τοιχειομετρικοί πολογισμοί στη Χημεία4lyk-amarous.att.sch.gr/5 ekp...

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Transcript of τοιχειομετρικοί πολογισμοί στη Χημεία4lyk-amarous.att.sch.gr/5 ekp...

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 2

    Avogadro NA = 6,021023 mol-1

    (

    , , , , . . ., , , . . .)

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 3

    &

    amu

    (atomic mass unit) 1/12

    > 12 ( 12C ) <

    = 1,6610-24 g.

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 4

    &

    1/12

    12 ( 12C )

    ..

    () 16

    1/12

    12C.

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 5

    ( r )

    1/12

    12 ( 12C ).

    r = m / 1/12 m 12C

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 6

    ( r )

    1/12

    12 ( 12C ).

    r = m / 1/12 m 12C

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 7

    mol

    mol

    , :

    (,

    )

    12 g 12 (12C ).

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 8

    mol

    mol

    :

    6,021023 ,

    (1 mol 1 mol 1 mol )

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 9

    mol

    Avogadro NA = 6,021023 mol-1

    1 mol

    r

    1 mol

    r

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 10

    mol

    ,

    2 . 2

    .

    r 2 = 2Ar H + 1Ar O r

    .

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    mol . . .

    1 mol () ()

    6,02 1023 16 g r r = 16

    1 mol () ()

    6,02 1023 56 g r r = 56

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 12

    . . . mol

    1 mol () ()

    6,02 1023 32 g r r = 32

    2

    1 mol () 2 ()

    6,02 1023 18 g r r = 18

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 13

    . . .

    1 mol H2SO4

    2 6,021023 . 2 1 6,021023 S . S

    4 6,021023 . 4 O

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 14

    . . .

    1 mol H2SO4

    2 1 . 2 g 1 32 . 32 g S 4 16 . 64 g O

    = 98 g mol H2SO4

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 15

    . . .

    mol n

    n = m / Mr n = 1 mol, m = Mr

    , m = n Mr Mr = m / n

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 16

    (Vm)

    1 mol, STP

    = 0 C ( 273 ) = 1 atm

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 17

    O

    Vm = 22,4 Lmol-1 . . . STP *

    1 mol

    22,4 L

    STP * = 0 C ( 273 ) = 1atm

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 18

    1 mol :

    ( AxBy x A y B)

    ( g) = r

    . . . ( )

    22,4 L ( STP)

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 19

    Boyle PV = (n & T )

    Charles V T n & P

    Gay-Lussac P T n & V

    V (1/P)Tn

    V = R (1/P)Tn

    R .

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 20

    R

    R = PV/nT

    [ P= 1 atm, V= 22,4 L, n= 1 mol T= 273 K (0 C) ]

    R = 1atm 22,4L / 1mol 273K

    R = 0,082 atmLmol-1K-1

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 21

    PV = n RT

    mol

    .

    P, V, R

    mol n = P V / R T

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 22

    . . .

    !

    mol mol

    .

    PV = (n1 + n2 + . . . n) RT

  • ' - "" - . 12.08 23

    Molarity

    mol

    ( : = mol / L)

    c = n / V 1,5

    1,5mol (. 60g) 1L