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  • ISBN 978-960-06-4828-7

    : 0-22-0224

    s

    (01) 000000 0 22 0224 2

  • 22-0224-01.indd 1 12/6/2014 2:27:49

  • & , - / & / .

    .

    22-0224-01.indd 2 16/6/2014 3:22:32

  • 22-0224-01.indd 3 12/6/2014 2:27:50

  • 22-0224-01.indd 4 12/6/2014 2:27:50

  • 51.1 A. :

    .

    . i) - , 3s.ii) : .

    1.2 A. x y :

    () ()

    () ()

    . () :

    .

    . x () , x. , -,

    .

    1.3 . =35m/s. :

    , .

    .

    1 : ,

    22-0224-01.indd 5 12/6/2014 2:27:50

  • 61.4 = R, :

    .

    :

    .

    1.5 :

    .

    :

    .

    1.6 :

    :

    = 26,9m/s .

    1.7 , , - 25% .

    : .

    1.8 :

    = 12h = 12 3.600s

    = 43.200s

    = 1h = 1 3.600s

    = 3.600s.

    - t.

    22-0224-01.indd 6 12/6/2014 2:27:50

  • 7 (1)

    (2)

    (1) (2)

    .

    1.9 t ,

    : . t -

    .

    :

    .

    1.10 A. :

    .

    . :

    .

    22-0224-01.indd 7 12/6/2014 2:27:50

  • 8

    2.1 :

    p = m, .

    .

    2.2 0 :

    0 0

    0 .

    2.3 :

    .

    2.4 :

    2.5 A.

    :

    . :

    .

    2

    22-0224-01.indd 8 12/6/2014 2:27:51

  • 92.6 A. :

    .

    . .

    .

    2.7 A. , , :

    . :

    .

    2.8 A. :

    .

    :

    .

    . -

    0s 1s 2s 3s. 1s 2s -

    .

    :

    22-0224-01.indd 9 12/6/2014 3:33:49

  • 10

    2.9 F :

    .

    :

    .

    2.10 A.

    . , 1 :

    .

    . :

    . F

    1.

    2.11 A. :

    .

    ( V -

    0).

    . :

    , F .

    :

    .

    00

    22-0224-01.indd 10 12/6/2014 2:27:51

  • 11

    2.12 A. :

    , 2 -

    .

    . . :

    , 2.

    2.13 . :

    A.

    .

    . F :

    .

    2.14 :

    m2 1.500m/s .

    22-0224-01.indd 11 12/6/2014 2:27:51

  • 12

    2.15 A. =1.200kg , p2 - . , :

    .

    . , =20m/s. , F :

    .

    .

    2.16 A. :

    .

    . p :

    .

    . :

    .

    , .

    22-0224-01.indd 12 12/6/2014 2:27:52

  • 13

    2.17 A. V :

    ,

    .

    . - . :

    .

    . :

    22-0224-01.indd 13 12/6/2014 2:27:52

  • 14

    3.1 1-2-

    3.2

    3.3 1-2-3-

    3.4

    3.5

    3.6 ,

    3.7

    3.8

    3.9 , , -.

    ,-,.

    3.10 ,

    3.11

    3

    22-0224-01.indd 14 16/6/2014 3:24:41

  • 15

    3.12

    3.13

    3.14

    3.15 Maxwell-Boltzmann . , . , .

    21 32 2

    =m kT

    , , , , .

    -

    3.16 . 2 12 1

    =p pT T

    2p = 1,2atm

    3.17 . : 2 12 1

    =V VT T

    2V = 0,18m3

    3.18 V = 48m3

    : =pVnRT

    = 1950mol

    22-0224-01.indd 15 12/6/2014 2:27:52

  • 16

    3.19 : 1 2 3=

    VpV p 2p = 3atm

    3.20 =nRTpV

    = 0,2N/m2

    3.21 1 1 2 21 2

    =pV p VT T

    2p = 8atm

    3.22 =pVnRT

    , = AN nN = 3,182108

    3.23 =p RTM

    = 1,1Kg/m3

    3.24 (273 )

    =+

    pMR

    3.1

    3.25 =p RTM

    = 210-3Kg/mol

    3.26 22,4 , 1 , 273= = =A A AV L p atm T K:

    =

    , p

    = 2p

    , ( )2=A A A Bp V p V

    Vb = 11,2L

    : p = p

    , V

    B = 3VA

    3

    =B BA

    V VT T

    819 =T K

    V = 33,6L p

    = 2atm T

    = 819

    22-0224-01.indd 16 12/6/2014 2:27:52

  • 17

    3.27 3 3 3

    = = =A

    KT RT RTm N m M

    ( e) 1368m/s = , 2( ) 644,8m/s =

    3.28 ) =+ + + + +

    =3 5 3 8 2 12 16 20

    910 2, m / s

    ) =+ + + + +

    =3 5 3 8 2 12 16 20

    911 4

    2 2 2 2 2 2

    , m / s

    3.29 = = = =3 3 3 12028KTm

    RTN m

    RTM

    m / sA

    3.30 ,

    N n nM = =M M

    P V P VNRT RT

    400=N

    3.31 .

    =

    V VT T

    =

    Ah AhT T

    h = 36cm h-h = 9cm

    3.32 ) p p p pwAatm atm

    = + = + = 1 2 105, N/m2

    22-0224-01.indd 17 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 18

    ) : =

    V VT T

    V = 0,016m3

    V-V = 0,006m3

    3.33 mol

    2 = 273. :

    1 2

    = =p V p VnRT RT p = 0,66atm

    3.34 1 2=p p 2 22 21 2

    =H O

    H O

    m mRT RTM V M V

    2 2

    2 2

    1 1

    2 2

    = =H O

    H O

    m M V AlM m V Al

    , .

    2 2

    2 2

    1

    2

    4= =H OH O

    m M lM m l

    3.35 mol , 1 2 1 2 + = +n n n n

    1 2 1 2

    1 2

    + = +

    p V p V p V p VRT RT RT RT

    p = 1,26atm

    3.36 () = +wp pA

    (1)

    () = wp pA

    (2)

    , =ap V p V =ap A h p A h =ap h p h (3)

    (3) (1) (2) + =

    aw wp h p hA A

    w = 20,26.

    22-0224-01.indd 18 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 19

    4

    - -

    4.1 . .

    4.2 .

    4.3

    4.4 , . , . , .

    -

    4.5 , ,

    4.6

    4.7

    4.8

    4.9 , 1) 2) o .

    4.10

    22-0224-01.indd 19 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 20

    4.11 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-

    4.12 . . .

    4.13 V1 V2 , ( ). (2).

    4.14 1. 2 1>T T Uab > 0 2. U

    < 0 3.

    =

    = 1

    U

    = 0

    4.15

    4.16 4.2 (1) - (2) . V.

    W

    >W

    4.17 =

    ,

    . 1 Q1 = W1 Q2 = W2

    22-0224-01.indd 20 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 21

    V p-V. W2 > W1 Q2 > Q1.

    4.18 ) V. 1.) . ) 1 , 1 1 .

    4.19 , , ,

    4.20 mol . , - . : C = C + Rp V

    4.21 , ,

    4.22

    4.23 mol - . mol . . . Q

    p > Q

    V .

    22-0224-01.indd 21 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 22

    4.24 . . - - . .

    -

    4.25

    4.26 . .

    4.27

    4.28 , , ,

    4.29 . . .

    4.30 . ( ). ( ). .

    4.31 ,

    4.32 Carnot . Carnot

    1 ch

    TT

    22-0224-01.indd 22 12/6/2014 2:27:54

  • 23

    4.33 , ,

    4.34 -, -, -

    4.35 ,

    4.36 . . . ( - ) .

    4.37 : S nRVVABB

    A

    = ln 0 . : 0 =S

    : 0 =S S S SAB + + = 0

    S S= 0

    4.38 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-

    4.39 : : : : .

    22-0224-01.indd 23 12/6/2014 2:27:55

  • 24

    -

    4.40 .

    ( )2 1= W p V V = 243,1J

    4.41

    = = W p V nR T = 1663J

    4.42 2 11 2

    ln ln= =V pW nRT nRTV p

    W = -nRTln2 = -3458J

    4.43 To V, W = 4600J

    4.44 2 1 11

    ln ln 2= = =VQ W nRT pVV

    = 702,1J

    4.45 .

    ) ( )1 11 2 11

    = = = pVW p V nR T T TT

    = 202,6J

    ) = U Q W = 506,5J

    4.46 .

    / 2ln ln 2= = = VQ W nRT nRTV

    = -345,8J

    4.47 Q = W p-V. W = 1500J.

    4.48 Q nC T nR T pVV= = = 32

    32

    = 1320J

    4.49 : = pQ nC T (1)

    3 52 2

    = + = + =p VC C R R R R (2)

    22-0224-01.indd 24 12/6/2014 2:27:55

  • 25

    (1) (2) 5 5 506,52 2

    = = =Q nR T p V J

    4.50 = VU nC T (1) = pQ nC T (2) (1) (2)

    = V

    p

    CUQ C

    1

    =UQ

    29,64 =U J

    - Carnot

    4.51 300 0,333900

    = =MWeMW

    33,3%

    4.52 =h

    WeQ

    800=hQ J

    600= =c hQ Q W J

    4.53 , , Carnot .

    1 0,87= =c

    h

    Te

    T

    4.54 ) 1 0,4= =ch

    Te

    T

    ) ln 14406= = =Bh AB hA

    VQ W nRT JV

    5762= =hW eQ J

    22-0224-01.indd 25 12/6/2014 2:27:55

  • 26

    4.55 , - - .

    :

    =B AB A

    p pT T

    160=BT K

    .

    =BB

    V VT T

    400 =T K

    V p 4L 2atm 400 4L 0,8atm 160 10L 0,8atm 400

    .

    S S o =

    S nR V

    Vp VT

    J KAA

    A A