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Εγχειριδιο κατασκευης εξυπνου σπιτιου

Transcript of Εξυπνο σπιτι 2

  • . B.

    :

    , 2004

  • . B.

    :

    6 2004

    . .. . . .

    , 2004

  • . / .

    .. / B.

    Copyright / . , / . , 2004 . All rights reserved.

    , , , . , , , . .

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    Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, IrDA, Dect 10.

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    AUTOCAD 2004

    , , , , Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, IrDA,

    DECT, X10, AUTOCAD, , , ,

  • Summary

    The scope of this thesis was the creation of wireless networks in cases where these

    concern an area with smart capabilities. This was achieved with the help of modern

    technology and specifically with the choice of mechanisms of (mainly wireless, but also

    wired in some cases) aiming at the comfort, safety and quality of life of residents.

    In particular, a variety of technologies were studied that use the mechanisms of smart

    places/home, such as Bluetooth, Wi - Fi, IrDA, DECT, X10 etc technologies. There was

    an effort to understand the operation of the above technologies in order to use certain

    mechanisms that are based on them.

    In a way of a more practical interest, the ground plan of building (and in specific a

    hospital) was selected and a complete study and design of its network was made via smart

    equipment so that this meets the needs of each place. Emphasis was given in dealing with

    disabled persons and in their accommodation via this equipment.

    In the end of the study all of the above equipment was presented in the ground plan of the

    building with the help of AUTOCAD drawing program.

    Keywords

    Wireless Networks, Smart Houses, Technologies, Equipment, Bluetooth, Wi - Fi, IrDA,

    DECT, X 10, AUTOCAD, Hospital, Medicine, Ground plan, Disabled

  • 8

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  • 9

    ........................................................................................................... 21 1 ......................................................................................................... 23 23

    1.1 ; ..................................................................... 24 1.2 .................................................................................................................................. 24

    1.3 ................................................................... 24 1.4 ......................................................................... 25 1.5 ................................................... 25

    ....................................................................................................... 25 .................................................................................................. 26 ............................................................................................ 27

    2 ......................................................................................................... 28 ............................................................................................................ 28

    2.1 .................................................... 29 ........................................................................................................... 29 2.1.1 HellasCom .............................................................................................. 29

    - .................................................................................. 29 - ..................................................................................... 32

    2.1.2 ................................................................................ 32

    2.2 ................................................ 33 ........................................................................................................... 33 2.2.1 ...................................................................................................... 33 2.2.2 ................................................................................................ 34 2.2.3 ................................................................................. 36

    3 ......................................................................................................... 38 ..................................... 38

    3.1 39 3.1.1 ............................................. 39 3.1.2 ............................................................................ 39 3.1.3 ............................................................................................... 40 3.1.4 ....................................................................... 40 3.1.5 .................................................................... 41

  • 10

    3.2 ....................................................................... 43 3.2.1 .................................................................. 43 3.2.2 WLAN .............................................................................. 44

    3.2.2.1 HIPERLAN .......................................................................................... 44

    3.2.2.2 IEEE 802.11 ......................................................................................... 45

    3.2.2.3 Bluetooth .............................................................................................. 45

    3.3 Bluetooth .......................................................................... 46 3.3.1.................................................................................................. 46

    .......................................................................................... 46 .................................................................................................... 47 SIG ............................................................................................... 47 .................................................................................................... 48 .................................................................................................... 49 ............................................................................................. 49

    3.3.2 Bluetooth .............................................................. 50 ............................................................................................ 51 ..................................................................................... 52

    3.3.3 .............................................................................. 52 3.3.4 Bluetooth ...................................................................... 53 3.3.5 Hardware Bluetooth ......................................... 56 3.3.6 Bluetooth ..................................... 57 3.3.7 T Bluetooth ................................................................. 58

    3.4 Wi-Fi ................................................................................... 60 3.4.1 ................................................................................................ 60 3.4.2 ......................................................................... 61 3.4.3 ............................................................................. 64 3.4.4 802.11.................................................................... 65 3.4.5 IEEE 802.11 ........ 66

    IEEE 802.11 ..................................................................................................... 66

    IEEE 802.11a ................................................................................................... 66

    IEEE 802.11c ................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11d ................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11e ................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11f .................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11g ................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11h ................................................................................................... 67

    IEEE 802.11i .................................................................................................... 67

    3.4.6 802.11 .............................................................. 68 ...................................................................................................... 68 .......................................................................................................... 68 ........................................................................................... 69 .................................................................................... 69 ................................................................ 69 ......................................................................................... 69 Roaming ........................................................................................................... 70

  • 11

    ......................................................................................................... 71

    3.4.7 802.11 ....................................................................... 72 3.4.7.1 ............................................................................. 72 3.4.7.2 ........................................................ 74

    3.5 IrDA- ....................................................... 77 3.5.1 ................................................................................................ 77 3.5.2 IrDA ................................................................ 77 3.5.3 IrDA ..................................................... 78 3.5.4 ................................................................. 78 3.5.5 IrDA .................................................................. 80 3.5.6 IrDA ..................... 80

    IrDA ........................................................................ 81 IrDA ............................................ 81

    3.5.7 ...................................................................... 82 3.5.8 IrDA ......... 82

    2400bps 115.200bps ........................................................... 83 115.200bps ................................................................ 83 4Mbps (4) ............................................................................... 83

    3.5.9 IrDA .......................................... 83 3.5.10 -Ir Link Access Protocol (IrLAP) ............................................................................... 84

    3.5.11 rDA ............................................ 84 3.5.12 rDA ...................................................... 85 3.5.13 (Sniffing Device) ............................................................................................................... 85

    ........................................................................................... 86 ............................................................................... 86 IrLAP ............................................................................................ 86 IrLMP-Link Management Protocol ................................................................. 88

    3.5.14 IrLMP ................................................................................ 89 3.5.15 IrLMP ............................................................................... 89

    ..................................................................... 90

    3.5.16 ............................................................. 91 PDA .................................................................................................................. 91

    IR Modem ........................................................................................................ 91

    ........................................................................................................ 91

    3.6 DECT ................................................................................ 92 3.6.1 ................................................................................................ 92

    .......................................................................................... 92

    3.6.2 - DECT ................ 93 3.6.3 ...................................................................................... 96 3.6.4 DECT ..................................................................... 96 3.6.5 .......................................... 102 3.6.6 DECT GSM ...................................... 103

  • 12

    3.7 10 ........................................................................... 104 3.7.1................................................................................................ 104 3.7.2 10........................................................................ 104 3.7.3 10 .......................................................... 105

    4 ....................................................................................................... 108 & ................................................................................................... 108

    4.1 .............. 109 ......................................................................................................... 109 4.1.1 ............................................................................... 110 4.1.2 ................................................................................ 112 4.1.3 ................................................................. 114 4.1.4 .............................................................. 115 4.1.5 ................................................................... 116

    4.2 ............................................ 117 ......................................................................................................... 117 4.2.1 ......................................................... 117

    4.2.1.1 ..................................................................... 118 4.2.1.2 ................................................................................. 119 4.2.1.3 (, , ) ...... 120 4.2.1.4 .............................................. 123 4.2.1.5 ........................................................................ 124 4.2.1.6 ................................................................................. 124 4.2.1.7 (Monitoring) ......................................... 127 4.2.1.8 & .................................................................. 128 4.2.1.9 ......................................................................... 128 4.2.1.10 ........................................................................................................ 128 4.2.1.11 ............................................................ 129 4.2.1.12 ................................................. 129

    5 ....................................................................................................... 130 .................................................................................................................................... 130

    ......................................................................................................... 131

    5.1 ......................................... 131 5.1.1 ................................................................................................. 131

    E ............................................................... 131 A ............................................................. 131 ......................................................................................................... 132 ..................................................................................... 132 ......................................................................... 133 WC ................................................................................................................. 133

    WC (): ................................................................................................. 134

  • 13

    .................................................................................... 134

    5.1.2 ................................................................................................... 134 .......................................................................................... 134 ......................................................................................................... 135 ......................................................................................................... 135 ................................................................................................. 136 ..................................................................................... 136 WC ................................................................................................................. 137

    WC (): ................................................................................................. 137 & ............................................................ 137 ...................................................................................... 138 ......................................................................................... 138 ........................................................................... 139 ..................................................................................... 140 ...................................................................................... 140 / ................................................................................ 141

    5.1.3 .................................................................................. 141 .......................................................................................... 141 ......................................................................................................... 141 ....................................................................... 142 ................................................................................... 142 WC ................................................................................................................. 143

    WC () .................................................................................................. 143 ................................................................................... 144 .................................................. 144 / ............................................................................... 145

    5.1.4. ............................................................................... 145 .......................................................................................... 145 : ........................................................................................................ 145 ......................................................................................................... 146 ................................................................................................. 146 : ............................................................................................... 147 ............................................................................................. 148 ...................................................................................... 148 .............................................................. 148 WC ................................................................................................................. 149

    WC () .................................................................................................. 149

    5.1.5 .................................................................................... 150 .......................................................................................... 150 ...................................................................................................... 150 .................................................................................... 150 WC ................................................................................................................. 151

    WC () .................................................................................................. 151 ..................................................................................................... 151 ....................................................................................................... 151 / ................................................................................ 151

    5.2 ......................... 152 ......................................................................................................... 152

  • 14

    5.2.1 ................................................................. 152 ............................................................................ 152 ................................................................................ 152 .................................................................................... 153

    5.2.2 .......................................................... 154 ................................................ 154 ................................................................................. 154 ................................................................................................ 154 ................................................................................................ 155 ....................................................................... 155 .................................................................................... 155

    5.2.3 ........................................... 156 ................................................................................................ 156

    5.2.4 .............................................. 157 ........................................................ 157 ............................................................................................ 157 ..................................................................................... 158 ................................................................ 158

    5.2.5 ....................................................................... 159 ........................................................................... 159

    5.2.6 ......................................................... 160 ................................................................... 160 (VoIP) ................................................ 161 ........................................ 165

    5.2.7 ............................................... 167 DSL modem- - ................................................. 167 Access Points ( ) ............................................................... 169 (diversity) 5.2 dBi ... 170 6dBi ........................................................... 171 ......................................................................................................... 172 -Ethernet ............................................... 172 ( ) ................................... 173 USB ....................................................................................... 174 ( PDA) ........................................................... 175 ( ) ................................... 175 ..................................................................................... 176 Bluetooth .......................................................................... 177 Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) ............................................................... 178

    Tablet PCs ...................................................................................................... 178

    luetooth PC-card .......................................................................................... 179 ..................................................................... 179 Dongle USB ................................................................................................... 179

    RS232 dongle ................................................................................................. 180

    ( Bluetooth) ..... 180 .............................. 186 laser ................................................................................................. 187 ......................................... 187

  • 15

    5.2.8 (Monitoring) ...... 189 ............................................................................ 189 Switcher ( ) .............................................. 190 ......................................................................................... 191 ................................................................ 192

    5.2.9 & ....................................... 193 ................................................................................................. 193 ............................................................................................. 193

    5.2.10 ........................ 194 5.2.11 ................................ 196 5.2.12 ............................................. 197

    ................................................................................................... 199 ................................................................................. 201

    6 ....................................................................................................... 202 ..... 202

    6.1 .................................................................................................. 203 6.2 ........................................ 203 6.3 ............... 204 6.4 ............. 205 6.5 Bluetooth .............................................................................. 206 6.6 ..... 207

    7 ....................................................................................................... 208 , & Wi-Fi ............................... 208

    7.1 ................................................................................................................. 209

    7.1.1 .................................................. 209 7.1.2 .................................................... 210 7.1.3 ................................................................................................ 210 7.1.4 ......................................................................... 211

    7.2 Wi-Fi ................................................. 213 ......................................................................................................... 213 7.2.1 802.11b: ...... 214 7.2.2 : ............................................................................. 215 7.2.3 ......................................... 215

    7.2.3.1 WLAN .......................................................... 216 7.2.3.2 WLAN ............ 218 7.2.3.3 WLAN ............................. 218 7.2.3.4 WLAN ............... 219

  • 16

    7.2.4 ................................................................................ 220

    7.3 ...................................................................... 222 7.2.6.1 .......................................... 223 7.2.6.2 ................................................... 225

    7.4 .................................................................. 226 7.5 Wi-Fi ................................................................... 228

    ............................................................................................... 229

    ............................................................................................... 230

  • 17

    3.1.1 ............................................ 39 3.1.2 ..................................................................... 39 3.1.3 ....................................................... 40 3.1.4 41 3.2.1 802.11 ............................................................ 45 3.3.1 () Piconet Slave,(b)Piconet

    Slave,(c) Scatternet .............. 53 3.3.2 hardware Bluetooth .................................................. 57 3.3.3 Bluetooth ............................................... 58 3.3.4 Bluetooth ..................................... 59 3.4.1 ............................................................... 60 3.4.2 ad-hoc .......................................................................................... 61 3.4.3 Hardware Access Point ........................................................................... 62 3.4.4 Software Access Point ............................................................................. 62 3.4.5 Access Points ........................................................ 63 3.4.6 Access Points 2 .................... 64 3.4.7 Access Points

    ................................................................................................................... 64 3.4.8. Roaming access point .......................................................... 71 3.5.1 IrDA .............................................................................. 78 3.5.2 ..... 80 3.5.3 ........................................................................ 80 3.5.4 ..................................................... 81 3.5.5 ........................... 82 3.5.6 IrLAP .................................................................................... 87 3.5.7 IrLAP .................................................................................... 88 3.5.8 IrLMP ................................................................... 90 3.6.2 DECT ..................................................... 95 3.6.2

    DECT ................................................................................................................... 97

    3.6.3 DECT ................................................................. 98

    3.6.4 ntracell ................................................................................. 99 3.6.5 ntercell ................................................................................. 99 3.7.1 10, 1 ......................................................... 106 3.7.2 10, 2 .......................................................... 106 3.7.3 10, 3 ......................................................... 106 4.2.1 ....................................................................... 129 5.2.1 .................................................................... 152 5.2.2 ....................................................................... 153 5.2.3 ............................................................................ 153 5.2.4 .......................................................................... 154 5.2.5 ....................................................................................... 155 5.2.6 ........................................................................................ 155 5.2.7 .............................................................. 155

  • 18

    5.2.8 ........................................................................... 156 5.2.9 ................... 156 5.2.10 ............................................. 157 5.2.11 ............... 158 5.2.12 ........................................................................... 158 5.2.13 ............................................................................ 159 5.2.14 ................................................................ 159 5.2.15 ............................................................ 160 5.2.16 .............. 163 5.2.17 ............................. 163 5.2.18 ........................................................ 165 5.2.19 odem . router, switch ....................................................................... 167 5.2.20 Access point ........................................................................................ 169 5.2.21 5.2 dBi ............................ 170 5.2.22 5.2dBi .......................... 170 5.2.23 6dBi ................................................ 171 5.2.24 ....................................................... 171 5.2.25 ................................................... 171 5.2.26 ..................................... 172 5.2.27 PCI Card .............................................................................................. 173 5.2.28 USB ............................................................................. 174 5.2.29 PDA ................................................... 175 5.2.30 ( ........................... 176 5.2.31 ........................................................................... 177 5.2.32 Bluetooth ................................. 177 5.2.33 Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)..................................................... 178 5.2.34 Tablet PCs ........................................................................................... 179 5.2.35 luetooth PC-card ............................................................................... 179 5.2.36 .......................................................... 179 5.2.37 Dongle USB ........................................................................................ 180 5.2.38 RS232 dongle ...................................................................................... 180 5.2.39 Bluetooth ... 181 5.2.40 .............................................................. 184 5.2.41 ................... 186 5.2.42 laser Bluetooth ......................................... 187 5.2.43 .............................. 188 5.2.44 ................................................................. 189 5.2.45 Switcher ...................................... 190 5.2.46 ............................................................................... 191 5.2.47 ............................... 193 5.2.48 ...................................................................................... 193 5.2.49 ............................................................... 194 5.2.50 (.. ) ........ 194 5.2.51 ..................................................... 196 5.2.52 , ,

    . .......................................................... 197 5.2.53 ......................................................................................... 199 5.2.54 ................ 200 5.2.55 .............................................. 200

  • 19

    5.2.56 ................................................................. 201 7.1.1 ............................................................. 210 7.2.1 WLAN ............................................. 217 7.2.2 WLAN ................................ 219 7.2.3 ........................................... 220 7.2.4 .................................................... 221 7.4.1

    (switch) LAN/WAN Modem/ . ............... 227

  • 20

    3.6.1 DECT .................................................. 101 4.1.1 ............................................................... 111 4.1.2 ................................................................ 113 4.1.3 .................................................... 114 4.1.4 .................................................. 115 4.1.5 ...................................................... 116 5.2.1 DSL modem- -

    ......................................................................................................... 168 5.2.2 , 5.2

    dBi ...................................................................................................................... 171

    5.2.3 6dBi .... 172 5.2.4 ..................................... 173 5.2.5

    ............................................................................................... 182 5.2.6 . 183 5.2.7

    .............................................................................................................. 184 5.2.8 ............................................... 185 5.2.9 .. 185 5.2.10

    ...................................................................................................... 189 5.2.11 Switcher (

    ......................................................................................................... 191 5.2.12 .......................... 192 7.1.1 .......... 212 7.2.1 ......... 224 7.2.2

    .................................. 225 7.2.3

    ........................................... 226

  • 21

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  • 3

    44

    3.2.2 WLAN

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  • 3

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  • 3

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  • 3

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  • 3

    50

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    1MHz

    .

    .. FHSS - Frequency Hopping

    Spread Spectrum. Bluetooth 1600

    (hop rate),

    625 microseconds , .

    3 5

    .

    . , ISM

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 3

    51

    ISM ,

    , ,

    . frequency

    hopping .

    ,

    frequency hopping. ,

    ,

    .

    RF, :

    0 dBm (1mW), 10m

    -30 +20 dBm (100 mW),

    Bluetooth,

    : ,

    . ,

    .

    . ,

    Bluetooth

    .

    Bluetooth ,

    .

    .

    .

    . ,

  • 3

    52

    .

    ( ) .

    721 Kbps (asymmetric) 432

    Kbps.

    Piconet* Master

    7

    Slave, 255 slaves

    . slave

    master. slaves

    Piconets master Piconet slave ,

    Scatternet.

    * Bluetooth Bluetooth

    Piconet, ().

    Piconet , ..

    . Piconet

    ( Master Device ) ( Slave Device ).

    Piconets Bluetooth

    Scatternet. Piconet Pico

    Network.

    3.3.3

    Bluetooth

    ad-hoc

    (point-to-point) / (point-to-multipoint).

    .

    , Bluetooth

    Piconet, Piconets

  • 3

    53

    (ad-hoc), Scatternets.

    .

    Piconets

    . Piconet

    Piconet .

    , Bluetooth

    .

    ,

    Master Piconet,

    Slaves.

    Bluetooth Specification, Slaves

    Master. ,

    Master .

    3.3.1 () Piconet Slave,(b)Piconet

    Slave,(c) Scatternet

    3.3.4 Bluetooth

    .

  • 3

    54

    , ,

    ...

    .

    .

    , (, ...)

    . Bluetooth

    .

    . ,

    Bluetooth

    ,

    .

    .

    Bluetooth.

    Bluetooth ,

    Bluetooth

    .

    , .. .

    Bluetooth :

    Bluetooth (D_DDR).

    ( - ) set-up

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (frequency hopping).

  • 3

    55

    .

    ,

    Bluetooth Security Modes:

    1) : mode

    .

    .

    link-

    . 1

    2 .

    service-level:

    mode

    L2CAP.

    .

    link-level: mode

    L. link manager

    .

    2

    .

    ,

    .

    mode ,

    Bluetooth .

    .

    ,

    ,

  • 3

    56

    , .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    3.3.5 Hardware Bluetooth

    (hardware) Bluetooth, (radio

    Bluetooth) , Host Controller. Host Controller

    , Link

    Controller (LC), CPU. ,

    host.

    luetooth:

    Link Controller

    (base band

    Bluetooth) ,

    ARQ . Link Controller

    .

    CPU,

    host.

    To Link Manager (LM), CPU. LM

    LM Link

    Manager Protocol (LMP)

  • 3

    57

    3.3.2 hardware Bluetooth

    3.3.6 Bluetooth

    Bluetooth

    .

    , Bluetooth

    Host Controller Interface (HCI).

    Bluetooth host,

    , Bluetooth.

    Service Discovery Protocol (SDP),

    RFCOMM ( ) Telephony Control

    protocol (TCS) (baseband)

    Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP).

    L2CAP

    Bluetooth.

    To SDP

    , ,

    .

  • 3

    58

    Ericsson Technology Licensing

    (software stack) HCI Driver,

    L2CAP, RFCOMM SDP, GAP, SDAP, and SPP (Generic

    Access Profile, Service Discovery Application Profile, Serial Port Profile)

    .

    3.3.3 Bluetooth

    3.3.7 T Bluetooth

    Bluetooth

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

  • 3

    59

    . Bluetooth

    .

    (.. ),

    . ,

    ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    . To Bluetooth

    , .

    3.3.4 Bluetooth

  • 3

    60

    3.4 Wi-Fi

    3.4.1

    ,

    . ,

    , internet.

    , /

    , /.

    .

    ,

    : (

    GSM, GPRS), .

    , .

    3.4.1

  • 3

    61

    3.4.2

    (.. 802.11) .

    Ad-hoc peer-to-peer

    /, (interface) . /

    ' ,

    . /

    / bridge

    (bridging).

    3.4.2 ad-hoc

    access point base station. '

    access point hub,

    . access point

    /, /

    , file servers & Internet

    access point:

    hardware access point (HAP),

  • 3

    62

    3.4.3 Hardware Access Point

    software access points /

    .

    3.4.4 Software Access Point

    access point 2 .

    . access points 10 /,

    , ( ), 100 .

    /

    .

  • 3

    63

    O access points .

    access point

    / . access points

    ' ,

    access point ( 5).

    2 access points . 6

    7

    .

    access points

    , file servers .

    3.4.5 Access Points

  • 3

    64

    3.4.6 Access Points 2

    3.4.7 Access Points

    3.4.3

  • 3

    65

    802.3 Ethernet

    802.5 Token Ring

    802.3z Ethernet 100Base-T Fast Ethernet

    Bluetooth

    HomeRF

    IEEE 802.11

    ,

    . Bluetooth HomeRF

    , 802.11

    .

    3.4.4 802.11

    .

    802.11, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

    (IEEE)

    802.11

    , WLAN .

    OSI, (PHY, Physical Layer)

    (MAC, Medium Access Control).

    .

    ,

    802.11

  • 3

    66

    Ethernet.

    .

    3.4.5 IEEE 802.11

    IEEE 802.11

    1997 IEEE , .

    1 2 Mbps.

    , connectionless .

    FHSS (Frequency

    Hopping Spread Spectrum) DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)

    915MHz , 2.4GHz , 5.2GHz 850nm

    900nm.

    ,

    .

    IEEE 802.11a

    OFDM 6 54 Mbps , 5.7GHz. OFDM (Orthogonal

    Frequency Division Multiplexing)

    .

    IEEE 802.11b

    Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity),

    1999.

    802.11 ,

    5.5Mbps 11Mbps DSSS.

    2,4GHz.

    .

  • 3

    67

    , .

    802.11b 802.11 ,

    .

    IEEE 802.11c

    (bridging) 802.11

    IEEE 802.11d

    (

    ).

    IEEE 802.11e

    QoS (Quality of Service) MAC (EDCF, Enhanced DCF

    HCF, Hybrid Coordination Function).

    IEEE 802.11f

    IAPP, Inter Access Point Protocol.

    IEEE 802.11g

    802.11b .

    IEEE 802.11h

    802.11a (DCS, Dynamic Channel Selection TPC,

    Transmit Power Control).

    IEEE 802.11i

    MAC .

  • 3

    68

    3.4.6 802.11

    2.4GHz . '

    .

    LAN 2.4GHz

    .

    . ( )

    .

    ( ,

    , ,

    .).

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    access points.

  • 3

    69

    , ,

    ,

    , , , ,

    .

    .

    (, , , )

    , .

    .

    .

    .

    WLAN

    .

    .

    :

    )

    FHSS

    DSSS.

    )

  • 3

    70

    802.11a 5.7GHz

    802.11b/g 2.4GHz.

    )

    .

    chipsets Texas Instruments

    22Mbps.

    .

    Wi-fi .

    ,

    .

    , 1999 WECA ,

    Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance.

    ,

    WLAN, ,

    . 3Com, Aironet, Apple,

    Breezecom, Cabletron, Compaq, Dell, Fujitsu, IBM, Intersil, Lucent Technologies,

    No Wires Needed, Nokia, Samsung, Symbol Technologies, Wayport, Zoom.

    IEEE 802.b .

    , Wi-Fi .

    .

    Roaming

    /

    access point, .

    access point

    .

  • 3

    71

    3.4.8. Roaming access point

    .

    802.11 (

    ) .

    ,

    . 802.11

    WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), ,

    . ,

    , WEP

    .

    VPN (Virtual Private Network)

    ..

    access point ()

    SSID (Service Set Identifier). K SSID

    . .

    , MAC (Access Control List)

    MAC

    . ,

    .

  • 3

    72

    3.4.7 802.11

    802.11 ,

    . ,

    ,

    . MAC

    :.

    (SS, Station Service)

    Authentication

    Deauthenticaton

    Privacy

    Data Delivery

    Y (DSS, Distribution System Service)

    . DS ( Distribution System)

    ( )

    .

    Association

    Disassociation

    Distribution

    Integration

    Reassociation

    3.4.7.1

    Authentication

  • 3

    73

    WLAN.

    LAN.

    .

    WLAN. 802.11

    .

    authentication

    Open system authentication

    ' , .

    .

    .

    Shared key authentication

    ,

    802.11 .

    .

    WEP, Wired Equivalent Privacy.

    De-authentication

    .

    . -

    .

    AP.

    Privacy

    40-bit. . RC4 PRNG

  • 3

    74

    RSA Data Security.

    AP ,

    . AP,

    AP

    ,

    Data Delivery

    IEEE 802.

    MAC

    MAC , .

    .

    , .

    3.4.7.2

    Association

    AP. AP,

    AP DS.

    DS .

    . AP AP

    .

    Disassociation

    AP AP

    DS. ,

    AP. AP

    , AP

  • 3

    75

    .

    AP,

    AP .

    .

    ..

    Re-association

    AP.

    AP .

    ,

    AP

    .

    AP , AP

    .

    .

    Distribution

    802.11 .

    MAC

    DS. DS

    .

    AP .

    Integration

    802.11 WLAN LANs

    . AP,

    .

    802.11

    .

  • 3

    76

    ( )

    :

    Mobility

    AP,

    AP , .

    2(MAC), AP ,

    3(), .

    . ,

    AP AP. WECA (Wireless

    Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) IEEE

    .

    , Mobile

    IP RFC2002. AP, "home

    agent". , AP

    "home agent".

    AP , IP

    .

    ,

    .

    DHCP ,

    .

  • 3

    77

    3.5 IrDA-

    3.5.1

    , Infrared Data

    Association (IrDA)

    . ,

    ,

    . IrDA,

    ,

    , IrDA,

    .

    Infrared Data Association (IrDA),

    150 :

    , , -- (point-to-point)

    . ,

    . ,

    IrDA, ISO.

    3.5.2 IrDA

    . ,

    .

    , ,

    . IrDA ,

    .

    IrDA.

  • 3

    78

    3.5.1 IrDA

    3.5.3 IrDA

    IrDA,

    :

    (Physical Layer): ,

    , .

    IrLAP: Link Access Protocol. .

    IrLMP: Link Management Protocol.

    LAP.

    IAS: Information Access Service.

    .

    3.5.4

    .

    .

    :

    TinyTP: Tiny Transport Protocol. , ,

    .

    .

  • 3

    79

    IrOBEX: T Object Exchange protocol.

    .

    IrCOMM: . .

    IR .

    IrLAN: (Local Area Network

    access). , , IR LAN

    .

    ,

    .

  • 3

    80

    3.5.2

    3.5.5 IrDA

    IrDA,

    . ,

    IrLAP.

    , . ,

    bits [1],

    [3]. [2] [3].

    3.5.3

    ,

    . :

    , , , format.

    3.5.6 IrDA

    . ,

  • 3

    81

    .

    , .

    IrDA

    IrDA, ,

    . ,

    20-30 . ,

    10

    .

    IrDA

    ,

    .

    15 30 .

    . 15 .

    3.5.4

  • 3

    82

    3.5.5

    3.5.7

    IrDA

    .

    10-

    .

    3.5.8 IrDA

    IrDA,

    : 2400bps 115.200bps, 1.152Mbps 4Mbps.

    9600bps,

    .

    .

    .

    .

  • 3

    83

    2400bps 115.200bps

    ( 2400bps

    115.200bps)

    , CRC

    .

    .

    115.200bps

    115.200bps, , o

    CRC

    . 1.152Mbps

    .

    , CRC

    .

    .

    4Mbps (4)

    1.152Mbps, , o CRC

    . (Pulse Position

    Modulation), .

    3.5.9 IrDA

    background light

    .

    . .

    1. : 3 V/m

    2. : 10 kilolux

  • 3

    84

    3. : 1000 lux

    4. : 1000 lux

    Bit (Bit Error

    Ratio-BER), o

    bit. BER

    10-8.

    3.5.10 -Ir Link

    Access Protocol (IrLAP)

    O IrLAP IrDA

    . IrLAP

    ,

    . IrLAP,

    .

    IrLAP: (master)

    (slave). To master

    . , master

    .

    3.5.11 rDA

    : ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

  • 3

    85

    3.5.12 rDA

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    3.5.13 (Sniffing

    Device)

    1.

    .

    .

    2.

    (XID) ,

    . XID

    slave.

    3.

    . ,

    .

    4. ,

    ( 2-3 sec)

    . ,

    .

  • 3

    86

    IrLAP ,

    . : ( Normal Disconnect

    Mode-NMD) (Normal Response Mode).

    O D

    . ,

    500 msec.

    ,

    .

    NRM .

    , ,

    frames

    .

    .

    ,

    IrLAP.

    . IrLAP 32-bit .

    .

    IrLAP

    , IrLAP

    . ,

    :

    1. :

    .

  • 3

    87

    2. : IrLAP

    .

    3. : IrLAP

    4. : IrLAP

    .

    .

    Frame

    Frame

    3.5.6 IrLAP

    IrLAP

    IrLAP

  • 3

    88

    3.5.7 IrLAP

    IrLMP-Link Management Protocol

    IrLMP

    IrLAP. IrLMP

    IrDA, :

    : LMP (clients)

    IrLAP .

    , :

    IrLAP.

    IrLAP

    (Information Access Service IAS).

    .

  • 3

    89

    3.5.14 IrLMP

    IrLMP IrL ,

    .

    LSAP (Logical Service Access Point):

    IrLMP ( ).

    LSAP-SEL (LSAP Selector): byte

    LSAP.

    LMP . byte 0x00 IAS,

    0x01 0x06F LMP , 0x70

    , .

    LSAP-SEL ,

    TCP/IP. ,

    .

    3.5.15 IrLMP

    IrLMP.

    , (

    IrDA Lite) .

    :

    IR.

    :

    LMP.

    : .

    : LMP .

  • 3

    90

    IrLMP 2 bytes

    :

    3.5.8 IrLMP

    :

    C:

    r: reserved

    DLSAP-SEL: LSAP-SEL (service address):

    SLSAP-SEL: LSAP-SEL

    . .

    IrTran-P,

    Tiny TP

    IrCOMM. IrLMP , .

    IrLAP,

    Primary Capability.

    .

  • 3

    91

    3.5.16

    . Tiny TP

    IrLMP

    PDA

    : Palm OS Palm, EPOC

    Symbian Windows CE Microsoft.

    IrDA (stack)

    host PC link.

    IR Modem

    IrCOMM TinyTP

    IrLMP.

    de facto IrLPT.

    IrTran-P, IrCOMM

    TinyTP.

  • 3

    92

    3.6 DECT

    3.6.1

    ,

    .

    DECT,

    (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications). To European ,

    , Enhanced.

    (CTO)

    , . telephone-by-the-pool,

    .

    1980,

    .

    , . 1985-1990

    . , ,

    , .

    , (

    , ),

    (eavesdropping),

    .

    To 1986 - -

    . CT1 (Cordless

    Telephone 1), , , ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 3

    93

    , .

    CT1 .

    1989 ,

    , ,

    .

    , ,

    CT2, DECT CT3. To

    CT2 ,

    DECT. 864,150

    868,050z 40 100kHz.

    ,

    .

    CT2 ,

    ,

    telepoints ( ).

    telepoints . ,

    ,

    , .

    . 1991,

    ,

    ,

    , ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)

    ,

    DECT.

    3.6.2 - DECT

    DECT

    ,

    , ,

  • 3

    94

    (

    , )

    . , ,

    DECT

    .

    To DECT

    , (cellular)

    (, picocells).

    , .

    . , ,

    WLL (Wireless Local Loop applications),

    (last mile of the line).

    DECT ISDN GSM,

    (PABX),

    (CTM), (LAN)

    , , , , Internet, .25

    . 1

    DECT.

    GSM, DECT

    , .

    ( MHz km2

    ,) ( MHz

    km2), .

    , ,

    , , .

    10.000 km2 , 1000

    km2 .

  • 3

    95

    3.6.2 DECT

  • 3

    96

    3.6.3

    (Wireless Local Loop, WLL)

    (PSTN),

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    WLL. .

    To DECT WLL.

    DECT/GSM

    .

    , ,

    2005, 200 . 2003,

    50% , ,

    2006 15%

    WLL .

    1998 32% WLL, ,

    DECT. 75%.

    ,

    .

    3.6.4 DECT

    DECT

    , (Time Division

    Duplex, TDD) (Time Division Multiple

    Access, TDMA). ,

    . DECT

    (DECT physical layer) (),

  • 3

    97

    1880 1900MHz, 1728kHz. TDD/TDMA

    (time-slots)

    . (carrier)

    12 12 ,

    (frame). 10

    (msec) (sub-frames)

    5 msec 5 msec ( 2).

    12 416,67

    (sec) 480bits.

    , (bit-rate) 480bit /

    416,67sec = 1152kbps (kilobits / sec) ( 3).

    3.6.2 DECT

  • 3

    98

    3.6.3

    DECT

    .

    . DECT 12

    (Tx/Rx channels), /

    10 .

    ,

    . 10

    ( )

    (dynamic channel

    allocation).

    DECT, (Portable Parts)

    - -

    - (intracell

    4) (intercell

  • 3

    99

    5). -

    .

    (Fixed Part) -

    .

    3.6.4 ntracell

    3.6.5 ntercell

    DECT

    Gauss (Gaussian-shaped Frequency Shift Keying, GFSK).

    , :

    ,

    ,

  • 3

    100

    ,

    ,

    .

    Gauss

    .

    .

    +288kHz

    1, -288kHz 0. GFSK

    GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift

    Keying), GSM. GFSK

    (bit rate)

    1152kbps, 270,8kbps

    GSM.

    ,

    (multiple path, fading).

    , .

    , ' bitrate. To

    DECT . ,

    , ,

    .

    ADPCM (speech codec)

    (ADPCM,

    Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation).

    32kbps.

    .

    1881,792 MHz 01 1883,520 MHz 02

  • 3

    101

    (, number of carriers)

    1885,248 MHz 03 1886,976 MHz 04 1888,704 MHz 05 1890,456 MHz 06 1892,342 MHz 07 1893,561 MHz 08 1895,888 MHz 09 1897,616 MHz 10

    (frames per carrier)

    1

    10msec

    (time slots/frame)

    24

    2 ( )

    /

    12/12

    (frequency deviation)

    288KHz

    1734KHz

    (bit rate)

    1152Kbps

    TDMA/TD0

    GPSK,BT-0,5 (Gaussian)

    +/- 50 KHz

    12

    (speech codec)

    32Kbps(ADPCM)

    250mw (24dbm)

    3.6.1 DECT

    DECT

    .

    , . ,

    , .

    , , , ,

    . ETSI

    - (Non-Disclosure

    Agreement). , , ,

    ,

  • 3

    102

    .

    , , , ,

    ,

    .

    (cipher machine) DECT,

    burst mode controller.

    .

    A (40bits) -,

    . (40bits) -

    . , , DECT

    .

    .

    , ,

    DECT, ,

    .

    3.6.5

    DECT

    DECT

    . DECT

    (profiles).

    :

    - DECT

    .

    - ( 2 Mbs)

    "" - DECT .

    (dual-mode) DECT

    GSM DECT DCS1800 ( triple-mode ).

  • 3

    103

    DECT

    UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services),

    .

    ISDN

    (broadband) ISDN.

    3.6.6 DECT GSM

    DECT , GSM.

    ( )

    , ,

    GSM. DECT GS ,

    . , ,

    , ,

    , ,

    , 2004.

    ,

    .

    , ,

    . , ,

    DC

    GS , (dual mode DC/GS),

    . , marketing

    (.. SMS) . ,

    DECT,

    GSM DECT

    3

    .

  • 3

    104

    , ,

    DECT GSM.

    3.7 10

    3.7.1

    -10

    , ,

    , . 220-230V .

    .

    ,

    . X-10

    .

    X-10

    ,

    ,

    .

    . ,

    .

    3.7.2 10

    ( )

    220V.

    X10 ( )

    220V . ,

    . 256

    .

    , .

  • 3

    105

    X10 3 :

    (2 X10)

    .

    ON, OFF, DIM ( ), BRIGHT

    (), OPEN, CLOSE .

    / IR RF ,

    , , .

    ON, OFF, DIM, BRIGHT, OPEN, CLOSE

    , , .

    ,

    , ,

    , , , , .

    3.7.3 10

    :

    /

    .

    220V.

  • 3

    106

    3.7.1 10, 1

    (house code dials) (unit code dials)

    . 256

    "" .

    3.7.2 10, 2

    220V.

    3.7.3 10, 3

    .

  • 3

    107

    / .

    / ,

    X10 .

    , , ,

    , .

    .

    X10 .

  • 4 &

    108

    4

    &

  • 4 &

    109

    4.1

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    AUTOCAD 2004.

    , .

    .

    :

    -1.

    ( ,

    )

    ( , .)

    0.

    ( , , )

    1.

  • 4 &

    110

    ( ,

    )

    2.

    ( )

    ( )

    3.

    ( , )

    4.1.1

    .

    , :

    , ,

    .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 4 &

    111

    , ,

    .

    . :

    .0 E

    .1, .3, .6, .7, .8 A

    .9

    .10, .11, .12, .13, .14

    .15

    .2,Y.4, .5, .15, .15 WC

    Y.16

    Y.A

    .

    4.1.1

  • 4 &

    112

    4.1.2

    . ,

    .

    , :

    I.0

    I.1

    I.2

    I.3

    I.4

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