". 24) 13 '/14-2-97 " .. 361/96 "

37 25) .. 86/97 ( 72 '/14-5-97) " ". 26) .. 112/97 ( 99 '/28-5-97) " , /, , ". 27) .. 114/97 ( 99 '/28-5-97) " .855/78 .1147/81". 28) 144 '/7-7-97 " .. 86/97 114/97 ". 29) .. 55/98 ( 58 '/20-3-98) " " 30) .. 11/2002 . 31) ... 3418/07/2002 '' ( 2000/59/)''. 32) .. 2411.1/07/2003 ''/ 20 2002/59/ ''.

) ..11/2002 (: . - , 2010. , )

38 1 2 PCP/FCP/LCP LCP/RCP/NCP 7 7 700

700 P.C.P. (Port Contingency Plan): NCP . F.C.P. (Facility Contingency Plan): . L.C.P. ( Local Contingency Plan): . R.C.P. (Regional Contingency Plan): . N.C.P. (National Contingency Plan): . , , , .

3

39

2

6: (: http://www.hcg.gr).

7: 5-6 ..,

40 AEGEAN V .. .

8: Costa Cocordia . , 777 , , (: Reuters).

41

42 9: Deepwater Horizon BP 25 2010, Louisiana .

10: A Whale . oil skimmer, . - , , , . 21 .

43

11: .

44 12: